EPA Biosolids Program Update

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					      EPA Biosolids
     Program Update




            Rick Stevens
           Office of Water
Michigan Water Environment Association
             Bay city, MI
          February 21, 2008
                                       Office of Water
Management & Operations                                                                        Communications Team
        Staff
                                          Office of the
                                                                                                  American Indian
   Water Policy Staff                Assistant Administrator                                    Environmental Office
                                               Assistant Administrator,
                                                Benjamin Grumbles
 Resources Management
                                                                                               Senior Policy Advisor
         Staff




 Office of Ground Water       Office of Science & Technology      Office of Wastewater
                                                                                              Office of Wetlands, Oceans
    & Drinking Water            Director, Ephraim S. King             Management
                                                                                                     & Watersheds
                              Deputy Dir, Suzanne Rudzinski


                                    Engineering & Analysis                                      Assessment & Watershed
   Water Security Division                                       Municipal Support Division
                                           Division                                               Protection Division
                                    Director, Mary T. Smith


  Drinking Water Protection          Health & Ecological                                           Oceans & Coastal
                                                                   Water Permits Division
          Division                     Criteria Division                                           Protection Division
                                   Director, Edward Ohanian


     Standards & Risk                 Standards & Health
                                                                                                    Wetlands Division
    Management Division                Protection Division
                                    Director, Denise Keehner
                                                                                                                           2
                             Program Areas
                 Health & Ecological Criteria Division

             •   Water Quality Criteria
             •   Drinking and recreational
                 waters
             •   Nutrients / Sediment
             •   Biosolids

…applying
             •   Emerging Contaminants
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality
               Emerging Contaminants in Water*

                                                           Pathogens
                 PFOA                Pharmaceuticals
                                    and Personal Care                  Prions
                                        Products



    Nanomaterials                               Endocrine
                           Pesticides           Disrupting
                                               Compounds



                                                        PBDEs




*Not an exhaustive list.                                                        4
                 Estimating the Universe of ECs
                                      Chemicals
             CAS Registry*

                    31 million organic and inorganic substances

                    Updated daily with ~4000 new substance records




…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality
             *American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts Service
               Estimating the Universe of ECs
                                               Pathogens
             Known
               – Viruses
                     • Hepatitis
                     • Adenovirus 12
                     • Norovirus
               – Bacteria
                     • Salmonella spp. (to include S. enterica)
                     • Escherichia coli
                     • Enterococcus spp.
                     • Campylobacter spp.
               – Parasites
                     • Giardia
                     • Cryptosporidium
             Emerging
…applying      – E. coli strains:
science &
technology           • Escherichia coli O157:H7 [enterohemorrhagic/Shiga-toxin producing; EHEC or
to protect             STEC]
water                • Antibiotic-resistant (focus on vancomycin- and methicillin-)
quality
               – Analogous Salmonella typhimurium strains
                                                                                                    6
               Emerging Contaminants (ECs)
                                 What are they?

             EU Definition:

                –   New chemicals produced to offer
                    improvements in industry, agriculture,
                    medicine, and common conveniences.
                –   New reasons for concern for existing
                    contaminants.
                –   New capabilities enabling improved
                    examination of contaminants.
…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality

                                                             7
                        What’s in a Name
             What to call these ‘compounds’ without
               negatively branding them as “worry” or
               “concern”
                  Emerging Contaminants of Concern
                  Emerging Substances of Concern
                  Compounds of Potential Concern
                  Pollutants of Potential Concern
                  Compounds of Emerging Concern
…applying
science &
technology
                  Emerging Contaminants
to protect
water
quality           Microconstituents
                                                        8
             Biosolids Micro/Trace Constituents
                      The Latest Hype?

             “Even with respect to their environmental
               impacts, the trace amounts released to
               the environment from biosolids land
               application are insignificant…”




…applying
science &    Source: Viewpoint in a November/December 2006 WEF
technology
to protect      Newsletter
water
quality

                                                                 9
                        So Why the Interest?
             •   ECs illustrate the connection of individuals’
                 activities with their environment
             •   A large number of chemicals are getting into
                 the environment with known and unknown
                 concentrations and effects
             •   Detection of these chemicals is likely to
                 increase
                 – Analytical methods are developed
                 – Look
             •   Numerous reports of intersex fish and other
                 species have triggered Congressional and
…applying
science &        public interest
technology
to protect
water
             •   No evidence of adverse human health effects
quality

                                                                 10
                         Key Biosolids Issues

             •   To ensure that Part 503 standards are
                 protective
             •   The US population is expected to
                 double in 72 years
             •   What to do with increased volume of
                 residuals
             •   55% current production
                 is land-applied
…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality

                                                         11
                            Key Biosolids Issues

             •   <1% of nearly 470 million acres of
                 agricultural land
             •   US is essentially self supportive in food
                 production…indications of potential concern
                 o   Reaching food-production capacity
                 o   Loss of arable land and population increase
             •   Biosolids helps replenish OM, nutrients, buffer
                 pH
             •   Less a nuisance and more a resource
…applying
science &    •   Must first address the technical, regulatory and
technology
to protect       communication challenges
water
quality

                                                                    12
                       Current knowledge
                       and future concerns

             •   Are biosolids a human health or
                 environmental concern?
             •   Do we understand all the risks?
             •   Do we have all the needed risk assessment
                 tools?
             •   Do we fully understand how well treatment
…applying
                 of biosolids eliminates health and
science &
technology       environmental risks?
to protect
water
quality

                                                             13
                     EPA’s Biosolids Action Plan

             •   In setting priority actions, we considered
                 certain questions:
                 o    Would the action provide a link for detecting
                      and quantifying pollutants
                 o    Would the action help ensure protectiveness of
                      Part 503
                 o    Would the action address scientific and policy
                      complexities posed by land application
             •   We also considered input form a variety of
                 sources
…applying        o    NAS recommendations
science &
technology       o    Public comments / WERF Research Summit
to protect
water
quality
                 o    EPA priorities
                                                                       14
                  EPA’s Biosolids Action Plan
                        Three categories / objectives

             1.   Advancing our understanding of science,
                  technology, and risks

             2.   Ensuring implementation of laws and
                  regulations

             3.   Communicating the best available
                  information related to public fears and
…applying         perceptions
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality

                                                            15
                        Summary of Select
                        Biosolids Activities
                                   Current

             •   Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey –
                 includes 100 PPCPs
             •   Analytical techniques for virus and helmith
             •   Reactivation / sudden increase
             •   Incident tracking and rapid response
             •   Quantitative microbial risk assessment
             •   Antimicrobial resistance and HGT
             •   Wastewater modeling for predicting pollutant
                 concentrations
…applying    •   Biennial review cycles
science &
technology           2003
to protect
water                2005 and 2007
quality

                                                                16
Risk-Based Standards
HEI/RME Scenario
Ag Land-Application
Exposure-Risk Model
        14 - Pathway Risk Assessment
                               HUMAN
              HUMAN                             HUMAN
HUMAN
                               GROUND                       GARDENER
                     AIR        WATER
                                        PLANT
                                 14
                          13            1           PLANT
           WATER                                2
                12                                        CHILD
                                                                      A
HUMAN                       Soil                    3
                                                                      N
          DUST 11
                              +                         4 PLANT
                                                                      I
                                                                      M
                          Biosolids                                   A
           SOIL 10                                                    L
                                                    5
          BIOTA
                      9                                 ANIMAL            HUMAN
                           8                6
               SOIL              7
              BIOTA                     PLANT
                                                                  HUMAN
                                 A
                                 N
                                 I
                                 M
                                 A
                                 L
                           Summary of Select
                           Biosolids Activities
                                        Needed
             •   Research effective pathogen destruction or appropriate
                 indicators and pathogens
             •   Do Part 503 operational standards work
             •   Analytical capabilities for a host of pathogens and
                 other pollutants
             •   Pathogen uptake by plants
             •   Global warming issues
             •   Appropriate measures of biosolids stability
             •   Complex or aggregate mixtures
             •   Biennial Review cycles 2009, 2011…
             •   Promulgate Part 503 rule changes
…applying
science &    •   Better understanding of odor generation & control
technology
to protect   •   Aggressively encourage and implement EMS
water
quality
             •   Develop better risk communication tools
                                                                          19
                    Communication Challenge
                          Voluntary vs. Involuntary

             The public sees voluntary risk differently than
               involuntary risk
             Voluntary
                   Ingestion
                   Bathing
                   Use
                   Disposal
…applying
science &
technology
             Involuntary: finding them in our environment in trace
to protect
water
                amounts
quality

                                                                     20
                    Communication Challenge
                                   We All Contribute
             Behavior:
                –   Ingest / use
                –   Excretion
                –   Bathing
                –   Disposal
             May make their way into soil and water:
                –   Wastewater
                –   Biosolids
                –   Irrigation
…applying
science &       –   Effluent
technology
to protect
water
quality

                                                       21
             Focusing on Source Control




…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality
              Courtesy of CH2M Hill
                                          22
                           Key Message
                        Focus on Source Control

             Everyone contributes
             Clear linkages between individual behaviors
                and the presence of trace constituents
             We all should strive to minimize the amount of
               material we introduce into the water
               environment
             Think about product choices and source control
…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality

                                                              23
     White House Office of National
         Drug Control Policy
Prescription Drug
Abuse Guidance




                                      24
                              Key Message
                        Strategic Risk Communication

             We need better expertise in communicating
               complex technical material to citizens
                •   Process of scientific methods and strategies
                •   Someone verse in ‘best practice’ SRC:
                    o   Up on the research literature
                    o   Analysis of information needs
                    o   Empirical evaluation of SRC impacts
             SRC success is satisfaction of the people involved that
               they have been adequately informed within the
…applying
science &      limits of available knowledge, and their needs are
technology
to protect     met.
water
quality

                                                                       25
                    What have we been doing since
                      NAS report (issued 2002)
                No documented evidence to indicate that Part 503 has
                 failed to protect public health
                However, additional scientific work is needed to
                 reduce persistent uncertainty about the potential for
                 adverse health effects from exposure to biosolids
                ~60 recommendations

                                           The Agency: Developed an Action
                                           Plan:
                                            14 projects
…applying                                       10.5 completed
science &
technology                                       3.5 ongoing
to protect
water
quality
                                  NAS / NRC Report, July 2002
                           Field Study
• The application and study at the Piedmont Research Station in Salisbury, NC
commenced at a time of the year that is typical for the application of biosolids
using routine agronomic practices
• This research was not designed to investigate health-related incidents and
therefore does not constitute a health effects research study
•Measured air emissions, biosolids, and related environmental and
other conditions associated with the test application
•The goal of this research study was to investigate air and soil sampling
methods and approaches and to optimize them if necessary in order to develop
a protocol




                                                                                   27
…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality


             28
             Exposure Measurements Workshop
                                          Abstract


                    The final Agency response to the NRC report
                     was published in the Federal Register in 2003
                    One of these projects was to conduct a Biosolids
                     Exposure Measurement Workshop
                    This workshop was held March 16-17, 2006,
                     Cincinnati, OH.
                    This document is a summary of the workshop.
                 –      It describes presentations given by 16 experts
                 –      It concludes with a list of research needs
                 –      In the long-run, the goal of this workshop is to help
                        enable the Agency to better assess the risk associated
…applying
science &               with the land application of biosolids.
technology
to protect
water
quality


                                                                                 29
             Just
             completed
             report




…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality


                     30
                 PPCP Inventory Development
             •       Sought to look at PPCP research
                     conducted in the U.S.
                 –     What chemicals have researchers tested for?
                 –     Where? (location, media)
                 –     What analytical methods were used?
                 –     What concentrations did they find?
             •       Will aid EPA’s regulatory or guidance
                     development activities
                 –     Drinking/recreational water regulations
                 –     Use and disposal of sewage sludge
                 –     Ambient aquatic life criteria
…applying
science &    •       Will significantly expand EPA’s existing
technology
to protect           PPCP scientific inventory
water
quality


                                                                     31
                 Preliminary Findings
                      PPCP Inventory

             • 1537 Samples
             • 176 PPCP
             • 14 Media Types




…applying
science &
technology
to protect
water
quality


                                        32
                                No. of PPCP in Biosolids, Wastewater & Treatment
                                                  Related Media

                          140
                                     123
                          120
Number of PPCP Detected




                                                                            Wastewater

                          100
                                                                            Drinking water
                                                                            (tap)
                          80                                                Biosolids &
                                                                            Sludge
                          60                                                Agricultural
                                           42                               Runoff
                          40                                                Raw drinking
                                                21                          water
                                                     18   17
                          20                                                Animal waste
                                                                9

                            0
                                                 Media

                                                                                             33
                     What We Found So Far
                               PPCP Inventory

             •   Analytical methods are highly variable
             •   Many found at ppt-ppb levels in the
                 environment
             •   Locations are often vague or missing
             •   Results aren’t always presented as single
                 values, but as a range or average, or in a
                 graph
…applying
             •   One chemical can have many names, and
science &
technology       they aren’t always easy to find
to protect
water
quality


                                                              34
          Alternate names for Triclosan

• 2,4,4’-Trichloro-2’-                •   trichloro-2'-
  hydroxydiphenyl ether                   hydroxydiphenylether
• 2'-hydroxy-2,4,4'-                  •   CH 3635
  trichlorodiphenyl ether
                                      •   Microban
• 2'-hydroxy-2,4,4'-trichlorophenyl
  ether                               •   DP-300
• 5-chloro-2-(2,4-                    •   Lexol 300
  dichlorophenoxy)phenol              •   Ster-Zac
• Cloxifenolum                        •   Cloxifenolum
• Irgasan
                                      •   Biofresh
• Irgasan CH 3635
• Irgasan DP 300


                                                                 35
                     PPCP Inventory Next Steps
             •   Gather and compile data needed for human
                 health and ecological risk assessment
                 –   Physical chemical property data
                 –   Fate and transport data
                 –   Bioaccumulation factors
                 –   Human health benchmarks
             •   Consistent effort needed to keep up with
                 publication rate
             •   PPCP/EC resource
             •   Invaluable input to decision processes
…applying        –   WQC
science &
technology       –   DWS
to protect
water            –   Biosolids
quality


                                                            36
                                Better models
             Nutrients: Evaluating alternative approaches to model effects
                  of nitrite oxidation in predicting concentrations

             Pathogen Risk: Develop quantitative microbial risk assessment
                  options for assessing pathogen risks following exposure
                  to land-applied biosolids

             Exposure: Develop/improve wastewater modeling options to
                 estimate pollutant concentrations in biosolids

             Bioassay: Evaluate available methods for applying screening
                  approaches (e.g., the WET test or reasonable facsimile
                  thereof) for biosolids residual toxicity in effluents or
                  sewage sludge
…applying
science &
technology
to protect   Aggregate or mixed stressors: Utilize similar modes of action
water            or chemistry to determine population and community
quality
                 effects
                                                                             37
                             Better methods
             Chemicals in the environment
                •   Non-standardized methods
                •   Sometimes we don’t know
             More compounds in use
                •   Identify
                •   Prioritize
             Existing methods
                   100 PPCPs
                   Fecal coliform (i.e., 1680 and 1681)
                   Salmonella spp. (i.e., 1682)
                   New holding time study
             Methods needed
…applying          Viruses
science &
technology
                   Ascaris (viable helminth ova)
to protect         Plenty
water
quality


                                                           38
       Targeted National Biosolids Survey

Why:
  • Response to the 2002 NRC report
  • Addressed a target list of pollutants identified in 2003
  • Expanded the original survey scope to include semi-
    volatiles, inorganic ions, PPDEs, and PPCPs


Randomly selected POTWs
  • 84 samples collected
  • 74 facilities


                                                               39
40
41
42
43
44
                What about Certain Maximums?
             Calcium at 311,000 mg/kg was from Class A sludge produced by
             advanced alkaline stabilization with subsequent drying. The
             alkaline stabilization process involves addition of large amounts
             of lime (calcium carbonate) to the material.

             Iron at 299,000 mg/kg and elemental phosphorus at 118,000
             mg/kg occurred in the same sample:
                 • The facility adds ferric chloride during its wastewater treatment
                 process
                 • This treatment step results in high levels of iron and phosphorus

             Silver at 856 mg/kg occurred in a sludge sample from a POTW
…applying
             that employs a “complete mix activated sludge process”
science &        • Could not easily ascertain source
technology
to protect       • Incineration
water
quality

                                                                                   45
Comparison of Survey Maximums




                                46
Comparison of Mean Concentrations
                             Dry Wt


Metal                 2006- 1988     40-     2003
                       2007  -       City   Region 8
                      TNSS 1989     Surve     Data
                        S   NSS       y       6.0
                             S
                                              3.0
Arsenic    (ug/kg)     7.0   9.9      6.7
                                             21.7
Cadmium                2.7   6.9      69
(mg/kg)                                       509
Chromium              83.6   119      429    47.5
(mg/kg)
                                              1.4
Copper    (mg/kg)     569    742      602
                                             12.0
Lead    (mg/kg)       79.8   134      369
Mercury     (mg/kg)    1.3   5.22     2.8    16.5
Molybdenum             17    9.4    17.7      9.0
(mg/kg)
                                              650
Nickel    (mg/kg)     53.1   42.7     135
Selenium (mg/kg)       7.2   5.16     7.3              47
                                     Summary
             • Have: little bits of activity ongoing in quite a lot of areas
             • Fact: we believe that Part 503 is protective, but much
             remains unknown
             • Need: focused Research in a few key areas to reduce our
             vulnerability in a few key areas
                 o Treatment efficacy
                 o Pathogen survival and natural attenuation
                 o Pathogen emergence mechanisms
                 o Pathogen uptake in plants
             • Why:
                 • To ensure public health and environmental safety of
…applying
                 biosolids land application
science &        • To provide sound biosolids management options, as well as
technology
to protect       information about these options to the public
water
quality

                                                                               48
             Quit treating
             biosolids like crap




                        Rick Stevens
             U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                        Office of Water
               Office of Science and Technology
             Health and Ecological Criteria Division
                       Washington, D.C.
…applying
science &
technology
                          202-566-1135
to protect
water
                      stevens.rick@epa.gov
quality

				
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