Name:____________________________________ Date:_____________ Period:_____
Genetics - DNA Unit 3 – Overview
Schedule - October 29, 2007 through December 14, 2007; Unit Exam Tuesday 12/11/07
Fall Semester Final Week 12/17 - 12/21.
Grant Key Standards
3D: The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.
Students will describe the processes of genetic
engineering and biotechnology and analyze the ethical
implications. (5c, 5d) Key Elements:
1. Define the following concepts: genetic
engineering, biotechnology, ethical implication
2. Describe the processes of genetic
engineering and biotechnology.
3. Analyze the ethical implications of genetic
engineering and biotechnology.
3E:Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the
DNA sequence of each organism that specify the
sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of
Students will demonstrate the role of DNA and RNA
in the processes of replication, transcription, and
translation. (1a, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b) Key Elements:
1. Define DNA, RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA),
replication, transcription, translation, genetic
code, codon, anticodon, amino acid, mutation, base
pairing, protein, complement, template.
2. Transcribe DNA into mRNA.
3. Translate mRNA into an amino acid sequence.
4. Explain the role of DNA in each of the following processes: replication, transcription, and
5. Explain the role of RNA in each of the following processes: replication, transcription, and
6. Explain the steps of each of the following processes: replication, transcription, and translation.
Textbook – Chapters 12 (pg 324 – 357) 13 (pg 358-387). Class Website – www.marric.us/teaching;
Resources - http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/glossary/index.html
10/29 - 11/2 – Chapter 12 – Transcription/Translation Process Diagrams
11/5 - 11/9 – Chapter 12 – Replication and Mutations and Processing
11/12 - 11/16 – Chapter 13 – Biotechnology – DNA Extraction Lab
11/19 - 11/23 – Thanksgiving Holiday – No homework – Free Study
11/26 - 11/30 – Begin Review for Semester Final – DNA Regulation and Expression
12/3 - 12/7 – Review for Unit 3 Exam
12/10 - 12/14 - Unit 3 Exam 12/11 – Review for Semester Final
12/17 - 12/21 - Review for
Semester Final (12/20 and 12/21)
The nucleus is a membrane-bound
organelle that contains the
hereditary material in eukaryotic
cells. This hereditary material is
DNA whose information is found in
DNA’s nitrogen bases: adenine,
guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Each
DNA monomer or subunit is a
nucleotide which is made of a
phosphate group, a dexoyribose
sugar, and a nitrogen base. DNA is a
double stranded helix (ladder) and is
complementary in that one strands
thymine (T) pairs with the other
strands adenine (A). Likewise
cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G) in
accordance with Chargaff’s Rule.
DNA is transcribed (transcription) as
messenger RNA that is transferred
from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by
exiting the nuclear pores. DNA needs
messenger RNA because DNA is
double stranded and cannot exit the
nuclear pores whereas RNA is single
stranded and can do so. RNA is made from DNA by an enzyme called RNA polymerase (an enzyme
that makes a polymer of RNA). Additionally RNA (made of ribose sugar) does not have a thymine base
instead RNA has the base uracil (U) which pairs with adenine (A). The hereditary information must
get into the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located because ribosomes are the structures where
messenger RNA is translated (translation) into a protein (polypeptide with the help of transfer RNA
(tRNA). Ribosomes along with tRNA translate the genetic information into a protein by adding one
amino acid per three mRNA bases (codons). Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes and
tRNA to make proteins –remember viruses do not have ribosomes and cannot make their own proteins.
DNA must also replicate itself when a new cell is needed. The process involves several other enzymes
including DNA helicase (opens the helix), DNA polymerase, RNA primase, and DNA ligase. With so
many steps and enzymes involved it is a miracle that there are so few errors in the replication
process. Especially when you consider that a human genome has about 30,000 genes and 3.5 billion
base pairs. Nevertheless, mutations do occur: insertions, deletions, substitutions as point mutations
or frameshift mutations (insertion or deletion mutations) which can affect the type of protein that is
produced. Besides having great repair enzymes the code has a redundancy that helps maintain
integrity in that there are multiple codons that code for the same amino acid: 20 amino acids per 64
possible base combinations in a codon (4x4x4). When a mutation does occur the three most common
outcomes are cancer, birth defects, or no problem at all. The regulation of gene expression is very
complicated and most is known about prokaryote (bacteria) gene regulation. You will learn about two
operons or regulatory units called the trp operon and the lac operon. Onward molecular biologists.
2. Amino acid_________________________________________________________________
4. Base pairing ________________________________________________________________
5. Birth defect________________________________________________________________
9. Complementary strand ________________________________________________________
11. Deletion mutation ___________________________________________________________
12. Deoxyribose _______________________________________________________________
13. Double helix _______________________________________________________________
14. Enzyme ___________________________________________________________________
15. Expressed gene _____________________________________________________________
16. Exon _____________________________________________________________________
17. Frameshift mutation__________________________________________________________
18. Gene _____________________________________________________________________
19. Genetic code _______________________________________________________________
20. Genome ___________________________________________________________________
21. Genotype __________________________________________________________________
22. Guanine ___________________________________________________________________
24. Heredity __________________________________________________________________
26. Homozygous ________________________________________________________________
27. Intron ____________________________________________________________________
28. Insertion mutation ___________________________________________________________
29. Inversion mutation ___________________________________________________________
30. Ligase ____________________________________________________________________
31. Mutation(s) ________________________________________________________________
32. Nitrogen bases______________________________________________________________
33. Nucleotide _________________________________________________________________
34. Okasaki Fragment____________________________________________________________
36. Phosphate group_____________________________________________________________
39. Promoter __________________________________________________________________
41. Purine ____________________________________________________________________
42. Pyrimidine _________________________________________________________________
44. Regulatory site _____________________________________________________________
45. Replication ________________________________________________________________
46. Repressor _________________________________________________________________
47. Ribose ___________________________________________________________________
48. Template _________________________________________________________________
49. Thymine __________________________________________________________________
50. Trait ____________________________________________________________________
51. Transcription ______________________________________________________________
52. Translation (protein synthesis) _________________________________________________
53. Translocation ______________________________________________________________
54. tryptophan ________________________________________________________________
55. Uracil ____________________________________________________________________
56. DNA _____________________________________________________________________
57. RNA _____________________________________________________________________
58. tRNA (transfer RNA) ________________________________________________________
59. mRNA (messenger RNA) ______________________________________________________
60. rRNA (ribosomal RNA) ________________________________________________________
62. Clone _____________________________________________________________________
63. Genetic engineering __________________________________________________________
64. Variation __________________________________________________________________
65. 3’ (three-prime) _____________________________________________________________
66. 5’ (five-prime) ______________________________________________________________
Unit 2 Genetics – DNA Name:______________________________
1. What are the building blocks of DNA?
2. Arrange the following in order from largest to smallest in size?
Nucleus, DNA, Chromosome, nucleotide, cell
3. What are the purine bases and what are the pyrimidine bases for DNA:
a) Purine bases =
b) Pyrimidine bases =
4. A particular sequence of parent DNA has four purine bases and two pyrimidine bases. According
to base-pairing rules what are the possible sequences formed during replication:
Represent Purine as Pu and Pyrimidine as Py
5. In which part of the cell does this process shown above take place?
6. Structure I in the figure above represents a(n) __________________________________.
7. Structure II in the figure above represents a(n) _________________________________.
8. Structure III in the figure above represents a(n) ________________________________.
9. Structure IV in the figure above represents a(n) _________________________________.
10. Structure IV in the figure above represents a(n)__________________________________.
11. The process illustrated in the figure above is called _______________________________.
12. Which of the structures in the figure above are composed of RNA?
13. X-ray evidence was used to discover that the shape of DNA was a _______ .
14. In 1962 a Nobel Prize for Medicine/Physiology was awarded to whom?
15. The information that directs replication, transcription and translation is found in DNA’s
16. What is Chargaff’s Rule and how was it important for determining DNA’s structure?
17. This segment of DNA has undergone a mutation in which
six nucleotides have been deleted. A repair enzyme
would replace them. Which series of bases will complete
the strand of DNA?
The messenger RNA codes for six different amino acids are shown in the table below.
18. In one type of mutated gene for hemoglobin, CAC has
replaced the normal CTC in the DNA code. What amino
acid substitution has taken place in the mutated
19. Process 1 in the diagram above is known as
20. Process 2 in the diagram above is known as
21. Process 3 in the diagram above is known as
22. What is the product of process 3 as shown in the diagram above,? ______
23. Which process in the diagram above occurs in the nucleus?____________________________
24. Which process in the diagram above occurs in the cytoplasm? _________________________
25. How many bases are needed to specify four amino acids?
26. What is the difference between the lagging strand and the leading strand?
27. A DNA segment is changed from-AAGTAG- to -AAATAG-. This is a ________________mutation.
28. A DNA segment is changed from -AATTAGAAATAG- to -ATTAGAAATAG-. This is a(n)
29. Here are two related mRNA sequences:
5'UUUAGCCAUAAAAAAAA3'. How was the
second sequence formed?
30. Use the amino acid code chart to sequence the
following messenger RNA strand into an amino
acid strand. AUGUUACCCCAAUUU –
Positions Available in the genetics industry. Hundreds of entry-level openings for
tireless workers. No previous experience necessary. Must be able to transcribe
code in a nuclear environment.
Accuracy and Speed vital for this job in the field of translation. Applicants must
demonstrate skills in transporting and positioning amino acids. Salary
commensurate with experience.
Executive Position available. Must be able to maintain genetic continuity through
replication and control cellular activity by regulation of enzyme production.
Limited number of openings. All benefits.
Supervisor of production of proteins—all shifts. Must be able to follow exact
directions from double-stranded template. Travel from nucleus to the cytoplasm
is additional job benefit.
31. Applicants for the first job of the Help Wanted ad in the table above "Position Available," could
qualify if they were ______________________________.
32. Applicants for the second job of the Help Wanted ad in the table above "Accuracy and Speed
vital," could qualify if they were ______________________________.
33. Applicants for the third job of the Help Wanted ad in table above "Executive Position," could
qualify if they were _________________________.
34. Applicants for the fourth job of the Help Wanted ad in the table above "Supervisor," could qualify
if they were ______________________________.
35. What is the mRNA sequence for a strand of DNA reading CACGTAC?
36. The template strand of a piece of DNA being replicated reads: 5'-ATAGGCCGT-3'. A partially
synthesized Okazaki fragment is 5'CCTA3'. If the next fragment is four bases long, what is its
37. What type of mutation has occurred in the
38. What will be the result of the mutation in the
39. This is a template DNA sequence: 3' AATCGCA 5'. This is a partially-completed mRNA strand
transcribed from the DNA template: 3'GCGA5'. What is the next nucleotide that RNA
polymerase will attach?
40. Using DNA sequencing, you discover that a bacterium has experienced a deletion mutation that
removed three nucleotides. The bacterium appears completely unaffected in all its functions.
Where is the mostly likely location for the mutation?
41. Three samples of DNA contain the
percentages of nitrogenous bases
listed in Table 12-2. According to
Chargaff’s law, which two samples
probably belong to the same species?
42. You have a building toy set consisting of parts that can be connected together. You are going
to use it to model a piece of DNA. You have decided that each part of DNA will be represented
by a different type of toy piece. You have chosen the following four pieces so far: adenine =
large red cube; guanine = large green cube, thymine = small orange cube; cytosine = small blue
cube. How many other types of pieces do you need to represent the remaining parts both the
3-prime and the 5-prime strands of a section of DNA?
43. Describe the parts which are found in each nucleotide found in DNA?
44. Because of base pairing in DNA, the percentage of ______________________ in DNA is
about equal to the percentage of _________________________.
45. DNA is copied during a process called ________________________
46. How is RNA different from DNA?
47. Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?
48. What is produced during transcription?
49. During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed:
a. Inside the ____________________
b. Is _____________-stranded
c. Is ___________________ to one of the strands of DNA
50. Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of codon?
51. Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?
52. What happens during the process of translation?
53. The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce _____________.
54. During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on
the ___________________on the mRNA and the _________________ on the tRNA to
which the amino acid is attached.
55. Explain the following types of gene mutations:
a. Insertion -
b. Deletion -
c. Substitution -
d. Point mutation –
e. Frame-shift mutation -
56. What is a promoter?
57. RNA polymerase is used to _________________________________________________.
58. An expressed gene is turned ___________.
59. Proteins that bind to ____________________________ on DNA determine whether a gene
60. If a specific kind of protein is not continually used by a cell, the gene for that protein is
61. A bacterium that was once able survive in a tryptophan-free environment is now unable to
synthesize its own tryptophan. The bacterium is otherwise unaffected. Where is the most
likely location for the mutation causing the change?
62. What can result when a mutation to DNA occurs?
63. Under certain conditions RNA can perform additional functions which include?
64. Describe the following enzymes:
a. DNA helicase –
b. DNA ligase –
c. DNA polymerase -
d. RNA primase -
e. RNA polymerase -
65. What are introns and exons?
66. Compare and contrast the trp operon and the lac operon
67. What are plasmids and how are they used in biotechnology