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					Chapter 16: The New Deal
       Section 1: Forging a New Deal
     Section 2: The New Deal’s Critics
  Section 3: The Last Days of the New Deal
TRIVIA!
 The Constitution said that presidential elections
  are to be held in November.
 Inaugurations in March.
 WHY????
     In the old days it took time to get ballots to the
     counters.
     It took time for the new president to get to
     Washington.
“Lame Duck” Amendment
 That left the outgoing president in office for four
  months.
     No power – like a lame duck.
 Congress passed the “Lame Duck” Amendment
  the 20th Amendment in 1933 – moving the
  Inauguration to January.
     Franklin Roosevelt was the last president sworn in in
     March and the first one to be sworn into office in
     January.
Who was Franklin Roosevelt
 1882 – 1945
 Rich and spoiled by his
  mother.
 Interest in politics came
  from his distant cousin,
  Theodore Roosevelt.
 Smart, well-educated,
  and ambitious
Franklin Roosevelt
 Married his distant
  cousin, Eleanor
  Roosevelt in 1905
 Six children, five
  survived to adulthood.
Franklin Roosevelt
 Lawyer, politician, in
  New York and in
  government work.
 1921 – contracted polio
     Never regained the use
     of his legs
Franklin Roosevelt
 Fight for his life from
  polio
 Fight for his life between
  his mother and wife
Franklin Roosevelt
   Campaigned for a “New
    Deal”
      Meant to recall his cousin
      TR’s “Square Deal” for
      voters
Eleanor Roosevelt
   1884 – 1962
   Shy daughter of
    dysfunctional family.
   Raised mostly by her uncle
    TR.
   “Traditional” wife and
    mother until Franklin’s polio.
   Became his eyes and ears
    with the public.
FDR: Restoring the Nation’s Hope
   Building public
    confidence in the future
    was essential to calm
    panic and create
    support.
FDR: Restoring the Nation’s Hope
   “We have nothing to fear
    but fear itself.”
      FDR first inaugural
FDR: Restoring a Nation’s Hope
 The Fireside Chats
 First Sunday of every
  month in the evenings.
 Spoke to the nation as if
  they were conversing in
  their living room.
 Explained what he was
  trying to do.
Eleanor Roosevelt
   MY DAY columns and
    radio broadcasts
FDR: Restoring a Nation’s Hope
   Eleanor: The Secret
    Weapon!
The New Deal
 Recalling his cousin
  President Theodore
  Roosevelt’s “Square
  Deal” for Americans.
 Progressive belief that
  government can help
  people with their
  problems that TR had
  started in 1900.
The First Hundred Days: The New
Deal
   Roosevelt pushed
    program after program
    through Congress to
    provide relief, create
    jobs, and stimulate
    economic recovery.
What would you do?
   With everything that was
    wrong in the country,
    what would you do – if
    you were president – to
    get people working and
    prosperous again?
Roosevelt: The First Hundred
Days
 Stabilize financial
  Institutions
 Provide relief and create
  jobs
 Regulate the economy
 Assist homeowners and
  farmers
 The TVA
Stabilizing Financial Institutions
   People needed to be able to
    trust their banks.
   Closed ALL banks for ten
    days. BANKING HOLIDAY.
       Federal officials went to all
       banks and went through their
       records to check their financial
       health.
       2/3 of banks passed the test
       and reopened.
Stabilizing Financial Institutions
 Americans regained
  confidence in the banking
  system.
 Began to put money in the
  bank.
 Established FDIC
      Govt. regulators check bank
      books to make sure good
      loans are being given.
      Guarantee depositor’s money.
      Give money to banks to give
      out as loans to help a local
      economy.
Stabilizing Financial Institutions
   Regulate the Stock Market.
   1933: All companies had to
    provide information on their
    finances before they can
    offer stock for sale.
   Govt. regulation of buying on
    margin.
   Stockwatch and the SEC to
    monitor stock sales and
    business.
FDR: The New Deal’s First
Hundred Days
   Regulated the value of
    American money to get
    more exports of
    American farm goods
    and factory goods.
FDR: Providing Relief and
Creating Jobs
 Federal Emergency
  Relief Administration
  (FERA)
 Put money into PUBLIC
  WORKS PROGRAMS –
  building government
  facilities.
FDR: Providing Relief and
Creating Jobs
 CWA: Civil Works
  Administration – put the
  unemployed to work
  building or improving
  roads, parks, airports
  and other facilities.
 Four million employed.
FDR: Providing Relief and
Creating Jobs
 CCC: Civilian
  Conservation Corps
 2.5 million unmarried
  young men put to work
  creating and maintaining
  forests, beaches and
  parks.
     $30 a month
     Free housing, food and
     medical care.
FDR: Regulating the Economy
   NIRA: National Industrial
    Recovery Act – June 1933.
   NRA: National Recovery Act
   Create fair business
    practices in the country.
       Regulate fair wages / minimum
       wage
       Encouraged unions
       Controlled working conditions.
FDR: First Hundred Days
   PWA: Public Works
    Administration
      Built Grand Coulee Dam
      in Washington
      New York City’s
      Triborough Bridge
      The causeway that
      connects Key West to the
      Florida mainland.
FDR: Assisting Homeowners and
Farmers
   Most middle-income
    homeowners were behind in
    their mortgages.
   HOLC – Home Owners’
    Loan Corporation –
    refinanced mortgages.
       Made payments more
       manageable .
       1 million loans – but for many it
       still wasn’t enough to help
       keep houses.
FDR: Assisting Homeowners and
Farmers
   FHA: Federal Housing
    Administration –
    improves housing
    standards and
    conditions, insures
    mortgages, stabilizes
    mortgage market.
FDR: Help for Farmers
   AAA: Agricultural
    Adjustment
    Administration, offered
    subsidies to farmers.
       If corn was only 50-cents
       and a farmer needed $1
       to stay in business – the
       government guarantees
       the other 50-cents.
AAA
   Also encouraged farmers
    in what to plant and what
    not to plant.
TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority
 May 1933: Helped
  farmers and created jobs
  in one of the least
  developed regions.
 Create cheap electric
  power and recreational
  opportunities in the entire
  Tennessee River valley.
REA: Rural Electrification Agency
 1930s: 90% of
  Americans in urban
  areas had electricity.
 Only 10% of rural areas
  had electricity.
 REA changed that!
     Brought power over 15
     years to 98% of farms.
Key Players of the New Deal
   Roosevelt’s “Brain
    Trust”
      Informal group of
      intellectuals who helped
      draft policies.
Key Players of the New Deal:
Appointments
 Frances Perkins:
  Secretary of Labor
 Mary McLeod Bethune:
  Director of the Division of
  Negro Affairs of the
  National Youth
  Administration
Key Players in the New Deal
Don’t forget Mrs.
  Roosevelt!
  Traveled widely for her
  husband.
  Advocated for causes.
  Took stands against Jim
  Crow laws.
The Second New Deal: Second
100 Days
 More social welfare
  benefits
 Stricter controls over
  business
 Strong support for unions
 Higher taxes on the rich.
Social Security System
 1935 Old Age Pensions
  and Survivors Benefits
 Unemployment benefits
 Aid to dependent
  children, blind and
  disabled
     Did NOT include farmers
     or domestic servants until
     1954
Roosevelt’s Popularity in 1936
 Ran against Republican
  Alfred M. Landon.
 Electoral Vote: 528-8.
Limitations of the New Deal
 Women
 African Americans
Limitations of the New Deal:
Women
 Codes in Work Projects
  allowed for women to be
  paid less than men.
 Men and boys were to
  receive preference for
  jobs.
Limitations of the New Deal:
African Americans
 Federal Work Projects in
  the South reinforced
  segregation.
 Not allowed to apply for
  management jobs or jobs
  on the TVA.
 Received lower wages
  than whites for the work
  they did get.
Limitations of the New Deal:
African Americans
   Because most African
    Americans were farmers
    or domestic servants –
    Social Security did not
    cover 2/3 of African
    Americans!
African Americans in the New
Deal
   Roosevelt would not
    push for an anti-lynching
    law.
       Too many Southern
       senators would have
       blocked every Roosevelt
       law if he tried to push
       through to retaliate.
African Americans in the New
Deal
 Segregated Northern
  neighborhoods often had
  stores owned by whites
  and employed only white
  workers.
 Boycotts “Don’t show
  where you can’t work”
Political Critics of the New Deal
 It didn’t go far enough!
 There was still poverty in
  America.
 Government needed to
  own and operate
  factories and farms.
Political Critics of the New Deal
 It goes too far!!!
 Republicans didn’t like it.
      Too much govt. in
      peoples’ lives.
   Wealthy people
    considered paying extra
    income tax unfair.
      Roosevelt was a traitor to
      the rich class.
Political Critics of the New Deal
 Social Security penalized
  successful rich people by
  making them pay into the
  system.
 Social Security numbers
  was the first step to
  making ours a militaristic
  society.
     Dog tags with our SS
     numbers.
Other Critics of the New Deal:
Demagogues
   Leaders who manipulate
    people with half-truths,
    deceptive promises and
    scare tactics.
       Father Coughlin
       Huey Long
Demagogue: Father Coughlin
   Radio Priest who sermonized
    to 10 million people.
   At first liked the New Deal,
    then turned against it.
   Openly anti-Semitic (hated
    and blamed Jews for
    problems in the country)
   Praised Hitler.
   Catholic Church shut him up
    in 1942.
Demagogue: Huey Long
 Louisiana governor and
  US senator.
 Unlike other Southerners
  he did NOT use racism
  in campaigns.
     Improved education
     Medical care
     Public services
Huey Long
 BUT: You had to support
  him to get the services!
 Broke from FDR
  because he wanted to
  raise income tax on the
  wealthy to 60%
 Gunned down by a rival.
Looking Back on the New Deal
   Deficit – If the
    government SPENDS
    more than it collects in
    taxes.
       Yearly number
Looking back on the New Deal
   Roosevelt thought it was
    more important to get
    people working.
       Thought more people
       working meant more
       taxes being collected to
       pay for programs.
   Deficit Spending.
Looking back on the New Deal
   US Debt – YEARS of
    deficits add up.
The New Deal’s Affect on Culture
   Federal funds given to
    support the arts.
   Literature
       The Grapes of Wrath – John
       Steinbeck
       Their Eyes Were Watching
       God – Nora Neale Hurston
       Let Us Now Praise Famous
       Men – Agee and Evans
The New Deal’s Effects on
Culture
   Radio and Movies
       Comedies on Radio
       – Jack Benny, George
         Burns, Gracie Allen
      Soap Operas
       – 15 minute dramas meant
         to create emotional
         responses in listeners.
       – Housewives were the
         target audience.
The New Deal’s Effects on
Culture
   Hollywood movies showed
    common people who
    triumphed over evil.
       Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
       The Wizard of Oz
   Zany comedies
       Marx Brothers
   Disney animation
       Snow White and the Seven
       Dwarves
       Mickey Mouse
The WPA and the Arts
 FDR said arts were not
  luxuries that people
  should have to give up in
  hard times.
 WPA: Funded
  unemployed artists,
  musicians, historians,
  theater people and
  writers.
The WPA and the Arts
   Historians wrote state
    guidebooks and
    collected life stories of
    immigrants, former
    slaves, etc.
The WPA and the Arts
 Sent musicians and
  actors out to visit the
  remote areas of the
  country and perform.
 Sent musicians out to
  start community
  symphonies and give
  free music lessons.
 Collected American folk
  music.
The WPA and the Arts
 Thousands of artists
  went to work painting
  2,000 murals in mostly
  public buildings.
 100,000 paintings
 17,000 sculptures
 Photographs of people in
  the Depression.
What did the New Deal Leave
Behind?
 FDIC monitors banks
 TVA model of
  government planning
  providing jobs, power,
  flood control and
  recreation.
 SEC monitors the Stock
  Market and businesses.
What did the New Deal Leave
Behind?
   Social Security
A Legacy of Hope
   Greatest Achievement of
    the New Deal
      Restoring hope in the
      nation.
      The nation was more
      ready for the sacrifices
      and organization needed
      for WWII.

				
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