0 Automated software testing. What? Why?
0 Automated vs. Manual
0 Common types of automated testing methods
0 Automated software testing framework
What is automated software
A process which covers:
0 the use of software to control the execution of
0 the comparison of actual outcomes to
0 the setting up of test preconditions
0 other test control and test reporting functions.
Why testing is critical?
Why automated testing?
0 A time savings translates directly into cost savings
0 Improves testing productivity
0 Improves accuracy
0 Increases test coverage
0 Does what manual testing cannot do
Effort and Cost
0 Let’s assume 6 test cases
0 Effort required to run all 6 manually => 10 min
0 Effort required to write unit tests for all 6 cases => 10 min
0 Effort required to run unit tests for all 6 cases => < 1 min
0 Number of testing iterations => 5
0 Total manual testing time => 50 min
0 Total unit testing time => 10 min
Release Manual Test Auto Test Cumulative
1 10 10 10
2 10 0 20
3 10 0 30
4 10 0 40
5 10 0 50
Automated vs. Manual testing
0 Not all tests can be automated and most
times is difficult to decide what to automate
and what to manually test.
Automated Testing Manual Testing
• Need to run a set of tests • Test cases have to be run a
repeatedly small number of times
• Helps performing "compatibility • Allows the tester to perform
testing" (on different more specific tests
configurations and platforms)
•Long term costs are reduced • Short term testing costs are
• Possible to run regressions on a • The more time tester spends
code that is continuously testing a module the grater
changing and in shorter time chance to find real bugs
Disadvantages & other factors
Automated Testing Manual Testing
• It's more expensive to • Manual tests can be very
automate (bigger initial time consuming
• You cannot automate • For every release you must
everything, some tests still rerun the same set of tests
have to be done manually which can be tiresome
• The performance of your test tools
• The knowledge level of your testing team
• The continuous growth of software to be tested
Common types of automated
0 Monkey testing
0 Capture / playback
0 Code-based (Unit) testing
0 Intelligent test automation
0 Randomly selecting inputs from a large range of
values and monitoring if exceptions are thrown.
0 For example, a monkey test can enter random strings
into text boxes to ensure handling of all possible user
0 It applies not only for GUI or WEB testing, but also for
Monkey – Android testing tools.
The simplest way to use the monkey is with
the following command, which will launch the
application and send 500 pseudo-random
events to it.
$ adb shell monkey -v -p your.package.name 500
Capture / playback
0 It’s a set of software programs that capture user
inputs and stores it into a script for later replay.
+ Repeated testing can be performed quickly.
+ Does not require programming skills.
- When the GUI changes, input sequences
previously recorded may no longer be valid.
- Difficult to determine location of bugs.
Autohotkey - Free keyboard macro program.
Supports hotkeys for keyboard, mouse.
Code-based (Unit) testing
0 Individual units of source code are tested to
determine if they fit for use.
0 Ideally, each test case is independent from the
+ Bugs can be found in early development stage
+ Easy to test boundary cases
- Not effective for the integrated system testing
Unit test-case generation method
0 Input values generated randomly
0 Run with generated inputs
0 User checks output values (pass/fail) and
saves them for later automatic checking
This methods approach is to combine JML (JAVA
model language) and genetic algorithms. JUnit is
used as a test execution platform.
Parasoft Jtest is an
automated Java testing
and static code analysis
TestGen is a collection of open-source tools
that automatically generates unit test cases.
Intelligent test automation
0 A model-based method for generating tests from a
description of an application’s behavior (UML)
+ Models are simple to modify, so model-based tests
are economical to maintain over the life of a project.
- Most of these methods are researched only
OCL + UML
Inputs Inputs Constraints
pass / fail
Automated testing framework
0 A framework is an integrated system that sets
the rules of automation of a specific product.
0 This system integrates the function libraries,
test data sources, object details and various
0 The framework provides the basis of test
automation and simplifies the automation
Common types of frameworks
0 Data-driven testing
0 Keyword-driven testing
0 Hybrid testing
0 Data-focused automation
0 User defines just data sets to run tests with
0 Data is defined in external data source and de-
coupled from script
0 Good fit for a single application testing, featuring
multi-environment, big datasets, and rarely
changing Test Cases
Good usability and re- Quality and coverage strongly depends on the
usability automation skills of implementing person
Good test flow coverage Continuous maintenance issues due to a big amount
of the code
Multi-environment support Manual validation is required 24
Data set Example
0 Good fit for a multi-application testing featuring
multi-environment, big datasets, and a big number
of short and straight Test Cases
0 Users de-compose test cases into reusable action
0 Non-coders are able to author automated test
cases with action keywords
Test development doesn’t require Due to keywords limit doesn’t allow covering
programming skills very complicated Test Cases
Good test flow coverage Meta-language specific training is required for
Compact code Manual validation is required 26
0 Combines the best of data-driven and keyword-driven
0 User defines data sets to run tests with
0 User also defines flow control through action keywords
0 Data is separated from script and stored in external data
source with action keywords
Test Plan / Test Scenario creation doesn’t require
programming or training on the Testing Tool Requires initial investment for
Compact code and scalable architecture design and implementation of
Built-in strict validation
0 Test generation (data and script generators).Tools might create
specialized data such as randomized email messages, or populate
0 System configuration. Tools might preserve or reproduce system
0 Test execution. Tools might operate the software itself, either simulating
a user working through the GUI and using an alternative testable
0 Oracles. An oracle is any mechanism by which we detect failure or
success. Tools might automatically detect certain kinds of error
conditions in a product.
0 Activity recording & coverage analysis. Tools might watch testing as it
happens and retrospectively report what was and was not tested.
0 Test management. Tools might record test results, organize test ideas or
General framework structure
Common functional automated test tools
Tool + -
IBM / • Built as Eclipse plug-in with full IDE, • License cost
Rational Java support and source management
Functional • Supports Web-based applications,
Tester (RFT) .Net, Java, Siebel, SAP®, PowerBuilder,
AJAX, Adobe Flex, Adobe PDF documents
• Full GUI Object Map repository
HP / Mercury • Supports Web 2.0, GWT, Dojo, YUI, • No IDE (changing in
Quick Test Silverlight, Flex, Ajax, JAVA, .NET release 10)
Pro (QTP) applications • License cost
• Full GUI Object Map repository • VisualBasic
• Seamless integration with scripting is limited
Selenium RC • Good browser support • No GUI Object
& IDE • Good language support (JAVA, Ruby, repository
C#) • Only web-based
• Can be easily extended as JUnit suite application support
• Open-source (no license cost) • Tool support is
0 Automated testing improves productivity, accuracy,
increases test coverage, saves time and cost
0 Need to decide what to automate and what to
0 The framework provides the basis of test
automation and simplifies the automation effort.
0 What is the benefit of automated testing?
0 What are the common types of automated
0 What are the common types of frameworks?
0 What components come to framework?
0 What are the examples of automated testing