"THE CONTINUITY & DISCONTINUITY BETWEEN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE "
THE CONTINUITY & DISCONTINUITY BETWEEN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE NEW TESTAMENT CHURCH; SOLO SCRIPTURA PRAY READ Matthew 16:13-28 Theme of Matthew: “Behold your King is coming to you” (Zech.9:9; Mt.21:4-5) CHARTING THE COURSE FOR THIS EVENING: 1/19/2005 Review Study #44 The Continuity & Discontinuity Between The Old Testament And The New Testament Church (Matt.16:18,19) The Gates Of Hades Will Not Overpower It (Matt.16:18) The Authority Of Peter The “Rock” & The Authority Of The Individual Christian (Solo Versus Sola Scriptura) (Matt.16:18,19) THE CONTINUITY & DISCONTINUITY BETWEEN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE NEW TESTAMENT CHURCH (Matt.16:18,19) A. Jesus says that through Peter’s faith (Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God), the New Testament church would be built. 1. There is continuity & discontinuity between the church of the Old Testament and the Church of the New Testament. a. The Old Testament church was looking in faith to the coming of Jesus through prophecy, the shadows and types of the Temple, the kings, and the priesthood. b. The New Testament church confesses in faith that Jesus is the fulfilment of the Old Testament prophecies and the reality of what the Temple, kings, and priesthood were all looking forward to. 2. The 12 tribes of the Old Testament church and the 12 Apostles of the New Testament church are part of the same Holy City, the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:10-12,14). B. John the Baptist had warned the Jewish brood of vipers earlier in Matthew, ‘Do not suppose that you can say to yourselves, “We have Abraham as our father”; for I say to you that from these stones God is able to raise up children to Abraham” (Matthew 3:9). 1. Being a physical descendant of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob no longer had special value if a Jew did not trust in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the Living God. 2. Worshipping in the Temple would soon have no value if a Jew did not trust in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the Living God. 3. Observing the Law and following Moses would have no value if it was not done by trusting in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the Living God. THE GATES OF HADES WILL NOT OVERPOWER IT (Matt.16:18) 27 Because You will not abandon my soul to Hades, Nor allow Your Holy One to undergo decay…31 he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that He was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did His flesh suffer decay. (Acts 2:27,31) and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades (Revelation 1:18; cf. Rev.6:8; 20:13-15) What are gates? indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies. (Genesis 22:17) What is Hades? THE AUTHORITY OF PETER THE “ROCK” & THE AUTHORITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHRISTIAN (SOLO VERSUS SOLA SCRIPTURA) (Matt.16:18,19) Is the church built upon Peter? Or is the church built upon Peter’s profession of faith? Or is Jesus pointing to Himself when He says, “You are Peter/Rock and upon this rock (point to Himself) I will build My church”? “In the view of Augustine and the early fathers all the bishops of the Church in the East and West were the successors of Peter. They all possess the chair of Peter” (William Webster, “The Church Fathers’ Interpretation of the Rock of Matthew 16:18; http://www.christiantruth.com/mt16.html). What does it mean that the “keys of the kingdom of heaven” are given to Peter? (Matthew 16:19) A. Keys are used in the Scriptures to represent authority, power and access. B. Keys have a Davidic overtone: 1. “He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, and who shuts and no one opens…” (Revelation 3:7). That Jesus has the key of David means nothing less than all the promises God gave to King David [from Ruth to Malachi] concerning the Kingship, Temple, and the coming Messiah have found their fulfillment in Jesus Christ (cf. Luke 24:44,45; 2 Cor.1:20). 2. Keys were connected to the Davidic throne and kingdom (Isaiah 22:15-25). a. Isaiah 22:22 is the only passage in the Old Testament where the image of “keys” are used. However, keys were large in ancient times and were carried on the shoulders and keys may also be alluded to in Isaiah 9:6. b. In Isaiah 22, there was a change in the stewardship of David’s royal household from a man named Shebna to a man named Eliakim signified by the handing over of “the key of the house of David.” 3. The most significant promises God gave to David of which Jesus Christ is the possessor of are found in 2 Samuel 7:1-29: I will make thee a great name (2 Sam.7:9b; with Gen.12:2, etc.) I will set up thy seed after thee (2 Sam.7:12a; cf.Gen.3:15; 17:7-10,19; 22:18; Psalm 89:36; Acts 2:30,31; Gal.3:16) David's son shall build a house for God's Name in Jerusalem (2 Sam.7:13a; 1 Ki.11:32,36; see Matthew 16:18) The throne of David will be established forever (2 Sam.7:13,16; Psalm 89:29,37; cf. Isa.2:2) He shall be my son (2 Sam.7:14; cf.Ex.4:22; John 3:16). C. In giving Peter the “keys of the Kingdom of heaven” Jesus is not saying that Peter is the New Covenant “David”!!! Jesus, the Son of David, is giving stewardship of the Kingdom to Peter. 1. Peter was prominent proclaiming the message of the Kingdom (Jesus is the Christ, Jesus died, Jesus rose again, Jesus ascended into heaven, etc.) to Jews (Acts 2; see esp. v.36); Samaritans (Acts 8:14- 17); and Gentiles (Acts 10). 2. After Peter opened the Gospel to the Jews on Pentecost and to the Gentiles in Acts 10, his foundational role was essentially finished. It is interesting that while Peter fades into the background of Acts, Paul preached the very same message Peter confessed in Matthew 16:16 (Acts 9:20-22). 3. Peter doesn’t take upon himself a role of “primacy” in his letters, but notes that Jesus is the precious corner stone (1 Peter 2:4-8). “[H]ighly as Peter was honoured, he was not placed in an office having jurisdiction over the other Apostles; for the Apostolate is ever spoken of as the highest office in the Christian Church; ‘God hath set some in the Church, first Apostles, secondarily prophets’ (1 Cor xii.28): not, as it ought to be if the Roman theory had been true, first Peter, then the Apostles” (Salmon, The Infallibility of the Church, 118). D. Jesus not only gives stewardship of the church to Peter, but also to the Apostles and today to pastors and teachers (Matthew 18:15-20; 28:18-20; Ephesians 2:19-22; 4:7-13). E. In giving the keys to Peter, Jesus is taking them away from the Jewish religious leaders (Luke 11:52). My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I also will reject you from being My priest. Since you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children (Hosea 4:6) 1. The interpretation of the Scriptures is taken from the Jews and given to the church. a. The Jews had corrupted the interpretation of the Law (Matthew 12:1-14; 16:11-12 [leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees). b. The Jews righteousness did not measure up to the standard of God and His Word (Matthew 5:17- 20). c. The Jews had invalidated the Word of God for the sake of their tradition (Matthew 15:1-8). d. The High Priest and the Sanhedrin did not believe that Jesus was the Christ, the Son of God (Matthew 26:63-66). “Giving the keys of the kingdom to Peter implies that the teaching office has been taken from the scribes and Pharisees (and Sadducees) because of their malfeasance (compare Isa 22:15-22). This saying divinely legitimates the teaching authority of the church against that of the church’s opponents” (Garland 175). Matthew 16:19 Matthew 23:13 “I will give you the keys of the “But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, kingdom of heaven; and whatever you because you shut off the kingdom of heaven from bind on earth shall have been bound in people; for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do heaven, and whatever you loose on you allow those who are entering to go in. earth shall have been loosed in heaven.” 2. The church and not the individual Christian is the pillar and support of the truth (1 Timothy 3:15- 16). 3. We believe in sola Scriptura and not solo Scriptura. Sola Scriptura simply means “by Scripture alone”. It is the belief that the Scriptures are completely sufficient for everything that we need for faith, life and godliness. Sola scriptura is not a denial of the authority of the Church to teach God’s truth. Quite often a dichotomy is presented: one has either the Bible or the Church, but not both. Many Protestants, reacting against what they see as an overemphasis on the Roman Catholic theology, end up going too far in the other direction, and downplay the vital(and biblical) role the Church is given by the Lord Jesus Christ in the Scriptures. (James White) Where does authority lie? “For we also say that the church is the interpreter of Scripture, and that the gift of interpretation resides only in the church: but we deny that it pertains to particular persons, or is tied to any particular see [jurisdiction; i.e. the bishop of Rome] or Should we as 21st century Christians look at succession of men.” (William Whitaker [1547-1595], A the Scriptures without bias, a teaching that Disputation on Holy Scripture [Cambridge,: University Press, is relatively new – less than 200 years old? 1849] p. 411). William Whitaker was a Professor of Divinity at Cambridge and his book A Disputation on Holy Scripture was influential on the Westminster Assembly and chapter 1 of What bias should we use in interpreting the Scriptures? the Westminster Confession of Faith. "He who would consistently banish creeds must silence all preaching and reduce the teaching of the church to the recital of the exact words of Holy Scripture without note or comment." - R. L. Dabney “Solo scriptura is the ecclesiastical equivalent of a nation with a constitution but no court of law to interpret that constitution. Both can lead to chaos.” (Keith Mathison, “A Critique of the Evangelical Doctrine of Solo Scriptura”). See also James White’s Interview. Prepared by Pastor Aaron Goerner (1/12/2005). See Dt.33:8-10; Ezra 7:10; Malachi 2:7; Matt.13:52; Acts 17:11; Col.1:28,29; 1Tim.4:12-16. Questions/Comments? Email: email@example.com Website: www.ChristChurchReformed.com