Terminology in Biomechanics by k8o9Om

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									Terminology in Biomechanics

   Introduction to Biomechanics
             Fall 2002
Segment Names
   Axial Skeleton
       Head
       Neck
       Trunk
Segment Names
   Upper Extremity      Lower Extremity
       Arm                  Thigh
       Forearm              Leg or Shank
       Hand                 Foot
       Fingers              Toes
Anatomical Names
   Anatomical Position
   Fundamental Position
Anatomical Position
Location Terminology
   Medial        Lateral
   Superior      Inferior
   Proximal      Distal
   Anterior      Posterior
   Ipsilateral   Contralateral
Movement Terminology
   Flexion/Extension
   Abduction/Adduction
   Internal Rotation/External Rotation
   Pronation/Supination
   Circumduction
Planes of Motion
   Plane is defined by three non-colinear
    points in space.
   There are three planes of motion
       Sagittal
       Frontal/Coronal
       Horizontal/Transverse
   These planes are orthogonal, that is, at
    right angles to each other.
Axis/Axes
   Axis: Line about which rotation occurs.
   These axes are orthogonal.
   Biomechanically, there are three
       Mediolateral Axis
       Anteroposterior Axis
       Longitudinal
   Others: x, y, z
Reference Systems
   Needed to specify the position and
    orientation (pose) of a segment.
   Describes when motion has occurred.
   May be arbitrarily set and may be inside
    the body or outside.
   The origin is the location where the
    three principle axes intersect.
Reference Systems cont.
   Types of Reference Systems
       Relative Reference System: Angle formed
        between the axes of two adjoining bodies.
        Also known as the joint angle.
       Absolute Reference System: Angle formed
        between the position of segment and a
        predefined reference. Also known as the
        segment angle.
Reference Systems cont.
   Global Reference Systems: Permanent
    system in the field of motion.
Degrees of Freedom
   DOF: Number of available options (in a
    general sense).
   Types of DOF:
       Mechanical
       Muscular
       Neuromuscular
Degrees of Freedom, cont.
   In the human system:
       Mechanical DOF for the human system:
        ~244
       Muscular DOF: ~600
       Neuromuscular DOF: ~6000
   In general, the human system is over-
    specified, that is, redundant

								
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