Zarbula's Sundials _PPTminimizer_ by fanzhongqing

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									Zarbula’s
Sundials

 Roger Bailey &
 Alain Ferreira

 NASS 2005
  Chicago
Sundials in France
Distribution by Département


 Hautes-Alpes 772

 Highest sundial density
 in the world!




Ref: http://www.saf-lastronomie.com/cadrans/carte_2002.gif
            Why Hautes-Alpes?

• Alpine folk art traditions
• Insolation: 330 days of sunshine
• Isolation from politics and progress
  – Travel over the passes not down the valleys
  – Transhumance- summer alps, winter Piedmont
• Independent Republics
  – Five “Escartons de Briançonnais”
  – from 1343 until 1713 and 1789
• Itinerants: shepherds and tradesmen
Alpine Sundials               Bavaria

                                            Austria

                   Engadine
                                        Tyrol
 France

 ZARBULA
  ZONE


           Italy
Sundials of Giovanni Francesco ZARBULA
Who was Giovanni Francesco Zarbula?

                 • We only know his name and
                   his works
                 • Itinerant Italian painter
                 • Piedmont to Hautes Alpes
                 • Only tools, materials and
                   techniques that could be
                   carried by a donkey
                 • Speciality: bold flamboyant
                   vertical declining sundials
                 • Distinctive folk art style
                 • Accurate gnomonic method
                 • Long lasting fresco paintings
   Zarbula’s Style
 Baroque Italian Folk Art
• Equinoctial Line
• Birds and Flowers
• Frame, curtains, tassels
• Sun and crescent moon
• Symbols: Masonic and
  Religious
• Mottos: Latin, French,
  Italian, Provencal
• Signed: GFZ or ZGF
• Dated: 1830 – 1876
• Maljasset, Ubaye, 1860
ZARBULA
 ZONE
                            95
                         Zarbula
                         sundials
26   ORIGINALS
          11 WITH ZARBULA’s DRAWINGS
36   RESTORED
          23 PHOTOS FROM ORIGINALS
33   LOST
          5 PHOTOS OR DRAWINGS OF THOSE LOST
5    DUBIOUS
8    DUPLICATES OR COMPLEMENTARY
2   VALLOIRE
                           NORTH ZARBULA ZONE



                                        Italy, Piedmont
    Latitude 45º                        Zone Val Chisone
                        VALLEE
                         DE LA           20 sundials
                        CLAREE
       ZONE
       BRIANCON              4


                   29



     VALLOUISE
               4
                        ZARBULA’ s Method
Discovered by Paul Gagnaire,
From the Valloire sundial,
at Les Verneys en Savoie.

Ref : Cadrans solaires en
Savoie, 1999 by P.Gagnaire.
Page 130-137: A Valloire,
Solved mystery.
L’Equere et L’Oiseau ou
L’Art et La Maniere de
ZARBULA by P.Gagnaire.
2000 Cadran Info SaF
http://www.ens-lyon.fr/RELIE/Cadrans/Promenades/Zarbula/Equerre.htm
           ZARBULA’ s Method
                        Les Verneys en Savoie.




Drawing by P.Gagnaire
  Zarbula’s Construction Lines



Horizontal




                         Equatorial
                           Circle
                  Noon
   Zarbula’s Method: The Sun Rules!
•Zarbula did not need to know the latitude or wall
declination to define the dial.
•The shadow determined the sub-style line
•Zarbula used no calculations or tables.
•Simple geometry determined the hour lines.
•Zarbula worked at the latitude of 45°
• None of the sundials are oriented North.
• The wall is vertical and declining from south.
• Zarbula already knew the sundial’s size and
location on the wall.
Principle 1: Horizontal Equivalence
                 • Any Vertical Declining
                   sundial has a equivalent
                   horizontal sundial at in
                   the southern hemisphere
                   at a different latitude
                 • Determine the sub-style
                   distance and sub-style
                   height for the polar axis
                 • Lay out the hourlines for
                   the horizontal equivalent
He draws the vertical noon line XII and marks the centre
C

                    He drives in a horizontal style at C
                            perpendicular to the wall

                            C




                                  Zarbula’s Method

                      XII
Principle 2: Indian or Hindu Circle for Sub-style



                       C




                           Zarbula draws point by point a
                           hyperbolic declination line,
                           representing of the path of the
                           tip of the shadow.
                     XII
Zarbula draws the sub-
style, the axis of             Zarbula’s Method
symmetry of the dial
                           C




                                          P 2




                P1
                         XII

                                      S
                            Zarbula’s Method
Center of sundial C




    NOON LINE XII
                            SUB-STYLE




                      XII

                                   S
                             Zarbula’s Method

                             The perpendicular
     45°


                             gnomon gives the
           C                 shadow path to set
                             the sub-style line.
                   45°
                             For the actual dial,
                             polar style is from
                             the intersection of
                             the noon meridian
                             and the same sub-
M’
                             style line.
               M

                         S
Principle 3: Rotation of the Meridian Plane
                C

                    • Meridian plane shows the
                      Latitude , Co-Latitude, Polar
       Co-Lat
                      style and Equatorial true size
                    • Rotation of the Meridian
                      plane about the Meridian axis
         Lat          to the Sub-style,
                      perpendicular to the wall,
                      shows the Substyle Height
                    • Rotation defines the
                      Equatorial Horizon plane

            Noon
Zarbula’s Method           C



                           45°

                                 45°




                           45°




                                       Define the Equatorial
             Noon to                   Horizon by rotating
             equinox                   the meridian plane and
                                       the latitude angle
                       M               around the vertical
                                       Meridian axis
Zarbula’s Method
                       C



                       45°
                                   He draws a horizontal line
Horizon                      45°




                       45°




                   M

                                           S
Zarbula’s Method
                       C



                       45°

Horizon                      45°




                                   He draws an equatorial
                                   line perpendicular to the
                                   sub-style line

 Equatorial

                   M

                                          S
Zarbula’s Method
                       C   He draws the 6 o’clock
                           (18h) line to the
                           equatorial horizon


Horizon                                  18h




 Equatorial

                   M

                                    S
If it’s morning declining,
                             C       Zarbula’s Method
he draws the 6 am line

        6h
                                       Horizon




                                           Equatorial


                                 M

                 S
                                  Generalised method for
 Zarbula’s Method                 different latitudes
                            C

Example Chicago = 42°       48°

                                                   18h

 Horizontal line            42°




   Equatorial
                        M

                                            S
Zarbula’s Method
                             C
                                                  ?
                                                18h
 Horizon


                    ?            O



                   12h               ?
  Equatorial
                                         Zarbula draws the
                         M           W   center W of an
                                         auxiliary equatorial
                                          S
  Principle 4: Always 90º between noon and 6 o’clock




Vertical méridional sundial Villevieille church, Queyras
Zarbula’s Method                    C




                                                       18h
 Horizontal line

Starting from auxiliary
equatorial centre W, he                 R
draws the 15° angles to
the equatorial line       12h

                                                    Sub-Style Height
   Equatorial                                       is RW, radius of
                                                    the auxiliary
                                                    equatorial circle
                                M           W

                                                S
                                                Zarbula’s Method
                                    C
 The intersections are
 numbered in sequence from
 noon to 18 o clock                                                     19h


     Horizon line                                                 18h
                                                            17h
                                                      16h
                                                15h
                                          14h
                                    13h
                              12h
                        11h

       Equatorial 10h

                               M                      W

                                                              S
9h
                                              Zarbula’s Method
The only thing left is to           C
draw the hours lines from C
point...


     Horizon line                                                        19h

                                                                   18h
                                                             17h
                                                       16h
                                                 15h
                                              14h
                                        13h

                          11h

                    10h         M
          Equatorial
                                                             S
9h
     Installation of the Polar                    Zarbula’s Method
     Style (Gnomon) above the          C
     Sub-Style Line



      Horizontal Line                                                                  19h

                                                                             18h
                                                                      17h
                                                             16h
                                                       15h
                                                 14h
                                           13h
                                                                   Sub-Style Height is the
                                                                   Radius of the auxillary
                             11h
                                                                   equatorial circle
                     10h
                                   M
            Equatorial
                                                                      S
9h
      Principles of Zarbula’s Method

• Horizontal Equivalence of Vertical Decliner
• Indian (Hindu) Circle for sub-style line
• Meridian plane contains Latitude true size
• Rotate Meridian plane to establish Horizon plane
  Equatorial line and 6 o’clock line
• 90º between Noon and 6 o’clock
• Equatorial Tangent line for hour lines and
  Sub-style Height
• The geometry is correct; the method is accurate,
  within some limitations
Test of Zarbula’s Method
1. Sub-style line
                                           36.8°
                                      Sub-Style
Latitude: 48.6º N                     Distance

Declination: 58º E



                                 Declination Line

                     Sub-Style




               Shadow Path for 14 June
  Test of Zarbula’s Method
    Zabula Test: Latitude N 48.6º Substyle 36.8º


  2. Equatorial Tangent Line

          Equinox


          Horizon 5
                      6
                          7
                                     8
                                         9
                          SH  1.40




                                                     10        Lat
                                                          11
                                                                     311.4°




                                         SD  36.8°
                                                                     12

          Substyle                                                            12:30

DeltaCAD design drawing
using Zarbula’s Method         Noon
gives identical results to trig calculations                                          13
  Zarbula’s Tools
      Sticks and String

• Sticks
  –   ruler, straight edge
  –   set square 45º & 90º
  –   compass, dividers
  –   gnomon
• String
  – plumb bob
  – chalk line
  – compass
Zarbula’s
Painting
• Fresco technique
  on parged masonry
  walls
• Mineral oxide
  pigments on fresh
  lime mortar
• No organic
  materials
• Weather and sun
  resistant
• Quick bold
  strokes
       Pigments :
       Ochre (iron oxides) for
       yellow orange &, red.
       black soot, zinc oxide
       white, cobalt blue,
       copper greens Sienne
       earths.
Ochre de Provence
                        38 sundials
                        QUEYRAS



                                  UBAYE
                              2



LES TANCS   LES ORRES
            1
   1
                 ZONE ZARBULA South
Château Queyras
                                    QUEYRAS
          3     CERVIERES



                                          ABRIES
     ARVIEUX     CHÂTEAU
                 QUEYRAS              4
                                1
          7
                                     AIGUILLES
                     12
LES ESCOYERES               2        MOLINES

                                7    SAINT VERAN


 2   EYGLIERS
First Known Zarbula Dial
Queyras, Arvieux, le Coin
   1832 QUEYRAS
Arvieux, Les Escoyères
VI
     HORIZON



     EQUATORIAL
 Original Restored
  by Evelyne and
Norbert Peyrot 2000
1839 Cervières,
Customs Office
 18?? QUEYRAS
Château Villevieille
   Clot du Riou
     1840 - Zarbula’s Miracle Year
•   Twelve Zarbula dials dated 1840
•   Eight Queyras (6-St. Veran, 2-Chateau)
•   Two Vallouise,
•   Two Briançonnais (Clarée, Salle les Alpes)
•   1830 to 1839 only six Zarbula dials
•   Apprenticeship done, artistic style set
•   Breakthrough commission?
                 Vallouise, Bardonnèche
Vallouise 1840
• Zarbula’s breakthrough
  commission
• Home of Françoise
  Ponce,Viscountess de
  Bardonnèche
• Zarbula’s techniques
  and style established
• Restored in 1991 by
  Pique & Bachet of
  Atelier Tournesol,
  Grenoble
St Véran      at 2040 m
The Highest village in Europe
31 Sundials, 7 by Zarbula
   1840
Saint Véran
Haut Forannes
1840 Saint Véran
Mathieu Romain farm
  1840

Saint Véran

 Le Raux
1840: Saint Véran Forannes
1840: Saint Véran

 Pierre Belle
1858 St Véran
 Pierre Belle




Gite Gabelous   Restored in 1995 by Rémi Potey
Queyras, Arvieux
 Les Escoyères,
1857 Original
Les Escoyères
  chapel dial
                         Suzon Con
                         With Susan




Restored by Rémi Potey
1861 Eygliers, Le Cros   Guillestre


                         Rose Marble
                          Complementary
                          corner dial lost
  Briançon
Hautes Alpes

• The highest city
  in Europe
• Crossroads for
  Alpine pass
• Vauban fortress
  near Italian
  border
• 1719 dial on
  Collégiale
  Notre-Dame
                             1876: Briançon
                             Place d’Armes
Zarbula?

                             Most Zarbula
                             sundials are in
                             the surrounding
                             alpine villages

           1876: Briançon, Place d’Armes
                                    Restored by
                                    E & N Peyrot




1842: Briancon, Puy St Pierre, Le Pinet
1843: Clarée, Val des Prés
                   1869 : Vallouise
                     Le Villard
                    St Sébastien

1869 : Vallouise
                   St Sébastien
 Le Villard
1869 : Vallouise, Le Villard, St Sébastien
Zarbula dials and paintings restored in 1997
by Atelier Tournesol, Pique & Bachet
1869: Le Villard
Vallouise

PM dial is almost
south facing

  6 o’clock
  line is off
  the dial


 “Don’t rely on
 the first
 as all depends
 on the last”
Morning dial is close to east facing.
Zarbula’s normal method does not work
Zarbula’s Painting
       of the
Black Madonna




“I am black,
 but comely,
O ye daughters
of Jerusalem”

Song of Solomon, 1:5
                         USSEAUX

            PRAGELATO          1

                     5
     TRAVERSES
                            Italy, Piedmont
                 2
SESTRIERE                     Val Chisone
        6




            ZONE ZARBULA EAST
Turin Olympics 2006




                      Val Chisone
1870 : Sestriere, Champlas du Col, via Nationale

1870 : Sestriere, Champlas du Col, via Nationale
Close the shutter...
“I am black, but comely,
O ye daughters of Jerusalem”
 1872
Sestriere
Borgata,
1872 : Sestriere, Borgata,
1872 Sestriere, Borgata      Sestriere, Borgata




              14 via
              Colle de
              Sestriere




    Restoration?
                          1872 : Zarbula Original
 1872 Sestriere, Borgata
 12A via Colle de Sestriere




1872 Sestriere, Borgata 12A
    Sundial Entropy
     Lost Zarbula’s

• Paints wash away
• Grime obscures
• Parging spalls
• Gnomons bend and
  break
• Walls crack and fall
• Renovation and
  development destroy
• Fires, floods,
  avalanches
1853 : Saint Martin de Queyrières, Prelles
               This sundial disappeared in 2003


TIME IS RUNNING OUT JUST LIKE WATER.
  Aiguilles 1889
102 Buildings destroyed
In Château Queyras : flood level in 1957
  In Abries, Zarbula’s sundial
destroyed in 1944 bombardment
           Restorations:
       Club du Vieux Manoir

                         • Patrimony: history,
                           cultural,
                           architecture
                         • 13 sundials
                           restored in
                           Brianconnais 1984-
                           2000




1870: St Martin de Queyrières Church
       Restorations:
        Solaria s.n.c
 • Lucio Maria Morro &
   Fabio Garnero
 • FOSSANO (Cuneo) It
 • Sundial creation &
   restoration
 • Many Italian dials
 • Zarbula Restoration



   1872 Sestriere, Champlas du Col

http://www.solariameridiane.com/313/L109.html
                   Restorations:
                    Rémi Potey
                   •Fresco painter
                   •Creative artist
                   •Many modern dials
                   •Hautes Alpes,
                   Haute Provence,
                   Buëch
                   •Restorations:
                      –St Véran
                      –Château Queyras

1843   Château Queyras Villevieille
Jean-François
   Gavoty
• Creative artist,
  painter, cadranier
• Professor fine arts
  – Ecole des Beaux Arts,
    Strasburg, Grenoble,
    Lyon
• Haute Provence, Ubaye
  – Maljasset
  – Serenne

1860 Serrenes, Ubaye, Alpes de Haute Provence
  Restorations
Atelier Tournesol



• Pique & Bachet
• Inventories, protection
• Grenoble, Savoie,
  Hautes Alpes
• Vallouise:
   – Bardoneche
   – Le Villard, St Sebastien
                        Evelyne & Norbert
                               Peyrot
                             Restoration of
                             sundials and
                             fresco
                             paintings in
                             Briançonnais,
                             Val de Clarée,
                             Val des Prés



1847 : SAINT-CHAFFREY, Villard-Late,
18?? : Savoie, Valloire, Les Verneys
                     THE
                     END

1998 : Renovated by Peyrot
2005 : Destroyed -Valloire Town Hall
              Alain Ferreira & Roger Bailey
                       Acknowledgements
                         & References
                   • Alain Ferreira: co-author
                     ideas, slides, pictures, files
                   • Internet: Google, SML
                   • A. Gunella:      L’ Orologio
                     Francese e il detto DI ZARBULA per
                     trovare la declinazione del muro
                   • A. Bouchard:     Zarbula Dossier,
                     Le Gnomoniste, mars 2005
                   • P. Gagnaire:     L’ Equerre et le
                     Oiseau
                   • P.Putelat & G. Ducrot:
                     Cadrans Solaires Traditionnels en
Emmanuel Defever     Queyras – Briançonnais
*** Sommelier      • Cadrans Solaires Français
                     Catalogués; SAF CCS

								
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