Sexuality and Reproduction by ABXt0N9


									      Sexuality and Reproduction

• Was there a Victorian Era in Latin America?
   – Definition: “Victorianismwas a 19th century cultural
     movement associated with middle-class culture. The
     dominant cultures of Great Britain and the United
     States in the 19th century put a good deal of
     emphasis on refinement, propriety, restraint, and
     sexual prudishness. This cultural phenomenon,
     although named for England's Queen Victoria, may
     have actually been stronger in the United States,
     where the middle classes were larger and more
     dominant in society.”
  Estimates of the Middle Class in
          Latin America
• Size of the middle class dependent upon
  several factors: rate of urbanization, level of
• Strength of Catholic Church
• Access to ideals of Victorianism:
  –   Novels
  –   Fashion
  –   Notions of health
  –   Attitudes towards sexuality
  –   Other communication media
Photographs of Latin America—A
  Peruvian elite woman, 1915
Cuzco , Peru, 1934
Mantuanas, Peru
Man from the Coast, Mexico
Mexican Revolution Fresco, Diego
 How did Latin Americans react to
      notions of sexuality?
• Position of the Catholic Church
• Role of European ideologies, especially
  anarchism—belief in free love, opposed to
  both religious and state imposed marriage
• Ideals of respectability: Impact of class, race
  and ethnicity
  – How can you demand Victorian propriety when poor
    often have to sell their clothing to feed the family?
  – Climatic differences between Europe and parts of
    Latin America made heavy clothing a burden and
  – How could low marriage rates be defined as a
    Victorian ideal?
How did new ideas about sexuality
• Science
  Many early feminists were physicians,
  specializing in gynecology. Brought
  new information to women about child
  raising and maternal health care—
  called puericultura
  Aided by public health physicians
  interested in lowering infant mortality
        Other Ways to Learn about
•   Reading Novels, Comic Books
•   Invention of modern cosmetics
•   Postcards, particularly from France
•   Travel and observation
•   Feminist campaigns
•   Introduction of the cinema-1920s onward
•   Beauty Pageants
•   Television
Bolivia, Fertility Rates
Mexico, Fertility Rates
Cuba, Fertility Rates
Male sexual patterns affect female
Male Contraceptive Needs

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