OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTATION by wcr8Gi9

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									    OPERATIONAL
  FRAMEWORK FOR
  IMPLEMENTATION

CASE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF
PRS TRIVANDRUM

B.V.L.NARAYANA
STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION

 •   MOTIVATION
 •   KEY MESSAGE
 •   CASE
 •   EMERGING FRAMEWORK
 •   THEORETICAL LINKAGES
 •   OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK
 •   CONTRIBUTION
                 MOTIVATION
• RESEARCH ON IMPLEMENTATION
  (Hrebiniak and Joyce 2001)

   – NEGLECTED
   – FRAGMENTED AND DISTRIBUTED
• TAKEN FOR GRANTED
• GAPS (Hutzschenreuter and Kleindienst 2006 )
   – NO DOMINANT THEORY OR FRAME
     WORK
   – WORK MORE CONCEPTUAL
   – REQUIREMENT OF PRACTIONERS
        KEY MESSAGE
• SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION
 – FUNCTION OF
   • DIRECTION
   • FACILITATION
   • GOVERNANCE
• KEY STEPS
 – IDENTIFY STRATEGIC RESOURCES
 – MAINTAIN SLACK
 – LEARN ALONG THE WAY AND ADAPT
        INTRODUCTON
• PASSENGER RESERVATION SYSTEM
 – OLTP SYSTEM
 – INVOLVED COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
 – REPLACING AN EXISTING SYSTEM
 – REPRESENTED
   • TECHNOLOGY CHANGE
   • ORGANISATIONAL IMAGE
       PECULIARITIES
• SYSTEM IN TRANSITION

• INVOLVED AN IMAGE TRANSITION

• CUSTOMER INTERFACE
  CONTINUITY ESSENTIAL

• HIGH POLITICAL MILEAGE

• EXERCISE IN SKILL DEVELOPMENT
  PLANNING PROCESS
• UNDERSTAND SCOPE

• IDENTIFY RESOURCES

• IDENTIFY STRATEGIC RESOURCES

• DEVELOP GOVERNANCE PROCESS
 – TEAM ETHICS
          DELIVERABLES

• STATED
  – COMMISSION RESRVATION SYSTEM
  – PHASED MANNER
  – FACILITATE IMAGE BUILDING


• UNSTATED
  –   NO INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS PROBLEMS
  –   SMOOTH TRANSITION
  –   BOTH SYSTEMS TO RUN COMPLEMENTARILY
  –   NO BREAK IN SERVICES
    RESOURCES REQUIRED

• HARD WARE
•   SOFT WARE
•   CONNECTIVTY
•   SITE
•   MAN POWER
•   TRANSITION PROCESSES
 STRATEGIC RESOURCES
• MANPOWER
  –   REPRESENT FRONT END TO CUSTOMER
  –   CRUCIAL FOR IMAGE BUILDING
  –   INSTRUMENT OF SERVICE DELIVERY
  –   LINKAGES TO TRANSITION PROCESSES
• NET WORK CONNECTIVITY

• STRATEGIC MEANS
  – V R I N (Barney 1991)
  – Strategic factor markets (Barney 1986) are poorly developed
  – Cost of acquisition greater than cost of development
• IMPLICATIONS
  – Decisions about them are strategic( CONSEQUENTIAL,
    DIRECTIVE and RARE).
  – Understand implications of such decisions irrespective of
    locus of decisions
      CRITICAL STEPS
• MANPOWER PLANNING
 – TRAINING FRONT END
 – TRAINING BACK END AT SITE
 – TRAINING FOR DATA BASE MGMT
• SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
 – RULES TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL
 – TRANSITION IN PROCESSES
 – INTEGRATION WITH EXISTING
   PROCESSES
              ADAPTATION
DOT STRIKE OF MAY 1990
• LEARNINGS
    –   VERSITALITY OF SOFT WARE
    –   CRITICALITY OF BACK UP SYSTEMS
    –   INVOLVE END USERS OF SYSTEM
•   OWNERSHIP OF SYSTEM
    –   INVOLVE STAFF OF UNIT
    –   HAVE LIASON STAFF TO MANAGE
        EMERGENCIES
CUSTOMER INTERACTIONS
    –   MANAGEMENT OF CLUSTER STATIONS
    –   INPUTS FOR NEXT LEVEL SOFTWARE
        BASE LINE PLA N
• CONCENTRATE ON MANPOWER
  TRAINING
  – FRONT END FOR ALL STAFF
  – BACK END FOR KEY STAFF
  – DATA BASE FOR KEY SENIOR PERSONNEL

• DEVELOP KEY TRAINERS

• CREATE STAND BY TEAMS
• PARALLEL SITE PREPERATION
• ESTABLISH CONNECTIVTY

• CREATE AND MANAGE DATA BASES
      BASE LINE PLAN
• RULES DEVELOPMENT
 – TRANSACTIONS
 – ACCOUNTING
• TRANSITION PROCESSES
 – CHARTING
 – EMERGENCY QUOTAS
 – QUOTA MANAGEMENT
 – FAULT MANAGEMENT
 – EMERGENCY PROCEEDURES
 – AUDIT PROCEEDURES
 – TESTING
      BASELINE PLAN
• MONITORING
 – INFORMAL MEETINGS DAILY
 – ESTABLISH TEAMS FOR KEY
   ACTIVITIES
 – MONITOR THROUGH TEAM LEADERS
 – SITE VISITS
• TEAM ETHICS DEVELOPMENT
 – PEER DISCIPLINE
 – FACILITATION OF STAFF
COMMISSIONING PROCEEDURES
  • ESTABLISH CONNECTIVITY
  • POSITION COMMISSIONING TEAM
  • TRANSFER MANUAL DATA
  • LINK WITH DATA BASE
  • TEST ON LINE
  • POSITION KEY TROUBLE SHOOTING
    STAFF
  • ESTABLISH EMERGENCY
    COMMUNICATION
KEY FACTORS FOR SUCCESS

• HIGH TOP MANAGEMENT
  COMMITMENT
• HIGHLY MOTIVATED KEY
  MANAGERS
• TEAM ETHICS
• STAFF COMMITMENT
• WILLINGNESS TO LEARN
• FORESIGHT AND PLANNING
        15 YEARS LATER
•   TEAM ETHICS REMAIN
•   PLANNING AND FORESIGHT
•   TRANSFER OF SKILLS
•   WILLINGNESS TO LEARN
•   STAFF COMMITMENT
•   MOTIVATED KEY MANAGERS
•   IMPLEMENTATION SKILLS
•   TOP MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
              FRAME WORK
       Learning                               SERVICE DELIVERY
Soft ware features,                            Counters, Data base
ownership, role of
customers, stand by systems                    Supervision, Network
                                                Transition systems

                   Customer needs
                   Users of system,
                                                   RESOURCES
                   Users of service
                                                Man power, net work,
                        Service delivery        soft ware, hard ware,
                                                Transition processes
                     Site commissioned,
 Other                    Transition
 resources

       MAINTAIN STRATEGIC                  STRATEGIC RESOURCES
       RESOURCES                              Man power, network
         Training, team formation,
         key trainers, equipment
      Linkages to strategy
    Management                                     Role of
    of transition                                  learning
    systems



                             Strategic resources
Adaptation
to context

                                               Resource allocation
                                              Place, material, trainers,
           Monitoring and                     time slots, staff
        evaluation                            nominations, equipment,
        Alignment of indicators               channels, budgets

        Numbers available,
        slack
                                         Political commitment
   Theoretical basis for framework
• Implementation of strategy (Wheelen and Hunger 2001).
   – “the process by which strategies and policies are put into
     action through the development of programs, budgets and
     procedures”
• Implementation is non linear and takes time        (Hrebiniak
  and Joyce 2001)

• Realized strategy is an outcome of iterative process
  of resource allocation ( Bower and Gilbert 2005)
• Resources are intangible and tangible assets tied
  semi-permanently to a firm (Wernerfelt 1984)
• The outcome of realized strategy is performance
• Operational means “defining in terms of observable
  physical operations” (Alpert 1938)
   OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK
     LEARNING                       SERVICE/GOODS
      Sensing, Monitoring,          DELIVERY CHAIN
      Evaluation
      Development

                                     RESOURCES
                                     REQUIRED

                        CUSTOMER
                        NEEDS

                                      STRATEGIC
                                      RESOURCES
SERVICE/GOOD
   DELIVERY
                        MAINTAIN
                        STRATEGIC
                        RESOURCES
      OTHER
    RESOURCES
           Contributions

• Generates an operational framework for
  implementation
• Is a generic framework
• Robust
• Has validated theoretical linkages
• Is empirically validated in services
  context
                      Performance
•   Chennai 1-10-1987       •   CMC TILL 1998
•   Bangalore 4-09-89       •   CRIS from 1999
•   Trivandrum 21-07-90     •   Network – 1999
•   Sites commissioning     •   TRAINING
    –   1989 --- 3              – INITIALLY 50 STAFF BY
    –   1990 --- 1                CMC
    –   1991 ---4               – 1987- 1992 – 500 staff
    –   1992 ---2               – 40 DBA
    –   1993---7                – Regular training at
    –   1994 ---8                 induction from 1992
                                  onwards
    –   1995 ---17
    –   1996 ----8
    –   1997 ----11
    –   1998 ----3
    –   1999 ---19
THANK YOU

								
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