4th Six-Weeks Test Review by ABXt0N9

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									First Human Body Test Review
Human Body Systems

Reasons for 11 body systems in humans:

1. Allows for more complexity
2. More efficient
3. No overlap of functions
4. Less waste and energy use
5. Easy to maintain Homeostasis – the condition of a
stable internal environment in an organism

How the 11 systems depend on each other?

Each systems provides a different, essential need for all
the cells of the organism.
5 levels of organization in most living things
1- cell
2- tissue
3- organ
4- organ system
5- living organism
Intro to Human Body Tissues
      List the four basic types of tissues and state their
                distinct features and functions
• Epithelial – sheets of tightly packed cells, always has a surface
  facing space, either outside or around internal space. Forms
  many linings giving protection and containment on inside and
  outside of structures. (Skin, organs, body cavity)

• Connective – functions to bind and support other tissues.Cells
  in connective tissue are always surrounded by noncellular
  matrix, usually produced by those cells. Provides body
  structure as well as connects parts together allows people to
  move.(found in skin, wraps fat cells, tendons, ligaments,
  cartilage bones)

• Muscle – Allow body, food, blood movement. Ex- Skeletal
  muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

• Nervous – Carry electrochemical messages called impulses
  to/from the brain which allow us to process, reflect, remember
  and understanding our environment. Ex. Neurons, rods, cones
Integumentary System
         List of the functions of the
           integumentary system
• Protection of interior parts from bacteria,
  chemicals, UV rays, and injuries.
• Temperature regulation
• Sensory Reception (heat, pressure, pain, hot,
  cold)
• Biochemical Synthesis, making vitamin D
  Describe the epidermis layer. Include the
different types of cells and what they produce.

• Your skin is made up of mostly dead
  epithelial cells.
• Keratincytes produce keratin, which is the
  tough material in dead skin and also found in
  the basic structure of hair and nails.
  Melanocytes produce melanin, which
  determines the color of skin and provides
  protection from UV rays.
      Describe the Dermis Layer,
        including its function
 Made up of living cells it also consists of:
• Blood vessels
• Nerve endings
• Glands
• Sense Organs
• Smooth Muscle
• Hair cells
 The function of the dermis layer is:
• control body temperature and sensory reception
    Name and describe the two glands
          found in the dermis
• Sweat glands produces sweat when the body
  temperature rises. As water evaporates, it cools
  the air surrounding skin which makes it feel
  cooler.
• Sebaceous glands produces an oil that keep the
  keratin-rich epidermis flexible and waterproof.
  The oil coats the shafts of hairs and surface of
  the skin to prevent water loss and also lubricates
  and soften the skin and hair.
               SKIN PROBLEMS
Blisters rubbing causes the layers of epidermis or
epid/dermis to separate and water fills in

Burns 1st-degree - only epidermis, no blistering
     2nd degree – blistering, deep layer epidermis
     damage
     3rd degree – entire epidermis burned away

Psoriasis – chronic, scaling of skin and
inflammation of joints.
Muscular/Skeletal Systems
  How many bones are in the human body?

• There are 206 bones in the human body.
        Name and describe the four
           functions of bones
                     “SSMB”
•   Support – holds you up; protects heart,
    lungs, vertebrae, spinal cord
•   Storage – help nerves and muscles function
    properly by storing minerals and stores fats.
•   Movement – allows human movement
•   Blood cell formation – makes red and
    white blood cells
  What is the role of the osteoblast?

• Osteoblasts are living cells that deposit the
  minerals that make up the bones and the
  connective tissue holding the bones
  together.
         Name and describe the four
           components of bones
• Marrow – red marrow makes red and white blood
  cells and is found in the spongy bone of legs,
  arms, ribs, sternum and vertebrae. Yellow marrow
  stores fats.
• Compact bone – located toward the ends of the
  long bones and provides most of the strength and
  support for bones such as the femur
• Spongy bone – bone tissue with many open
  spaces, has stores minerals in it
• Periosteum – tough living membrane covering a
  bone’s surface
What is the function of cartilage and
             ligaments
• Cartilage – provides a place for bones to
  continue growing, protects bone where two
  bones contact one another.

• Ligaments – bands of tough tissue
  (connective tissue) that holds bones in place
  at and around joints.
     Name, describe and give an example
      of the five different types of joints
• Ball and socket – shoulder and hip. Ball-shaped end of
  bone fits into a cup-shaped socket on the other bone
  allowing for widest range of motion including rotation
• Hinge joint – , elbows and knees. Allows movements in a
  single place
• Pivot joint – wrist, ankle, neck. Allows freedom of
  movement somewhat between ball and socket and hinge
• Sliding joint – carpals in the wrist, tarcels in the ankle and
  vertebrae in the back. Bones moving into each other
  allowing sliding or twisting without any circular movement
• Fixed joints – Joints of the skull. Do not allow any
  movement and are extremely strong
               BONE DISORDERS

Osteoporosis – porous or weak bones that break
easily

Osteomyelitis – bacterial infection that can cause
destruction of bones

Arthritis – common joint problems cause by over
100 diseases
How many muscles are in the human
            body?
• There are over 600 muscles in the human
  body
 Define the two groups of muscles.
      Give examples of each.
• Voluntary muscles – conscious movement,
  facial expressions

• Involuntary – blinking, moving food
  through digestive system, heart beating
Name, describe and give an example
   of the three types of muscles
• Cardiac – heart muscle

• Smooth – in the digestive track wall,
  maintains movement of food

• Skeletal – allow your bones/body to move
What is the function of tendons?
• Attach muscles to bones by thick bands of
  connective tissue
  Describe how muscles move joints,
   which in turn, moves the human.
• Muscle work in pairs. Tendons connect
  muscles to bones. One end of the muscle is
  attached to an origin bone, then the other
  end is attached to the moving bone at the
  insertion point. When one muscle
  contracts, the other relaxes or returns to
  normal length. Muscles work around a
  joints, which are held together by
  ligaments. Cartilage cushions bones in
  joints.
           MUSCLE DISORDERS

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY – progressive
weakness and degeneration of muscles
controlling movement

SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY – genetic
disease the affects voluntary muscles needed for
crawling, walking, head and neck control, and
swallowing
Human Brain and Nervous System
 List the seven parts of the brain and
   briefly state their main function
• Cerebrum – thinking part
• Motor Area- part of the cerebrum that control
  vol. muscles
• Cerebellum – controls balance, movement and
  coordination
• Brain stem – controls all functions for body to
  stay alive (breathing, circulations, digestion)
• Hippocampus – deals with memory
• Pituitary gland – releases hormones in your body
• Hypothalamus – brain’s inner thermometer
    List the different sensory organs and
    nerves in the human body (from labs)
•   Eyes
•   Ears
•   Smell
•   Taste
•   Touch
•   Heat
Human Nervous System is divided into two regions:

Central N.S. – the brain and spinal column
Peripheral N.S. – made up of the neurons outside of
the Central N.S

Human have more that 1000 kinds of neurons, that
fall into 3 general categories:

Sensory neurons – recieve messages
Interneurons – coordinate incoming and out going
messages.
Motor neurons – send messages to muscles
 Describe how the parts of the nervous
 system work together when you touch
            something hot.

• Touch receptors in your finger send a
  strong message up sensory neurons to
  the central nervous system.
  Interneurons pick up this message, and
  relay it to motor neurons, causing the
  reflex action to move the body.
Explain why tasks are easier to do if
        you practice them
• When you learn things, the message travels
  from one neuron to another. The brain
  eventually starts to create
  connections/pathways between the neurons
  so things become easier and you can do
  them better and faster.
    Define and state the function of the parts of the eye

• Cornea – light rays are bent, reflected and focused, protects
• Pupil – opening created by the iris
• Iris – controls amount of light entering eye by regulating the
  size of the pupil
• Lens – sharply focuses lights on to the retina
• Vitreous fluid- focuses the image
• Retina – captures light to pick up the image, has cone (color)
  and rods receptors
• Choroid- shiny reflective back of eye
• Optic Nerve- sends image to the brain
• Sclera- outside membrane of eye
• Blind Spot- point at which the optic nerve passes out of the
  retina since photo receptor cells are absent there
Human Eye
  Describe why organisms have 2 eyes.

• Three dimensional vision depend on
  viewing the same visual field with both eyes
  simultaneously.
• Depth perception
Define and give the function of rods
            and cones
• Rods –more light sensitive . Dim light
  vision depends entirely on rods

• Cones – responsible for color vision
       Describe how an eye functions
           when it sees an image
• Light rays are reflected from object to cornea. Iris
  controls the size of the pupil, which determines the
  amount of light entering the eye. Here the light
  rays are bent, refracted and focused by the cornea,
  lens and vitreous fluid. The lens’ function is to
  sharply focus the light rays on the light-sensitive
  retina on the back of the eyeball. Because the
  image is received upside down at the retina, the
  light rays are converted to electrical impulses
  which are then transmitted through the optic nerve
  to the brain, which flips it over.
Human Ear
  Explain how the ear plays a major
  role in maintaining one’s balance.
• The inner ear contain special hairs that act as
  gravity receptors. These hairs are found in the
  semi-circular canals of the inner ear. In
  humans, the inner ear is filled with fluid. As the
  head is rotated or the angle of the body changed,
  the fluid of the inner ear sloshes around,
  stimulating the gravity receptor hairs in the ear.
  When the hairs are stimulated, they send a
  message to the brain that relays information
  about balance.
             Explain how the ear hears
• Sound passes through the external auditory canal in the
  form of sound waves.
• Sound vibrates the tympanic membrane (eardrum).
• The vibrations are transmitted across the middle ear by three
  tiny bones, called hammer, anvil and stirrup.
• Vibrations are passed from the stirrup to the inner ear
  through the oval window and then to the fluid in the
  cochlea.
• Vibrations travel through the fluid, creating pressure which
  stimulates the mechanoreceptors located on the Corti.
• Message is sent in the form of a nerve impulse through the
  cochlear nerve to the brain.
    Describe what causes hearing loss

• Injury or irregularity in the structure of the ear
• Ear wax build up
• Bones in the middle ear may become fused after an
  infection
• Prolonged high fever can lead to injury of the
  auditory nerves
• Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause the
  hairs in the cochlea to break

								
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