Functional Assessment (PowerPoint download)

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					Functional Assessment of the
Causes of Problem Behavior

   Chapter 22
 What is Functional Analysis?
• Examination of the relationship between
  behavior and its antecedents and
  consequences
• Antecedents
  – eliciting stimuli
• Consequences
  – Positive or negative reinforcement
       Types of Assessment
• Questionnaire
  – Completed by those familiar with client
  – Reliability issues

• Observation
  – Observe what is going on
  – Form hypotheses about antecedents and
    consequences
        Types of Assessment
• Functional Analysis
  – Systematic manipulation of environmental
    events to experimentally test their role in
    behavior maintenance
  – Limitations
    • Infrequent behaviors
    • Not applicable in dangerous behaviors
    • Expensive and time consuming
  Causes of Problem Behavior
• Attention From Others – Social Positive
  Reinforcement
  – Attention follows behavior
  – Individual approaches attention giver prior
    to behavior
  – Smiling prior to behavior
  – Treatment
    • Give attention at other times
    • Reduce attention to behavior
  Causes of Problem Behavior
• Self Stimulation – Internal Sensory
  Positive Reinforcement
  – Continue doing the behavior because it offers
    a desired level of stimulation
  – Behavior continues at steady rate
  – Treatment:
     • Increase sensory stimulation
     • Reduce stimulation level of behavior
  Causes of Problem Behavior
• Environmental Consequences – External
  Sensory Positive Reinforcement
  – Behavior maintained by reinforcing sights and
    sounds from the nonsocial external environment
  – Behavior continues undiminished even though it
    appears to have no social consequences over
    numerous occasions
  – Treatment:
    • Sensory reinforcement of a desirable alternate
      behavior
  Causes of Problem Behavior
• Escape From Demands – Social Negative
  Reinforcement
  – Escape from aversive stimuli
  – Problem behavior as a way to escape various
    undesirable demands
  – Behavior only happens when certain types of
    requests are made of the person
  – Treatment
     • Persist with requests (demands) until compliance
     • Teach other responses
     • Program where level of difficulty of requested behavior
       starts low and is gradually increased
  Causes of Problem Behavior
• Elicited – Respondent
  – Some behavior is elicited rather than
    controlled by consequences
  – Behavior consistently occurs in a certain
    situation or in the presence of certain stimuli
  – Behavior seems involuntary
  – Treatment
     • Establishing one or more responses that compete
       with problem behavior (counterconditioning)
  Causes of Problem Behavior
• Medical
  – Problem emerges suddenly and does not seem to
    be related to any changes in the individual’s
    environment
  – Behavioral diagnostics
     • Therapist diagnoses the problem after examining
       antecedents, consequences, and medical and
       nutritional variables as potential causes of problem
       behaviors
     • Develop treatment plan based on diagnosis
  – Physician should be consulted prior to treatment
        Guidelines for Conducting
         Functional Assessment
• Define the problem behavior
• Identify antecedents
• Identify consequences
• Consider health/medical/personal variables
• Form hypothesis based on information collected
• Collect data to determine if hypothesis is correct
• If possible, do a functional analysis by directly testing the
  hypothesis
• Design treatment program
• If treatment is successful, accept the causal analysis as
  confirmed.
• If treatment is not successful, redo the functional analysis

				
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posted:5/19/2012
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