elearning and multimedia by fd5565

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									                e-Learning

The new multimedia application area

     Dr. Athanasios G. Malamos
         Ass . Prof. TEI Crete
    email: amalamos@epp.teiher.gr

          Pantelis S. Petridis
          Computer Scientist
       email: petridis@csd.uoc.gr
 “eEurope is a roadmap to modernise our economy. At the same time, through its
 eLearning component, it offers everyone, but particularly young people, the skills
 and tools they need to succeed in the new knowledge based economy” .


 Romano Prodi
 President of the European Commission
 June 2000
                         http: // europa. eu. int/ comm/ education/ elearning
What has the "e-" got to do with learning?
It's all about communications. CD-Roms and the satellite broadcast of training have been used some time
but the full way connectivity of the Internet is where “e-” starts. The Internet is as much about
communication as it is about information access and this creates a powerful combination in the context of
learning.

The ability for Internet-based technologies to track and monitor online activity is another aspect of
connectivity that drives e-learning. Using a centralised system, we can now track who has completed the
training, when and how they have performed. This is a major benefit for organisations that have
struggled to keep track of fragmented training activities.

Finally, connectivity allows us to achieve truly distributed learning that can be dynamically updated at any
time. We can make edits to content and have it immediately updated for everyone no matter where they
are in the world. Imagine the cost of doing that with a book or a CD-Rom.

Why has e-learning become so popular?
Human resources have never been as important as they are today. The term "intellectual assets" is
frequently used to emphasise the financial impact skilled workers can have.



E-Learning drivers
· Knowledge-based economy
· People as the main source of competitive
advantage
· A shift to a highly skilled workforce
· Resultant skill shortage
· Highly competitive global marketplace
· Speed of technological change
What are the numbers...
The Corporate University Exchange in the USA has estimated that while only 20 % of corporate learning
took place electronically in 1999 this is expected to double to 40 per cent by 2003.
e-learning budget worldwide is expected to double each year, exceeding 23 billion US dollars by 2004.
Transferring knowledge
The focus of e-learning is no different to any other method of training and education transferring knowledge
from one person to another. Books, videos, and CDs all package knowledge for it to be shared with a
broader audience. E-learning simply provides a new high-powered distribution channel.
E-Learning content ranges from basic web pages and documents to fully interactive courses, events,
assessments and simulations. It can include both bespoke content development and off-the-shelf
courseware
There are now a multitude of content providers which create and publish thousands of interactive course
titles across the entire spectrum of IT and soft skills. The International Data Corporation reported that the
majority of e-learning courses are IT-focused but this will change. The IDC projects that by 2003 over half
of the total e-learning spend will be for non-IT focused learning. There has also been a major drive within
organisations to web-enable existing content from various formats such as instructor-led classes, paper-
based materials, CD-Roms, and other existing intellectual assets.
Distribution technologies


Learning Management Systems

Learning Portals


Collaboration


Authoring tools
An open world of learning
Imagine a library where books were not categorised in a usable way and you were only able to read the book
on the library premises.

The Internet has the potential to be a vast database of learning content that is searchable and delivered in a
customised way to every individual. The difficulty at the moment is there is no consistent way for learning
materials to be labelled or tagged (making it difficult to search effectively), and many different types of
published learning material will not work properly on different types of learning platform.

To this end, there are several organisations working toward standards to get content labelled in a consistent
way (using a language called XML and metadata which is like a bar-coding system) and to make sure
learning content is "interoperable" with various learning management technologies.

Learning agents
The near future will bring us personal technology assistants or smart agents (using metadata and XML) that
can constantly search within your company or across the web for new learning objects that match your exact
interests and role requirements.

Mobile learning
Internet access is now possible without being wired up to networks or telephone lines using a protocol called
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). This combined with the widespread adoption of handheld computers
and organisers known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) opens the door to mobile learning or "M-
learning." From your PDA you will be able to search company databases, interact with colleagues and
mentors and, with the increasing use of audio and video, access interactive courseware no matter where you
are.

Knowledge management and e-learning merge
Both e-learning and knowledge management (KM) focus on a similar goal of getting the right knowledge and
information to the right people. However, where e-learning has focused on delivering courses and testing
performance, KM takes a keen interest in capturing the knowledge that exists in employee's heads and
delivering it to others who need it.
New communication infrastructure?
Widespread adoption of ADSL and other broadband technologies that enable you to download content at
very high speeds, will revolutionise e-learning because it will enable course providers to create content-rich,
TV-like quality learning combined with more sophisticated applications such as complex multi-player
simulations.


No more "e-"
You may be surprised to read that "e-"learning is expected to disappear quite soon. E-learning will have
become so widely adopted that the "e-" ceases to be of use. The focus will return to learning and training,
with the choice of technology-led or traditional delivery methods being less important.
Applications of e-learning

E-learning is being widely applied to improve the skills and knowledge of employees, but the distributed reach
of Internet technologies allows organisations to push learning outside of their walls. Businesses understand
that success is becoming increasingly dependent on the performance of the extended enterprise comprised of
suppliers, partners and customers. The more knowledge these groups have about your business, processes
and products and services the more efficient your organisation will become. In this section we look at e-
learning's role in educating suppliers and also consider its applications in other areas of business.



•Educating Employees

•Educating Suppliers

•Educating Customers

•Educating Partners


E-learning can help you to build and manage an effective channel by delivering timely and consistent training to
your partners no matter where they are. Any updated information can be made immediately available to all. In
this way, e-learning strengthens your partner relationships making it less likely they will choose to distribute
someone else's products.
Some Keywords I
AICC (Aviation Industry Computer Based Training Committee)
An organisation that is developing standards for e-learning companies to follow. The standards will enable you to run courses and content from many different
publishers on various Learning Management Systems (LMS).

ASP (Application Service Provider)
The ASP model or "hosted service" involves you "renting" a software application (a Learning Management System, for example) and the hardware it runs on from
an external company, rather than installing it and managing it on your internal IT systems. Users access the hosted system using a standard Internet connection
and browser.

Asynchronous learning
Learning activity that does not require you to be in a specific place at a specific time such as self-paced courses. Asynchronous collaboration involves person-to-
person interaction with a time delay using tools such as e-mail and threaded discussion boards.

Authoring tools
Software that enables authors to design and develop learning content and courseware. Many provide elements of instructional design and most use template-
based tools to help authors structure learning materials quickly.

Bespoke learning content
Learning content developed to address a specific learning need that published or off-the-shelf materials cannot closely address.

Blended Solution
A learning solution that combines and integrates classroom-based training with additional e-learning components to address a specific learning requirement. For
example, a blended solution may use pre- and post-online assessments to support an instructor-led workshop.

Broadband
Broadband technologies, such as ADSL and cable, enable you to download content from the Internet at very high speeds and provide a continuous online
connection. Broadband enables authors to increase the use of rich multimedia in e-learning content design.

CBT (Computer Based Training)
A broad definition relating to training materials accessed using a computer. A more current definition relates to training materials accessed locally using a CD-
Rom or floppy disk whereas e-learning content is accessed through a network connection.

Collaborative learning
The process of learning through communication and interaction, usually between peers, mentors, tutors and instructors. Collaborative learning can be reproduced
online through various tools, such as e-mail, chat, threaded discussions and virtual classrooms.

Content
The knowledge and intellectual property that is packaged and distributed using e-learning technologies. E-Learning content ranges from basic Web pages and
documents to fully interactive courses, events, assessments and simulations.

Digital Surrounds
Digital surrounds (DS) relate to the blended solution approach. DS add e-learning components such as online courses, e-mail access to tutors, virtual classrooms,
and online assessments to surround and extend an instructor-led event or programme.

E-learning
"The use of network technology to design, deliver, select, administer, support and extend learning" (Elliott Masie, E-Learning Europe Conference, July 2000).
Network technology refers to the WWW and private intranets or extranets.

Enterprise-wide e-learning
The distributed architecture of Internet technologies allows e-learning to be deployed right across an organisation regardless of physical location. Enterprise-wide
also includes learning delivered outside of the company walls, to suppliers, partners and customers.
Some Keywords II
Firewall
Hardware and software which allows users to access the Internet while safeguarding internal network security. This is important when considering ASP-type solutions
that require users to access systems and data outside the internal network.

HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language)
A language used to create and access documents over the WWW.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
Involved in e-learning standards development. The work of organisations such as IMS, AICC and ADL feeds into the IEEE to create standards that can achieve
international approval.

ILT
Instructor-led training, usually in a classroom setting.

IMS Global Learning Consortium
The IMS Project is involved in global learning standards development, focusing on the use of XML to make learning content interoperable with other learning
technologies.

Informal Learning
Unstructured learning that often comes in the form of communication, information sharing and know-how.

Internet-based training
Delivery of education and training using a Web browser over the public Internet, private intranet or extranet.

Interoperability
The ability of various combinations of hardware and software to work together. In an e-learning context,. Interoperability relates mostly to content working with
Learning Management Systems (LMSs).

Intranet
A network that uses Internet systems to deliver information within an organisation. Working like a private Internet, an intranet is protected from people outside the
organisation using security measures such as firewalls. Learning Management Systems and other e-learning technologies can be deployed on intranets, delivering
content across the organisation.

Just-in-case learning
Traditional approach of taking courses just in case you may need them at some point in the future.

Just-in-time learning
The ability for a learner to access the exact knowledge they need at the exact moment they need

Knowledge Management
A systematic process of recording, capturing, storing and delivering knowledge across an organisation. Know-how can be captured from individual employees and shared
with broader groups to improve performance.

Learning Management System (LMS)
Core e-learning technology that manages and delivers learning content to specific users in a systematic way. An LMS can cover a range of functions from authoring,
competency and skills assessments, content delivery, collaboration, administration, tracking and reporting.

Learning Objects
Learning objects are self-contained learning components (a course module, video or audio clips, a presentation, tests or a best practice, for example) with associated
learning objectives that are stored and accessed independently. Learning objects can be assembled and reassembled on the fly to create new courses or sequenced to
form individual learning paths.
What is an Learning Management System or an e-learning
                     infrastructure
What features should be supported by an e-learning infrastructure



                                      Fully integrated




                        Web-Based Interface        SCORM Interoperability



                 Simple Content Development                  Internationalization




               Advanced Testing System



                Knowledge Inventory



                       Rich Training Content
                                                         Student Management



                                      Excellent Performance
                                                                   Local
                                                                  Content
              Testing/Assessment               Sequencing        Repository
                    Service                      Service

                                                                                SCORM        Remote
                                                Selection                                    Content
                                                                                Content
                                                                               Packages    Repositories
Course Administration                     Content Management
      Service                                   Service



                                                      Launch

  Learner Profiles
                               Tracking
      Service
                               Service                                              SCORM
                                                               Delivery
                                                               Service              Content
                                                                                 (SCOs & Assets)
                                                                                                             Browser
                                                                                                          (Presentation)
                                           SCORM
            Generalized                    Tracking
       Learning Management                   Data                             SCORM
           System Model                                                        API
                                                                  API
                                                                Adapter
         Where is the multimedia stuff?




Content
Images, graphs, animations, audio, voice, video, voice2text, text2voice

Services
conferencing, application sharing, shared whiteboards, e-books, e-exams

Tools
Flash, Authorware, Dreamweaver, ToolBook, CourseBuilder, HTML, Java/XML
and other Web-based tools, audio, video, and graphics production
What do I have to do?


I have to build e-learning modules and courseware object that warranty

                                      Accessibility

                                       Reliability

                                       Reusability



It must be possible to find needed and shareable courseware objects. They must be
accessible. Basically, we need widely accepted and standard ways to store objects so that
widely accepted and standard ways can be used to find and retrieve them.

Once implemented, the objects should continue to operate reliably. If the underlying
platform, operating system, or browser is modified (for instance, when a new version is
released and installed), courseware objects should continue to operate as before. They
should also be durable.

Courseware objects should be reusable. Other platforms, operating systems, browsers,
and courseware tools should be able to reuse, and perhaps modify as needed, the original
courseware objects.
How can I be conformed these three major characteristics?




                   By adopting STANDARDS!!




 Are there any standards in e-learning applications area?

 Yes they are,

 IMS, AICC, IEEE, ARIADNE…………….
 or
 ADL(Advanced Destributed Learning) SCORM (Shareable Content Object
 Reference Model) which is a meta-standard that includes the
 crosspoints between all the other individual standards
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) is an initiative sponsored by the US Government to
facilitate instructional content development and delivery using current and emerging
technologies. Specifically, the ADL SCORM project focuses on the next-generation open
architecture for online learning, including standards for run-time communication, course
structure, and content meta-data.
BOOK 1:
The SCORM                                   SCORM
Overview




                                                                              BOOK 3: The
                                                                              SCORM Run Time
BOOK 2: The SCORM                                                             Environment
Content Aggregation Model




                                Meta-data Dictionary (from IEEE)


                      Content Packaging (from IMS)                 Data Model (from AICC)

                                                                   Launch, Communication API (from AICC)
             Content Structure (derived from AICC)

(Meta-data XML Binding and Best Practice (from IMS)
the three main areas of concern across all organizations:

•Communication Interface or API —how resources communicate with other
systems

•Meta-data —how to describe eLearning resources in a consistent manner

•Packaging —how to gather resources into useful bundles




         Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORMTM) Version 1.2

                          Conformance Requirements

                                  Version 1.2
Communication Interface or API

The communication interface is how learning resources exchange information
dynamically,such as while student is taking a lesson.Currently,both the AICC and
the ADL specify communication interfaces,while IEEE and IMS specification do not
yet explicitly identify a communication interface.
For content developers,the most widely accepted communication protocol is
Hypertext AICC Communication Protocol (AICC HACP).The AICC CMI guidelines
describe a common set of data records about student performance and lesson history
that are useful for tracking student performance across sessions.The AICC also
manages an independent test lab that certifies compliance with the AICC LAN or
HACP protocols for either content or management systems.
The trend among LMS vendors is toward an alternate AICC communication protocol
that is also shared with the ADL,called “API Communication,” and often referred
to informally as the LMS API since the functions used are all named
“API.LMSfunctionname ”.This API is the run-time communication specified in the
ADL SCORM document,and acceptance and implementation are accelerating
rapidly.
The main difference between the AICC and the ADL view of the API communication
interface is that the AICC specifies a larger set of data elements that can be
communicated.The ADL uses a subset of this data,and also views this “vocabulary ”
as only one potential set of data elements.The ADL envisions other potential data
bindings that may map different groups of data elements to the protocol.For now
at least,the two overlap to a large degree.
The LMS Run-Time Environment Conformance requirements are defined in terms of three
distinct categories. The three categories are mutually exclusive. An LMS, if conformant, will
be designated as conformant within one and only one of these categories. The categories are:

•SCORM Version 1.2 Run-time Environment Conformant - Minimum (LMS-RTE1)
•SCORM Version 1.2 Run-time Environment Conformant - Minimum with Some Optional Data
Model Elements (LMS-RTE2)
•SCORM Version 1.2 Run-time Environment Conformant - Minimum with All Optional Data
Model Elements (LMS-RTE3)
The LMS runtime environment launch requirements

The LMS shall adhere to the requirements in the following table in order to be considered
LMS Run-Time Environment Conformant in any of the three conformance categories (LMS-
RTE1, LMS-RTE2 or LMS-RTE3).

Req. No. Conformance Requirement
1         The LMS shall be able to launch a known SCORM Run-time Environment
conformant learning resource.
1.1       The LMS shall be able to launch a known SCORM Conformant SCO identified in an
IMS Manifest.
1.2       The LMS shall be able to launch an Asset identified in an IMS Manifest.
2         The LMS shall launch learning resources using the HTTP protocol.
3         The LMS shall be capable of importing a content aggregation by use of a SCORM
Conformant Content Package.
4         The LMS shall launch the learning resources defined in the IMS Manifest
(imsmanifest.xml) based on the <resource> referenced by the <item> that is found in the
content structure (<organization>).
5         The LMS shall launch a learning resource in a Document Object Model (DOM)
frameset child window, or new browser (DOM) window relative to the LMS' controlling
browser (DOM) window.
6         The LMS shall launch learning resources that are SCOs such that one and only one
SCO is available to the user. There may only be one "currently executing" SCO.
LMS Run-Time Environment API Requirements

1          The LMS shall expose the required API Adapter as a Document Object Model (DOM)
Object named "API" (case sensitive) in the DOM parent or opener window or recursively, in
the parent window hierarchy of the parent or opener window of the launched SCO.
2          The LMS shall implement the API Adapter such that it's implementation is
accessible (by a SCO) using ECMAScript (JavaScript).
3          The LMS shall provide for the ability for a SCO to call the defined, required API
Adapter functions using the defined API Adapter object interface convention (e.g. var
cmibooleanResult = API.Function (parameters) using JavaScript.
4          The LMS shall provide implementations of each of the required API Adapter
functions, according to the following specified function signatures (parameters and return
values):
· CMIBoolean = API.LMSInitialize("")
· CMIBoolean = API.LMSFinish("")
· CMIBoolean = API.LMSCommit("");
· CMIBoolean = API.LMSSetValue(parameter, value)
· String = API.LMSGetValue(parameter)
· String = API.LMSGetLastError()
· String = API.LMSGetErrorString(errorString)
· String = API.LMSGetDiagnostic(parameter)
5          The LMS shall provide an implementation for the API Adapter function LMSInitialize
5.1        LMSInitialize shall accept only an empty string parameter ("").
5.2        LMSInitialize shall return a CMIBoolean string value:
· A value of "true" indicates that the function completed successfully.
· A value of "false" indicates that the function did not complete successfully.
Table 2.1.1.2a LMS Run-Time Environment API Conformance Requirements
5.3         LMSInitialize shall set the API Error Code to "0" (No error) if it completes
successfully and return "true".
5.4         LMSInitialize shall set the API Error Code to "101" (General exception) if it does
not complete successfully for any reason that is not specified by a more specific or
appropriate error code and return "false".
5.5         If LMSInitialize is called with anything other than an empty string ("") parameter,
LMSInitialize shall return a value of "false" and set API Error Code to "201" (Invalid
argument error).
5.6         LMSInitialize() shall return false and set the API Error Code to "101" (General
exception) if called more than once by a launched SCO.
6           The LMS shall provide an implementation for the API Adapter function LMSFinish.
6.1         LMSFinish shall accept only an empty string parameter ("").
6.2         LMSFinish shall return a CMIBoolean string value.
· A value of "true" shall indicate that the function completed successfully.
· A value of "false" shall indicate that the function did not complete successfully. If possible,
the LMS shall also set an appropriate API Error Code if LMSFinish does not succeed.
6.3         LMSFinish shall set the API Error Code to "0" (No error) if it completes successfully
and return "true".
6.4         LMSFinish shall set the API Error Code to "101" (General exception) if it does not
complete successfully for any reason that is not specified by a more specific or appropriate
error code and return "false".
6.5         If LMSFinish is called with anything other than an empty string ("") parameter,
LMSFinish shall return a value of "false" and set API Error Code to "201" (Invalid argument
error).
6.6         The call to LMSFinish by a SCO shall only succeed if the SCO previously called
LMSInitialize and the call to LMSInitialize was successful. If the LMS is not initialized,
LMSFinish shall fail, returning a value of "false" and setting the API Error Code to "301" (Not
initialized).
6.7        LMSFinish shall cause any previously set data model elements that were not
persisted by the LMS to be persisted. (This applies to LMS implementations that may cache
data model element values, as opposed to implementations that persist data model element
values at the time of LMSSetValue execution.)
6.8        The LMS shall ignore any API Function calls made after a LMSFinish() call.
7          The LMS shall provide an implementation for the API Adapter function LMSCommit
7.1        LMSCommit shall accept only an empty string parameter ("").
7.2        LMSCommit shall return a CMIBoolean string value:
· A value of "true" shall indicate that the function completed successfully.
· A value of "false" shall indicate that the function did not complete successfully. If possible,
the LMS shall also set an appropriate API Error Code if LMSCommit does not succeed.
7.3        LMSCommit shall set the API Error Code to "0" (No error) if it completes
successfully and return "true".
7.4        LMSCommit shall set the API Error Code to "101" (General exception) if it does not
complete successfully for any reason that is not specified by a more specific or appropriate
error code and return "false".
7.5        If LMSCommit is called with anything other than an empty string ("") parameter,
LMSCommit shall return a value of "false" and set API Error Code to "201" (Invalid argument
error).
7.6        The call to LMSCommit by a SCO shall only succeed if the SCO previously called
LMSInitialize and the call to LMSInitialize was successful. If the LMS is not initialized,
LMSCommit shall fail, returning a value of "false" and setting the API Error Code to "301"
(Not initialized).
7.7        LMSCommit shall cause any previously set data model elements that have not been
persisted to be persisted. (If the LMS caches data model elements set by the SCO using
LMSSetValue, the LMSCommit function shall persist any currently cached data model values.)
8          The LMS shall provide an implementation for the API Adapter function LMSGetValue
8.1        LMSGetValue shall accept a single string parameter containing the name of the
data model element requested by the SCO.
8.2        The LMS shall set the API Error Code based on the following scenarios:
LMS Run-Time Environment API Data Model Requirements


The following list provides a description of the key terms that are used in the requirements
tables in this section to describe the LMS Run-time Environment Data Model implementation
requirements:

· Mandatory - The LMS must implement the data model element. For example, in the
requirement: "The LMS shall implement the cmi.core.student_id element (mandatory)",
"mandatory" means that the LMS must implement the cmi.core.student_id element in order to
be considered "LMS Run-Time Environment Conformant - Minimum" (LMS-RTE1).

· Optional - The LMS is not required to implement this element in order to be considered
"LMS Run-Time Environment Conformant - Minimum" (LMS-RTE1).

· Read-only - The LMS must implement this element such that a SCO may only get (read)
the value using the LMSGetValue API Adapter function. If the SCO attempts to set (write) a
value for this element using the LMSSetValue API Adapter function, the LMS behaves
according to the LMS Run-Time Environment API Conformance requirements and sets the
appropriate API Error Code.

· Write-only - The LMS must implement this element such that a SCO may only set (write) a
value for this element using the LMSSetValue API Adapter function. If the SCO attempts to
get (read) the value for this element using the LMSGetValue API Adapter function, the LMS
behaves according to the LMS Run-Time Environment API Conformance requirements and sets
the appropriate API Error Code.

· Read/write - The LMS must implement this element such that a SCO may both set (write)
and get (read) a value for this element using the LMSSetValue and LMSGetValue API Adapter
functions, respectively.
· Provide - This signifies that the LMS must return a value that adheres to the stated
requirement to the SCO. For example, the requirement: "Provide the value as a string of
type CMIString255" means that when a SCO calls the LMSGetValue API Adapter function for
the particular element, that the return value must conform to the CMI data type specified in
the requirement.

· Accept - This signifies that the LMS must only accept data from the SCO that conforms to
the stated requirement. For example, the requirement: "Accept only values for this element
that are of type CMIVocabulary (Status)" signifies that the LMS must only accept values for
the stated element that belong to the CMIVocabulary (Status) vocabulary. If the SCO
attempts to set a value for the element that does not adhere to the CMIVocabulary (Status)
vocabulary, then the LMS behaves according to the LMS Run-Time Environment API
Conformance requirements and sets the appropriate API Error Code.

· Initialize - This signifies that the initial value provided to the SCO by the LMS should be
determined based on the stated requirement.
1           The LMS shall correctly implement support for all API Adapter functions as well as
for all of the following mandatory SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model elements in
order to be considered "SCORM Version 1.2 Run-Time Environment Conformant - Minimum"
(LMS-RTE1):
· cmi.core._children
· cmi.core.student_id
· cmi.core.student_name
· cmi.core.lesson_location
· cmi.core.credit
· cmi.core.lesson_status
· cmi.core.entry
· cmi.core.score._children
· cmi.core.score.raw
· cmi.core.total_time
· cmi.core.exit
· cmi.core.session_time
· cmi.suspend_data
· cmi.launch_data
2           The LMS shall correctly implement support for all API Adapter functions as well as
for all of the mandatory SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model elements as defined in
requirement 1 and in addition, the LMS shall correctly implement support one or more of the
following optional SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model elements in order to be
considered "SCORM Version 1.2 Run-Time Environment Conformant - Minimum with Some
Optional Data Model Elements" (LMS-RTE2):
· cmi.core.score.max
· cmi.core.score.min
· cmi.core.lesson_mode
· cmi.comments
· cmi.comments_from_lms
Meta-Data

Meta-data is helpful because it provides standard “buckets ” for keeping data about
almost any eLearning resource.For example,you can discover the amount of student
contact time in a lesson,a brief description of the content,the language it was written
in,who wrote it,and so on.This information is useful to others who may want to use
this resource,and the information can be a consistent,sustainable data source for
tracking throughout the design,development,delivery and maintenance life cycle.
Though the example cited refers to a course-level resource or learning object,similar
data may be helpful for instructional media elements such as Macromedia Flash
movies,graphics or even an HTML document.The IEEE Learning Object Meta-data
(LOM)is the most broadly accepted meta-data standard,and it is included in key
IMS and ADL specifications.If your content and process support IMS and ADL,
then the IEEE LOM may be implicitly supported.
Authorware 6 includes the SCO Meta-data Editor,which is based on the IEEE LOM,
IMS Meta-data and ADL SCORM Content-level Meta-data.This utility provides a
familiar tab-based interface for entering all the appropriate meta-data elements,and
then allows you to save that information as an XML file.
four different meta-data conformance categories:


1.       “SCORM Version 1. 2 Meta-data XML Conformant – Minimum” (MD-XML1)


2.       “SCORM Version 1. 2 Meta-data XML Conformant – Minimum with Optional
Elements” (MD-XML1+Optional)


3.      “SCORM Version 1. 2 Meta-data XML Conformant – Minimum with Extensions” (MD-
XML1+Extensions)


4.       “SCORM Version 1. 2 Meta-data XML Conformant – Minimum with Optional Elements
and Extensions” (MD-XML1+Optional+Extensions)
1         In order to be "Meta-data XML Conformant - Minimum" (MD-XML1):

1.1    A Content Aggregation meta-data instance shall contain the following
mandatory elements:

LOM Element
Number Element

1 general
1.2 title
1.3 catalogentry
1.3.1 catalog
1.3.2 entry
1.5 description
1.6 keyword

2 lifecycle
2.1 version
2.2 status

3 metametadata
3.4 metadatascheme

4 technical
4.1 format
4.3 location

6 rights
6.1 cost
6.2 copyrightandotherrestrictions
9
classification

9.1
purpose

9.3
description

9.4
keyword
1.2      A Sharable Content Object (SCO) meta-data instance shall contain the
following mandatory elements:

1 general
1.2 title
1.3 catalogentry
1.3.1 catalog
1.3.2 entry
1.5 description
1.6 keyword

2 lifecycle
2.1 version
2.2 status

3 metametadata

3.4 metadatascheme

4 technical

4.1 format

4.3 location

6 rights

6.1 cost

6.2 copyrightandotherrestrictions
Packaging

Industry use of the term “packaging ”often refers specifically to gathering and describing
the resources for a course.However,“packaging ” can also refer to the same
aggregation process for almost any eLearning resource.For example,the IMS QTI
specification can be considered a packaging specification for gathering individual
items into pools and ultimately into a test.A larger packaging mechanism,such as
IMS Content Packaging,could be used to gather multiple QTI files into a catalog of
tests or perhaps a course that includes multiple tests.
Currently,the most relevant packaging specifications are the AICC Course Structure
File (CSF)file format and the IMS Content Packaging Specification,which are
explained and extended in the ADL SCORM document.The AICC Course Structure
file provides advanced capabilities for representing lesson prerequisites,but the
implementation requires a group of files organized as both Windows ® INI files ((or
similar)and comma-separated value (CSV)data files.For this and many other reasons,
most vendors are moving towards XML-based formats,such as those specified by the IMS.
The IMS Content Packaging Specification describes an XML file with three
major divisions:
•Meta-Data —descriptive information about the entire course,using IEEE LOM elements
•Table of Contents —the lessons or other entry points into the resource used by the course
• Resources —a complete “packing list ” of all the various files or URLs needed to deploy
the course
The resulting XML file is called a “manifest.” Through the extensibility of XML and
the mechanisms described by the IMS,you can create control documents that provide
additional capabilities or clarifications to the core Content Packaging specification.
The ADL has done this by defining a namespace for ADL-specific attributes and
elements,making a schema document available.This document allows the validation
of a manifest that follows both the IMS and the ADL specifications.
1         In order to be SCORM Version 1.2 Content Packaging XML Conformant (ADLCP-
PIF1) the content package must adhere to the following requirements:
1.1       The manifest shall be named imsmanifest.xml
1.2       The imsmanifest.xml shall be placed at the root of the Package.
1.3       All supporting schemas shall be placed at the root of the Package.
1.4       If the Package is placed into a Packaging Interchange File (PIF), then the PIF shall
be conformant with PKZIP Version 2.04g (.zip).
1.5       The imsmanifest.xml instance shall be well-formed.
1.6       The imsmanifest.xml instance shall validate against the IMS Content Packaging
XML Schema Definition (XSD) - imscp_rootv1p1p2.xsd.
1.7       The imsmanifest.xml instance shall validate against the extensions in the ADL
Content Packaging XML Schema Definition (XSD) - adlcp_rootv1p2.xsd.
1.8       The Content Package shall adhere to either the Resource Package Conformance
Requirements or the Content Packaging Conformance Requirements.
1.9       The content package shall contain at least one SCO or Asset (SCORM learning
resources)
1.10      All learning resources identified as SCOs, shall be at least SCO-RTE1 conformant.
1.11      All meta-data used in the manifest instance shall adhere to the SCORM Meta-data
Application Profiles.
What about companies and software ventors?

Do they support standards?
Macromedia MX is a suite of tools for quickly and easily developing e-learning applications that
are based on standards, measure performance, and track results. From simple text-and-
graphics tutorials to sophisticated training simulations incorporating audio, video, and
animation, Macromedia MX lets you deliver a compelling, dynamic learning experience that
increases knowledge retention and keeps learners engaged.

Macromedia MX is even more powerful with free templates and easy-to-install extensions to
help you quickly build interactive courseware. These flexible, pre-scripted interactions for
Macromedia Flash MX and Dreamweaver MX allow you to create quizzes and navigation,
administer and configure lessons, and track results to any open, standards-based Learning
Management System (LMS).



Easy - Get results fast with Macromedia Studio MX or Macromedia eLearning Suite. Free pre-
built templates and easy-to-install extensions help you quickly build interactive courseware that
is based on standards, measures performance, and tracks learner progress.

Powerful - Use professional tools to create effective e-learning applications. Integrate multiple
media to create high-impact learning applications that engage participants and increase learner
retention.

Open - Unlock the power of emerging standards and develop content that will play back on
multiple devices. Leverage support for such formats as XML, XHTML, and assistive technologies,
as well as emerging industry standards, such as SCORM and AICC.
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX Learning Extensions make it easy to create e-learning content-
including content presentation, navigation, interactivity, and quizzes-complete with student
tracking to any open, standards-based LMS or a database. They also give instructional
developers the ability to quickly create or update HTML content so that it complies with
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) and Shareable Content Object Reference Model
(SCORM) standards for interoperability.

The following Dreamweaver MX Learning Extensions are free and will be available for
download when the product ships:


·   Macromedia CourseBuilder Extension for Dreamweaver
·   Learning Site Command
·   Manifest Maker extension
·   SCORM RTI extension


Macromedia Flash MX includes six built-in learning interactions, including quiz templates and
stand-alone interactions, to help you quickly build interactive courseware. These include
true/false, multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, drag-and-drop, hot spot, and hot object
interactions. Each type of learning interaction has unique parameters that determine how the
interaction appears to the learner. You can customize the interaction interface to meet your
needs, which gives you generous design flexibility without requiring you to write any code.

Each individual Macromedia Flash MX learning interaction can send tracking information to a
server-side LMS. Additionally, the quiz templates track cumulative results from a sequence of
interactions and can pass them along to the LMS using an enhanced data-tracking
functionality that conforms to industry standards.
Learning Resource iNterchange (LRN, pronounced "learn") is a reference implementation of
the IMS Content Packaging and Metadata Specifications. The Instructional Management
Systems Global Learning Consortium (IMS) specification was developed by a consortium of
vendors, customers, and academics working to develop XML-based open standards to
streamline and simplify the way that eLearning products are made. The LRN implementation
of the IMS specification accelerates the adoption of eLearning by making it easier to create,
customize, update, and share online learning content and applications. To provide content
and technology partners with the information and tools required to create LRN-compatible
products and content, Microsoft has released the Microsoft LRN Toolkit version 3.0. Supported
by eLearning content and platform providers, LRN helps customers maximize their
investment in eLearning by enabling a wide range of interoperable LRN-based content and
applications.
 Lotus LearningSpace 5.01 now brings new capabilities to e-learning, providing the most
complete, Web-based learning system available. With LearningSpace 5, you can create an
advanced environment for online learning – helping your organization achieve an unbeatable
competitive advantage. LearningSpace 5 does not require an existing Domino infrastructure.
Two key modules enable organizations to choose the functionality that best matches their
needs.
-Core Module uses active server page technology and relational database structures to
support the delivery and tracking of online self-paced learning content. Self-paced courses
can be highly structured with controlled paths and prerequisite assessments, providing
flexible learner access designed to suit individual learning needs.

-Collaboration Module combines the self paced learning capabilities of the core module with
the extensive collaborative learning capabilities that enable learners and instructors to work
and learn together using discussion databases or real-time virtual classrooms. This capability
makes it possible to bring together groups located throughout the world - such as a sales
force or product team - and enable them to learn together.

								
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