From Compromise to Secession_ 1850-1861 by yurtgc548


									Chapter 14
 Free- Soil Movement
    Did not demand end of slavery
    Keep land in west a land of opportunity for whites only so that the would not
     have to compete with labor of slaves or free blacks
    “free soil, free labor, and free men”
    Advocated free homesteads
        Public land grants to small farmers
    Advocated internal improvements
 Southern Position
    Any restriction a violation of rights
    Saw abolitionists and free-soilers intent as the destruction of slavery
    Moderates wanted extension of Missouri Compromise
 Popular Sovereignty
    Lewis Cass, Michigan
    “Squatter” sovereignty
 Election of 1848
    Cass – Democrat nominee
    Zachary Taylor- Whig Nominee
    Martin Van Buren- Free-Soil
 Ralph Waldo Emerson’s prediction:
    “American victory in Mexico would be like swallowing arsenic”
 Balance of free/slave states
    End of Mexican War 15 states each
    New territory
    Gold rush of 1849 and influx of 100,000 into California created need for
     law and order in west
 Zachary Taylor
    Elected President, 1848
    Strategy:
        Prompted California to bypass the territorial stage, draw up constitution, and
         apply as free state
        Wanted New Mexico to do the same
        Thought it was practical solution
 Response
    Angered Southerners in both parties
    Nine states agreed to send delegates to a convention in Nashville, June
 Henry Clay
   Proposed:
      Admission of California as a free state
      Division of the remainder of the Mexican cession into two territories,
       New Mexico and Utah with restrictions on slavery
      Settlement of Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute on terms
       favorable to New Mexico
      Texas, an agreement that the federal government would assume the
       considerable public debt of Texas
      Continuance of slavery in District of Columbia but the abolition of the
       slave trade
      More effective fugitive slave law
   “Omnibus” Bill
      Debates: Clay, Webster, Calhoun
 Fillmore steps in July 9, 1850
   Appointed Daniel Webster secretary of state
   Stephen Douglas takes over for Clay
      Chopped into parts
      Included popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah
      Passed by Summer 1850
 Assessing the Compromise
   Each section gained and lost
      North
           California Free State
           New Mexico and Utah future free states
           Texas- New Mexico border settlement
           Abolition of slave trade in D.C.
      South
         Fugitive slave law
 Law:
   Denied alleged fugitives the right of
    trial by jury
   Not allowed to testify on their behalf
   Permitted return to slavery on
    testimony of claimant
   Paid $10 if ruled for the slaveholder,
    only $5 for the slave
   Federal marshals allowed to “hunt”
    fugitives in North
 Outrage:
   Abolitionists
   Anthony Burns incident
      “The Funeral of Liberty”
   Vigilance communities
   “Personal-liberty” laws
   Underground Railroad
 Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe,
    Daughter of Lyman Beecher
    Reaction to Fugitive Slave Act
 Story
    Targeted slavery
    How slavery tears apart family
 Reaction
    Sold 300,000 copies in 1852
    Enthralled working-class
 Consequences
    Impact cannot be measured
    Northern attitude toward slavery in
     North “never quite the same”
 Impending Crisis of the South
    1857, Hinton R. Helper
    Attacked slavery by using statistics to
     prove its negative impact on southern
 Southern Reaction
    Counterarguments
       Slavery “good”
       Wage slaves of the North
 Effects
    In North, slavery became a moral issue
    Growing number of southerners
     convinced North’s goal was to destroy
     institution of slavery and way of life
 Problems:
   Fugitive Slave Act fragmented
    Whig party
 Nominees:
   Whigs: General Winfield Scott
      Mexican War Hero
      Virginia, but supported by “free-
       soil” Whigs
      Focused on improving roads and
   Democrats: Franklin Pierce
      dark-horse candidate
      No one really opposed him
      Compromise of 1850 and
       Popular Sovereignty
      Supported Fugitive Slave Law
 Results:
   Pierce sweeps to victory
 Kansas- Nebraska Act
   Shattered second party system
   Originally a bill by Stephen Douglas to organize Nebraska
        Wanted to promote settlement in Mid-West, railroad
        Needed to make concessions for southerners to vote for his bill
        Apply popular sovereignty
        Superseded Missouri Compromise, voided it
   Set off protest
   Passed the Senate, but barely the House of Rep.
 Surge of Free Soil
   United Northerners who agreed on nothing else
   Believed slavery impeded white progress
      Labor loses its dignity
   Kansas-Nebraska Act last straw
 Bleeding Kansas
   Majority of population anti-slavery farmers
   Slaveholders from neighboring state of Missouri set up
    homesteads as means of winning control of the territory for the
   Response: New England Emigrant Aid Company
      Northern Abolitionists and Free-Soilers
      Paid for transportation of antislavery settlers to Kansas
   Fighting broke out
      Proslavery Missourians
          “border ruffians”
          Created pro-slavery legislation in Lecompton, Kansas
      Anti-slavery Missourians
          Refused to recognize Lecompton legislation
          Created new one in Topeka
   Response
      Attack of Free-soil town Lawrence, Kansas
      Caning of Senator Sumner
 Know-Nothing Party
     Nativists hostile to immigrants
     “I know nothing”
     Drew support away from Whigs
     Opposed Catholics
     Won few local and state elections
     Lost influence when sectional influence became center
 Republican Party
   Founded 1854, Wisconsin as reaction to Kansas-Nebraska Act
   Coalition of Free-Soilers and anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats
   Platform
        Repeal of Kansas-Nebraska Act and Fugitive State Law
        Prohibit slavery in new teritories
   Abolitionists eventually joined
   Grew rapidly in North, became 2nd largest party
   Success only alienated and threatened South
 Nominees
   Republicans
      John C. Fremont, senator from California
      No expansion of slavery, free homesteads, probusiness protective
      Made strong showing
      South not needed to win election
      Foreshadowed emergence of powerful political party that would win
       all but four elections between 1860- 1932
   Know-Northings
      Millard Fillmore
      Won 20% of popular vote
   Democrats
      James Buchanan
      Won majority of both popular and electoral vote
 Lecompton Constitution
   Buchanan’s challenge whether to accept
   Asked Congress to accept it, admit Kansas as a slave state
   Rejected, mainly by Republicans led by Stephen Douglas
 Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857
   Dred Scott
      Slave, taken to free territory and returned to Missiouri
      Sued for freedom
   Decision
      Chief Justice Roger Taney
          No right to sue in Federal court, Africans not U.S. Citizens
          Congress had no power to deprive a person of property without due
           process of law
          Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional
 Campaign for senator of Illinois
    Douglas
         Seeking re-election
         Popular
         “Little Giant”
         Angered South by not supporting Dred Scott decision enough
         “Freeport Doctrine”
             Slavery could not exist in a community if the local citizens did not pass and enforce
              laws (slave codes) for maintaining it
    Lincoln
         Successful trial lawyer
         Former member of Illinois legislature
         Publically unknown
         Morality of slavery, though not yet an abolitionist
         “House-divided” speech
 Results
    Douglas wins campaign
    Lost ground in party by alienating Democrats
    Lincoln emerged a national figure and contender for Republican party
                                                    Election of 1860
                                                       Breakup of Democratic Party
                                                           Democratic convention last hope for
 Sectional divisions                                       compromise
    South alarmed at Republicans                          Held in Charleston, SC
     success                                               Stephen Douglas leading candidate,
        Antislavery platform                               blocked by Buchanan
        Economic program                                  Deadlock led to walkout
             Favored Northern industrialists at           Remaining delegates nominated
              expense of the South                          Douglas
             Higher tariffs, hurt South’s                        Platform: popular sovereignty and
              dependence on cotton                                 enforcement of FSL

 John Brown’s Raid                                        Southern Democrats nominated John C.
    Harper’s Ferry 1859                                          Platform: unrestricted extension of
    Attacked Federal Arsenal                                      slavery and annexation of Cuba
        Wanted to inspire a slave revolt              Nominations
    Federal troops called in                              Republicans: Lincoln
        Robert E. Lee                                            Platform: appealed to economic self-
        Tried for Treason, convicted, and                         interest of North and West and
                                                                   exclusion of slavery from territories
         hanged in Virginia
                                                           Constitutional-Union Party
    Consequences
                                                                  Former Know-Nothings and Whigs
        Condemned in the North by                                John Bell, Tennessee
                                                                       Enforce laws and preserve Union
        Southern whites had final proof of
         North’s true intentions                       Results
        Later became humanitarian martyr                  Lincoln Wins
 Lincoln’s Election                       Crittenden Compromise
    December 1860, a special                Buchanan lame-duck
     convention needed for                    president for 5 months
     disunion in SC                          Did nothing to prevent
    Within 6 weeks, six states               secession
     followed                                Congress had last-ditch
       FL, GA, AL, Miss, LA, TX              effort
    February 1861                              Proposed by John Crittenden
       Representatives of seven                Guaranteed slavery south of
        states of Deep South                     36’30
       Created Confederate States              Lincoln would not accept, it
        of America                               violated the Republican
       Created Constitution                     position
           Placed limits on
            governments power to
            impose tariffs and restrict
       Elected President Jefferson
        Davis, Alexander Stephens
        Vice President

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