WEDNESDAY, MARCH, 5
001. Workshop: Juveniles' Competence to Stand Trial: Legal and Clinical Issues
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9:00 to 12:00 pm
The audience will learn about a developmental perspective for performing competence to stand trial evaluations with juveniles (JCST). The workshop will teach
an approach to JCST evaluations developed by the MacArthur Research Network on Adolescents and Juvenile Justice in a 3-year project. This project produced
concepts, methods, and procedures for these evaluations that are described in a 150-page manual (Grisso, 2005) that will be used as the primary "text" for the
workshop. The workshop will combine lecture, video, and discussion to teach (1) the legal issues and differences across states, (2) developmental issues that
make JCST evaluations different from those with adults, and (3) a structured clinical interview method for assessing competency abilities in juvenile CST cases.
People attending the session will be able to: (1) Explain how youth are developmentally different from adults, as demonstrated in recent brain development and
psychosocial research (2) Understand the relevance of dimensions of cognitive and psychosocial immaturity for deficits in competence to stand trial abilities (3)
Learn how to perform the "Juvenile Adjudicative Competence Interview" (JACI) with youths (4) Understand the content and structure of an acceptable youth
competence to stand trial evaluation report (5) Recognize the ethical and legal limits of competence to stand trial evaluations for youth
Gina M. Vincent, University of Massachusetts Medical School
Albert J. Grudzinskas, Jr., University of Massachusetts Medical School
Thomas Grisso, University of Massachusetts Medical School
002. Workshop: Psychological Issues in Criminal Cases
9:00 to 4:00 pm
As the numbers of individuals with mental illness entering the criminal justice system continue to rise, it is becoming increasingly more important for attorneys
to understand the effects that mental illness can have on the criminal justice process. It is equally important that mental health professionals who conduct
forensic mental health assessments understand the relevant legal standards in various areas of criminal law. This course will explore current legal doctrine,
academic commentary, and empirical research relevant to criminal mental health law. Topics addressed will include the insanity defense, mens rea defenses,
competency to proceed, competency to waive rights, competency to be executed, sexual predator statutes, and special commitment statutes. People attending the
session will be able to: (1) Understand the rationales behind competency, insanity, and commitment laws (2) Recite the competency standard used in Florida (3)
Distinguish the insanity defense from mens rea defenses (4) Understand different approaches to affirmative defenses in criminal cases (5) Recite the criteria for
Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) commitment laws (6) Understand evidentiary issues relating to SVP commitment procedures
Christopher Slobogin, University of Florida Levin College of Law
003. Workshop: Multivariate Statistics: An Introduction and Some Applications
9:00 to 4:00 pm
Multivariate statistics are being used with increasing regularity in social science research. As such, it is essential that researchers understand how to choose,
apply, and interpret these powerful statistical tools. This workshop will educate attendees about the multivariate statistics most commonly used by social science
researchers, including MANOVA, discriminant analysis, and multilevel modeling. In addition to educating researchers about multivariate statistics, this
workshop would clearly benefit other professionals who regularly rely on research to inform their practice, including clinicians. People attending the session
will be able to: (1) Recognize the application of multivariate analysis to a study (2) Design a simple study requiring one of the covered analyses (MANOVA,
discriminant analysis, or multilevel modeling) (3) Set up and run those analyses using SPSS (4) Interpret results (output) of an SPSS analysis (5) Read a journal
article that uses multivariate statistics without fear and/or trembling
Barbara Tabachnick, California State University, Northridge
004. Workshop: Conducting an "Atkins" Evaluation: What We Know, What We Don't Know, and What We Need to Find
1:00 to 4:00 pm
In Atkins v. Virginia (2002), the U.S. Supreme Court held that individuals who are mentally retarded are not eligible for the death penalty. As such, Atkins
placed constitutional significance on the assessment of mental retardation and highlighted the need for the accurate assessment of mental retardation in capital
cases. The overarching goal of this workshop is to educate clinicians about issues that are unique to the evaluation of mental retardation in capital cases, and to
assist them in making informed decisions when conducting these critical evaluations. People attending the session will be able to: (1) Understand the causes of
mental retardation and the two major diagnostic and classification schemes for mental retardation (2) Identify the functional abilities of individuals who fall
within the mild range of mental retardation (3) Assess intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive behavior in the context of an "Atkins" evaluation (4)
Identify effective ways of communicating the results of these evaluations to courts
Karen Salekin, University of Alabama
Gregory Olley, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
THURSDAY, MARCH, 6
005. APLS EC Meeting
7:30 to 11:30 am
Clearwater (3rd Floor)
006. Successful Grant Proposals: Advice and Opportunities for Beginners; Sponsored by Early Career Psychologists
9:30 to 11:30 am
Daytona (3rd Floor)
Susan Haire, co-director of the Law and Social Science Program at the National Science Foundation, and other speakers will provide an overview of the
National Science Foundation and its programs, particularly the Law and Social Science Program. We will discuss recent initiatives and special funding
opportunities, including those which are directed to providing support for research conducted by junior scholars. The workshop will also outline how proposals
to the Law and Social Science Program are evaluated, discussing NSF's merit review criteria as well as the review process. Recent awardees will discuss their
own experiences and offer advice on factors to consider when drafting a proposal.
007. How to Get the Most out of the Conference: Information, Advice, and Snacks for Students
10:00 to 11:00 am
Light breakfast will be served! Sponsored by the APLS Teaching, Training and Careers Committee and the APLS Student Section
Bette L. Bottoms, University of Illinois at Chicago
Edie Greene, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
Gianni Pirelli, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Barabara Oudekerk, University of Virginia
Tisha Wiley, University of Illinois at Chicago
008. Opening Session and Presidential Address by Professor Charles Whitebread
12:00 to 1:20 pm
Professor Whitebread is a well-known scholar who has been referred to as the "David Letterman of Law Professors." His ability to explain complicated legal
issues in an accessible and enjoyable way has gained him national acclaim in a number of ways including as a BarBri Bar review teacher. In his time with us,
Professor Whitebread will detail recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court, with special emphasis on those decisions likely to have the most impact
on the area of Law and Psychology.
Recent Decisions of the United States Supreme Court about Law and Psychology. Charles H. Whitebread, University of Southern
California Law School
Professor Whitebread is a well-known scholar who has been referred to as the "David Letterman of Law Professors." His ability to explain
complicated legal issues in an accessible and enjoyable way has gained him national acclaim in a number of ways including as a BarBri Bar review
teacher. In his time with us, Professor Whitebread will detail recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court, with special emphasis on those
decisions likely to have the most impact on the area of Law and Psychology.
Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
009. Expert Testimony Relating to Child Witnesses: When Does it Have Probative Value for Jurors?
1:30 to 2:50 pm
While psychologists are testifying as expert witnesses in court with increasing frequency, there is substantial controversy about the use of such experts. In this
symposium, researchers will present findings on the probative and informative effects of expert testimony in cases involving child victims/witnesses. The first
presentation evaluates laypeople's use of expert testimony relating to the effects of interview quality on a child sexual abuse case. The second presentation
discusses a series of studies evaluating expert testimony relating to the risks associated with asking misinformed children yes-no questions. In the third
presentation, researchers explore the informative effects of expert testimony relating to hearsay evidence rather than first-hand testimony from the child. The
final presentation addresses the effects of expert testimony on jurors' knowledge of witness suggestibility. Overall, the studies provide guidelines on the
parameters and conditions under which expert testimony on child witnesses produces informative versus prejudicial effects. Our symposium will conclude with
comments from a discussant who has an extensive record of conducting research on child suggestibility and testifying as an expert in cases involving children.
She will synthesize the results of the research presented and discuss their implications for the fields of forensic developmental psychology.
Chairs: Julie A Buck, Weber State University; Kamala London, University of Toledo
Discussant: Maggie Bruck, Johns Hopkins University
Expert Testimony on Interviewing Child Witnesses: Is it Prejudicial? Julie A Buck, Weber State University; Kamala London,
University of Toledo
In the current study we test whether expert testimony on interviewing children is prejudicial or informative to mock jurors. College students (N = 463)
read a trial summary of a child sexual abuse case. Participants were randomly assigned to condition based on a 2 expert testimony (present or absent)
X 3 interview quality (good, typical or poor) factorial design. When expert testimony was present, jurors were more knowledgeable about the research
on interviewing children, and differentiated between poor and good interviews when reaching a verdict. The findings indicate that expert testimony is
not prejudicial to jurors, and has probative value.
Believing Children's False Reports: Influence of Disclosure Pattern and Expert Information on Perceptions of Children's
Testimony. Rachel L Laimon, Central Michigan University; Debra Poole, Central Michigan University
Do adults realize the danger of asking misinformed children yes-no questions? Study 1 confirmed that the disclosures children made during free recall
in an earlier suggestibility study were more accurate than disclosures following "yes" responses to yes-no questions, which in turn were more accurate
than disclosures following "no" responses. In Studies 2 and 3, adults generally believed false reports representing the first two disclosure patterns,
although watching expert testimony with a videotaped example of a false report reduced trust in prompted disclosures. Results document the need to
inform decision makers about the circumstances associated with unreliable narratives following yes-no questions.
Expert Testimony's Effect in Child Witness Cases with Hearsay Evidence. Jennifer Maria Gray, University of Wyoming; Julie A Buck,
Weber State University; Narina Nunez, University of Wyoming
We examined the influence of expert testimony in cases involving hearsay. Participants read a trial summary varying the following expert testimony:
1) no expert, 2) testimony regarding juror's reactions to hearsay, 3) testimony on the accuracy of hearsay witnesses, and 4) testimony on both issues.
We found fewer guilty verdicts when experts emphasized problems with accuracy of witnesses. Additionally, we found fewer guilty verdicts when
both types of expert testimony were presented. Study 2 (data collection is ongoing) will examine this confound.
"You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but…" Expert Testimony, Witness Suggestibility, and Juror Decisions. Bradley D. McAuliff,
California State University, Northridge; Andrew Ainsworth, California State University, Northridge; Elizabeth Nicholson, Simon
We examined whether expert testimony educates and sensitizes jurors to factors influencing witness suggestibility. Jury-eligible citizens (N=638) read
a sexual abuse trial in which expert testimony (none, standard, hypothetical, or repetitive), interview suggestiveness (high, low), and victim age (5, 10,
or 15 year-old) varied. In the high interview suggestiveness condition, the victim was questioned by an authoritative source about peripheral event
details; in the low interview suggestiveness condition she was not. Expert testimony educated jurors about suggestibility differences caused by age
and interviewer authority; however, this knowledge did not influence other trial-related judgments even when a hypothetical was used.
010. Understanding in Mandated Community Treatment
1:30 to 2:50 pm
The focus of this symposium is on the understanding of treatment mandates among the persons they are imposed upon. First, an introduction is provided on the
types and controversies of mandated treatment. Second, data are presented on the understanding of court procedures and requirements among mental health
court participants. Third, money management skills and knowledge are examined among representative payees and the persons required to have their finances
managed. Fourth, understanding of treatment as a condition of probation is examined among mentally disordered probationers on specialty and traditional
caseloads. A discussant, who is an expert in the field, will address the findings of the studies and their implications for public policy and controversies
surrounding mandated treatment.
Chair: Allison Redlich, Policy Research Associates
Discussant: John Petrila, University of South Florida
Mandated Community Treatment: An Overview. John Monahan, University of Virginia School of Law
Outpatient commitment is only one of many forms of "leverage" being used to mandate adherence to psychological and psychiatric treatment in
community settings. The MacArthur Foundation's Research Network on Mandated Community Treatment is engaged in a broad program of research
on the uses of leverage from the social welfare and judicial systems to promote adherence to mental health services in the community. This
presentation will provide an overview of the Network's conceptual framework and its early empirical findings.
Understanding of Mental Health Court Procedures and Requirements. Allison Redlich, Policy Research Associates; Steven Hoover,
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Alicia Summers, University of Nevada, Reno; Henry J. Steadman, Policy Research
Mental Health Courts (MHCs) are intended to be Voluntary. However, whether MHC enrollment decisions are made voluntarily, as well as
knowingly and intelligently is unknown. To examine these issues, 200 new MHC clients from two courts were interviewed. Sixty percent of clients
claimed not to have been told of the voluntary nature of the court prior to entry, and between one of three and one of five clients (depending on data
site) demonstrated impairments in adjudicative competence. Overall, results indicated that significant numbers of MHC clients did not make
voluntary, knowing, and/or intelligent enrollment decisions.
Representative Payeeship, Competency to Manage Finances, and Family Conflict in Psychiatric Disabilities. Eric Elbogen,
University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill; Marvin Stanley Swartz, Duke University Medical Center; Jeffrey Swanson, Duke University
Representative payees oversee Social Security Administration benefits of 1,000,000 adults with psychiatric disabilities deemed incompetent to
manage finances. N=100 participants were interviewed (n=50 dyads of beneficiaries with psychiatric disabilities and their family payees). One-third
of beneficiaries and one-half of payees reported payeeship led to family conflict, especially when beneficiaries had superior money management skills
and payees had not completed high school. Both groups demonstrated deficits in payeeship knowledge, money management skills, and basic
arithmetic abilities; in these domains, we found no significant differences between payees and beneficiaries. Policies are needed to screen for financial
capacity and to bolster payeeship knowledge.
Mandated Treatment as a Condition of Probation: Coercion or Contract? Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer
Eno Louden, University of California, Irvine
Each year, many offenders are mandated to participate in treatment as a special condition of probation. Bonnie and Monahan (2005) argue that this
form of treatment mandate may better be viewed as a form of contract than coercion. However, framing the mandate as a contract assumes that the
defendant plays a role in the bargaining process and decision to link disposition with treatment. We present data from a national survey and
longitudinal study that question this assumption. For example, 22-25% of probationers who are mandated to treatment are not aware of the mandate.
Implications for theory and research are discussed.
011. A Psychological Perspective on Property Law: Current Topics and Future Directions
1:30 to 2:50 pm
"The law can ask no better justification than the deepest instincts of man." Although Justice Holmes' words apply to all of legal psychology, they were written in
the context of property law. Yet psychologists have largely neglected the study of property. We help remedy this situation, laying the groundwork for a mutually
beneficial relationship between legal psychologists and property scholars. The panel brings together legal academics, psychologists, and policy-makers working
at the crossroads of psychology and property. After reviewing the scant empirical research taking a psychological perspective on property, we present empirical
research in four areas: the psychology of "home;" intuitions about first possession and ownership; how individuals see property rights in art; and whether
notions of ownership rights change simply because of how "property" is defined. Our goal is to prompt empirical research in four broad areas with implications
for property law, theory, and policy: (1) What benefits emerge from a psychological view of property law, and what questions can the law give to empirical
researchers? (2) Does property law reflect lay intuitions, and does empirical research support black-letter law? (3) Are views of property and ownership innate?
(4) Are those views malleable; if so, with what policy implications?
Chair: Jeremy A. Blumenthal, Cornell Law School / Syracuse College of Law
Marilyn Monroe, Psychology, and Property Law: An Overview. Jeremy A. Blumenthal, Cornell Law School / Syracuse College of Law
Psycholegal study of property is a new and developing topic area; this paper serves as a broad introduction and overview to the field. First, I identify
the important theoretical connections between psycholegal research and property law, theory, and policy. Next, I review the little work that has been
conducted as well as some contemporary research. Finally, I indicate several under-explored topic areas available to psycholegal scholars, and sketch
what a research program taking a psychological perspective on property law might look like. I demonstrate the close relationship between empirical
psychological findings and property law/theory, and discuss the potential for more.
Legal Questions for the Psychology of Home. D. Benjamin Barros, Catholic University School of Law/Widener Law School
This presentation will discuss a series of legal issues relating to homes and will connect these issues with questions about the psychology of home.
Legal scholars writing in this area have often made questionable assumptions about the psychological relationship between people and their homes.
Even in those instances where legal scholars have sought guidance from work on the psychology of home, they have been hampered by the absence of
relevant literature or ambiguity in the literature that does exist. The presentation therefore frames these issues in a manner relevant to both legal
scholars and researches in the psychology of home.
First possession: An assumption guiding inferences about ownership across the lifespan. Ori Friedman, University of Waterloo
This talk reports four experiments suggesting that people typically assume that the first person to possess an object, owns it. In two experiments,
undergraduates selected first possessors over subsequent possessors when judging who owns a toy, but not when judging who likes it more. In another
experiment, undergraduates selected first possessors over earlier pursuers when judging who owns an animal, consistent with the ruling in Pierson v.
Post. In the final experiment, preschoolers selected first possessors when inferring ownership. Together, the findings provide evidence for an
assumption that may lead intuitions about property to be consistent with property law.
Artists' Moral Rights and the Limits of Ownership. Barbara A. Spellman, University of Virginia; Frederick Schauer, Harvard
University JFK School of Government
Typically owners of objects have the right to do with them as they please. However, the Visual Artists' Rights Act (VARA; 1990) restricts what
owners of some artwork may do with their acquisitions. Our participants felt that it was much worse for an owner to alter a painting than a car. How
wrong participants thought altering or destroying a painting was depended on whether they agreed with the message of the painting and on how
involved they were in creating artwork. Thus, although mediated by their own predilections, people's "moral intuitions" are consistent with the "moral
rights" bestowed by VARA.
Packaging Property: The Effect of Paradigmatic Framing of Property Rights. Jonathan Remy Nash, University of Chicago Law
School/Tulane Law School
The two fundamental paradigms of property rights are the "bundle of sticks" and "discrete asset" approaches. This Article describes an experiment to
test the hypothesis that the paradigm under which property rights are framed has an effect upon whether and how much people accept interference
with and regulation of those rights. The results provide support for the proposition that that those who view property under the "discrete asset"
paradigm would be less likely to part with their rights than those who subscribe to the "bundle" paradigm, and also confirm that the paradigmatic
frame affects people's perceptions of property rights.
012. Thinking Clearly About the Accuracy of Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments: A Moderated Panel Discussion
1:30 to 2:50 pm
Our field is engaged in a spirited debate about the pros and cons of actuarial risk assessment. How should professionals interpret actuarial risk assessment
instruments to estimate an individual's violence risk and the error associated with the estimate? How should students proceed when some of the most
experienced and frequently published authors cannot agree on what risk assessments tell us? These questions will be addressed in this moderated panel session.
The first presenter will discuss the importance of risk assessment in forensic practice. The second presenter will discuss problems associated with conflation of
group versus individual risk. The third presenter will discuss the advantages of interpreting probability within a subjectivist framework. The Session moderator
will then open up the floor to questions from the audience and offer brief closing remarks. Our goal will be to articulate common ground on which forensic
clinicians can rely as they address the crucial question of violence risk assessment and to clarify areas of disagreement, hopefully encouraging future research
that will better inform these debates.
Chairs: Joel Dvoskin, University of Arizona; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University
Thinking Clearly About the Accuracy of Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments: A Moderated Panel Discussion. Joel Dvoskin,
University of Arizona; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University; Douglas Mossman, Wright State University Boonshoft School of
Our field is engaged in a spirited debate about the pros and cons of actuarial risk assessment. How should professionals interpret actuarial risk
assessment instruments to estimate an individual's violence risk and the error associated with the estimate? How should students proceed when some
of the most experienced and frequently published authors cannot agree on what risk assessments tell us? These questions will be addressed in this
moderated panel session. The first presenter will discuss the importance of risk assessment in forensic practice. The second presenter will discuss
problems associated with conflation of group versus individual risk. The third presenter will discuss the advantages of interpreting probability within a
subjectivist framework. The moderator will then open up the floor to questions from the audience and offer brief closing remarks. Our goal will be to
articulate common ground on which forensic clinicians can rely as they address the crucial question of violence risk assessment and to clarify areas of
disagreement, hopefully encouraging future research that will better inform these debates.
013. Children's Disclosure, Non-Disclosure, and False Disclosure of Wrongdoing: In the Lab and in the Field
1:30 to 2:50 pm
During the past few decades, investigations of children's eyewitness abilities, particularly in relation to maltreatment disclosure, have largely focused on the
influence of interview context and interviewer biases. Recently, research on inconsistencies in children's abuse reports has paid increasing attention to the
possibility that other factors may influence children's reports, and that these factors, which include the identity of the alleged perpetrator, the recipient of the
disclosure, and the child's physical and mental status, may suppress true reports as well as create false reports. This symposium brings together a cross-section
of research in this area, including both laboratory and observational research, maltreated and non-maltreated children, and false denials as well as false
allegations. The first paper examines children's parent-coached true and false reports and whether there are verbal and non-verbal cues to children's fabrications.
The second and third papers compare maltreated and non-maltreated children with the second focusing on their attitudes about disclosure of adult
transgressions, and the third examining their beliefs regarding how caregivers will react to disclosure. The final paper investigates disclosure of abuse among
children with disabilities versus typically developing children. A leading scholar in social and cognitive development will discuss the studies' theoretical and
Chairs: Lindsay C. Malloy, University of California, Irvine; Elizabeth Ahern, University of Southern California
Discussant: Michael E. Lamb, University of Cambridge
Cues to Children's Coached Fabricated Reports over Repeated Interviews. Victoria Talwar, McGill University; Christine Saykaly,
McGill University; Rod C. L. Lindsay, Queen's University; Kang Lee, University of Toronto; Nicholas C. Bala, Queen's University
Few studies have examined children's coached true and false reports or their abilities to maintain their reports repeatedly over interviews. This study
focused on children's coached truthful and fabricated reports of a repeated event over repeated interviews. Children's verbal and non-verbal behaviors
were examined. Results revealed verbal cues to children's fabricated reports. Children had more speech errors, spontaneous, and unusual details in
their fabricated reports. Children's reports were harder to distinguish from their true reports over repeated interviews. Implications for child witness
interviewing are discussed.
Non-Maltreated and Maltreated Children's Attitudes about Transgression Secrecy: Parents vs. Strangers. Elizabeth Ahern,
University of Southern California; Thomas D. Lyon, University of Southern California; Jodi Quas, University of California, Irvine;
Lindsay C. Malloy, University of California, Irvine
Two hundred ninety-seven non-maltreated and maltreated 4- to 9-year-olds were presented with stories depicting familial (fathers and mothers) and
non-familial adults ("strangers") committing a transgression and instructing a child not to tell. By six to seven years of age, both non-maltreated and
maltreated children endorsed disclosure less often against familial perpetrators than strangers, and by eight to nine years of age, non-maltreated
children exhibited larger differences than maltreated children in disclosure endorsement between the two types of perpetrator. The results have
implications for understanding the dynamics of children's disclosure of abuse and other serious events.
Anticipatory Supportiveness: Maltreated and Non-Maltreated Children's Predictions of Caregiver Belief. Lindsay C. Malloy,
University of California, Irvine; Jodi Quas, University of California, Irvine; Thomas D. Lyon, University of Southern California;
Elizabeth Ahern, University of Southern California
Maltreated and non-maltreated children (ages 4- to 9) were read stories involving a child character and the potential wrongdoing of an adult (parent or
stranger). Children were more likely to believe the child character and to predict caregiver (mother or grandmother) belief when the perpetrator was a
stranger versus a parent. With age, children were increasingly likely to predict caregiver belief when the potential perpetrator was a stranger, and less
likely, with age, when the potential perpetrator was a parent. Results provide insight into the dynamics of children's disclosures of traumatic
experiences and have considerable legal and clinical implications.
Abuse Disclosure by Children with Mental and Physical Disabilities. Irit Hershkowitz, University of Haifa; Michael E. Lamb,
University of Cambridge
We explored the disclosure of abuse by children with disabilities in a sample comprising investigative interviews of 40,430 alleged victims in Israel.
Eleven percent were categorized as children with minor disabilities and 1.2% as children with severe disabilities. Compared to suspected victims
without handicaps, alleged victims with disabilities disclosed abuse less frequently. This association was also evident when differences associated
with age and gender were taken into account. Children with disabilities also delayed disclosure for at least one month after the incident/ last incident,
more often than typically developing children. This pattern was especially strong when sexual abuse was suspected.
014. Malingering Assessment in the 21st Century: Expanding the Boundaries
1:30 to 2:50 pm
Although countless studies of malingering exist, the vast majority focus on college students and offender samples. As the boundaries of forensic assessment
expand, the need for valid measures of malingering in novel or atypical settings has become increasing apparent. This symposium presents several such studies,
addressing issues of language and culture, mental retardation, and mental disorder. In addition, the emergence of new instruments, scales, and procedures has
fueled a growing need for decision rules when scales and measures provide conflicting results. This symposium addresses many of these issues, presenting five
studies that broach new territory in malingering research.
Chair: Barry Rosenfeld, Fordham University
Discussant: Richard Frederick
Implementing Atkins: Evidence-based Malingering Assessment and Mental Retardation. Melanie Rose Farkas, Fordham University
Concerns about malingered mental retardation in criminal settings have grown in the post- Atkins era. Despite the substantial proportion of inmates
with below-average intellectual functioning, little research investigates the accuracy of malingering detection measures when respondents have
genuine intellectual disabilities. Evidence is presented that the DCT poorly differentiated community-dwelling individuals with mild mental
retardation from simulated malingerers, misclassifying a large proportion of honest respondents, while classifications based on the SIRS and TOMM
were more accurate in this sample. Suggestions are made as to cutting scores that optimize specificity when these measures are used with respondents
who have intellectual disabilities.
Cross-cultural Validity in Malingering Assessment: The Dot Counting Test in a Rural Indian Sample. Rebecca Weiss, Fordham
The need for malingering assessment instruments that are valid in diverse cultures and languages has become increasingly apparent. Although
language-based tests are obviously problematic, even non-verbal tests may have subtle (or blatant) biases that render normative data from U.S.
samples inaccurate. This study focused on the applicability of a non-verbal malingering test, the Dot Counting Test, in a non-Western population
undergoing forensic evaluation for a civil lawsuit. The DCT was administered to 106 Punjabi Sikh litigants, and the distribution of scores and
associations with clinical and demographic variables was analyzed. The implications for malingering assessment are discussed.
Ability of Severely Mentally Ill Individuals to Successfully Exaggerate Cognitive Impairment. Ekaterina Pivovarova, Fordham
Clinicians often suggested that psychiatric patients with knowledge and exposure to psychiatric symptoms may be better able to evade detection when
exaggerating their symptoms. The present study addressed this question using a simulation design contrasting two groups instructed to malinger
mental illness: chronic psychiatric patients and a community sample of adults. Each participant completed the SIRS, the TOMM, and the VIP.
Sensitivity of the SIRS was significantly poorer among the psychiatric patients compared to the community sample, but there was no difference in
sensitivity for the TOMM or VIP. The implications of these findings for forensic evaluation are discussed.
Using the MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale (FBS) with Psychiatric Patients. Debbie Green, Fordham University
Although the Fake-Bad Scale (FBS) of the MMPI-2 has demonstrated utility in assessing malingering among personal injury litigants, the present
study is the first investigation of the impact of psychiatric illness on scale scores. A sample of 78 psychiatric outpatients and 28 community
participants feigning mental illness participated in a simulation study, completing the MMPI-2. Estimated FBS (E-FBS) scores were calculated from
the first 370 items using Larrabee's (2003) formula and the resulting classification accuracy was contrasted to more traditional MMPI-2 validity scales
(i.e., F, F(p), F-K, and Obvious-Subtle).
Some Say Yes, Some Say No: Decision Rules for Integrating Multiple Measures of Malingering. Barry Rosenfeld, Fordham
With the continued proliferation of malingering measures, clinicians are increasingly utilizing multiple measures of malingering in their clinical
assessment process. Yet no guidelines exist for how to integrate multiple measures into a clinical decision. This study presents data on four
commonly-used measures (the MMPI-2, VIP, TOMM, and SIRS), using a range of strategies with varying levels of complexity to evaluate
015. Scientific Reliability in the Courtroom: Jurors' Assessments of Expert Evidence and Legal Safeguards
3:00 to 4:00 pm
The Supreme Court recently required judges to evaluate the reliability of expert evidence for admissibility in cases such as Daubert (1993) and Kumho (1999).
The Court in Daubert suggested several non-exclusive factors for judges' potential use in this gatekeeping task including falsifiability, peer review, error rate,
and general acceptance. Psychologists evaluate the quality of their peers' research by its internal and external validity. Research indicates that judges do not
understand the scientific factors mentioned by the Court (Gatowski et al., 2001). Research also indicates that judges have difficulty identifying methodologically
flawed expert testimony based on internal and external validity (Kovera & McAuliff, 2000). Although the Court's opinions applied to judges, they also question
jurors' abilities to evaluate scientific evidence and weigh that evidence in their verdicts. The research in the proposed symposium investigated jurors' and juries'
abilities to discriminate between valid and invalid expert evidence. All of the studies manipulated the quality of expert evidence, either as defined by the Court
or by research validity. These studies also tested cross-examination and opposing experts as legal safeguards against jurors' use of unreliable evidence. Across
these studies, jurors are sensitive to some reliability, and safeguards show some effectiveness at increasing this ability.
Chair: Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Discussant: John Monahan, University of Virginia School of Law
Cross-Examination Effects on Jurors' Perceptions of Expert Reliability. Jennifer A. Tallon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Michael J Brown, Brooklyn College; Michelle Giresi-Ficarra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Jennifer Groscup, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The purpose of this study was to examine how variations in the type and strength of cross-examination may increase mock juror's understanding of
scientific expert evidence. Mock jurors (N = 256) watched a mock trial manipulating cross-examination and the quality of the expert's science. Results
indicate that cross-examination may do little to increase jurors' understanding of reliability or their sensitivity to variations in the expert's science,
creating confusion instead. The proposed presentation will focus on the influence of cross-examination on verdict and perceptions of the expert
The Effects of Cross-Examination on Understanding Scientific Validity. Amanda J. Monier, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Jennifer A. Tallon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Michelle Giresi-Ficarra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln;
Molly S Jacobs, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The purpose of this study was to examine how variations in the type of cross-examination (standard, educational, none, or a combination) and the
strength of educational cross-exam (strong vs. weak) improves jurors' understanding internal and external validity in scientific evidence. Participants
watched a trial in which the reliability of the expert and the presence of cross-examination were varied. Preliminary results indicate that educational
cross-examination may increase mock jurors understanding of validity as well as their sensitivity to variations in the expert's science. The proposed
presentation will focus on the influence of cross-examination on verdict and perceptions of the expert evidence.
The Effectiveness of Opposing Expert Testimony as an Expert Reliability Safeguard. Michael J Brown, Brooklyn College; Jennifer A.
Tallon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The purpose of this study was to examine how variations in the type of opposing expert testimony presented (none, standard, educational, or a
combination), and the strength of educational opposing testimony (strong vs. weak), influence mock jurors' understanding of reliability factors set
forth by Daubert. Participants watched a trial in which the reliability of the expert and the presence of opposing expert testimony were varied. Our
results suggest that opposing expert testimony tends increase juror skepticism, and that it may hold some promise as an effective safeguard by
sensitizing jurors to the unreliability of primary expert testimony.
Daubert in the Juryroom: Jury Decision Making about Expert Testimony Reliability. Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Ryan Copple, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer A. Tallon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Alexis Murray-Forbes, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jason Mandelbaum, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
The Daubert Court suggested cross-examination and opposing experts as legal safeguards that would assist jurors in evaluating and weighing the
reliability of expert testimony. The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of these safeguards in a mock trial including
deliberations. Jury-eligible community member participants watched a mock trial, deliberated, and provided evaluations of the expert testimony.
Results indicate that jurors have some sensitivity to research validity. Cross-examination and opposing expert testimony directed at reliability have
limited effectiveness in increasing this sensitivity and deliberations might confuse jurors' understanding of reliability and validity.
016. Offenders With Mental Illness in Community Corrections: Identification, Risk Factors, Supervision, and Outcomes
3:00 to 4:00 pm
Offenders with mental disorder (OMDs) are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system, and the vast majority are supervised in the community
on probation or parole. Compared to their relatively healthy counterparts, OMDs are twice as likely to fail on community supervision. To address this problem,
several steps are needed to build toward evidence-based practice. We must (1) develop an efficient means of detecting serious mental illness among supervisees,
(2) understand the individual and contextual factors that increase OMDs' risk of recidivism, (3) understand the range of current approaches for supervising
OMDs, and (4) determine how these approaches affect OMDs access to services and ultimate outcomes. In this symposium, the first author compares the utility
of screening tools in predicting whether 136 probationers obtain an interview-based diagnosis of a major mental disorder. Then, the second author uses mapping
methodology to identify contextual and individual risk factors for over 62,000 parolees, as a function of mental disorder. Then, the third author compares
supervision practices for 360 OMDs on specialty and traditional probation, and the final author relates these practice differences to probationers' service access
Chair: Sarah M. Manchak, University of California, Irvine
Discussant: Robert Morgan, Texas Tech University
Identifying Probationers with Mental Disorder: Validating a Mental Health Screening Questionnaire. Jennifer Eno Louden,
University of California, Irvine; Erin Elease Costino, University of California, Irvine; Alishia B Blevins, University of California,
Irvine; Julie Fu, University of California, Irvine; Jenni A Dillman, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer Skeem, University of
The current research seeks to validate an efficient mental health screening tool for probation agencies' use to identify probationers with mental
disorder. This research was performed in conjunction with a large probation agency who administered a conjoint screening questionnaire comprised
of promising mental health screens to new probationers. To validate the tool, we have conducted 136 (out of a target 150) clinical diagnostic
interviews with probationers, half of whom "screened in" on the screening questionnaire, and half of whom screened out. Our analyses will examine
the items best suited to identifying probationers with mental disorder.
The Effect of Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics on Recidivism for Parolees with Mental Disorder. Eric
Dickinger, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer Eno Louden, University of California, Irvine; James Burton Robinson, APA; Emily
Troshynski, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
Parolees with mental disorder (PMDs) are at double the risk of recidivism, compared to their relatively healthy counterparts (non-PMDs). One might
attribute this to such individual factors as mental disorder. However, a growing body of literature indicates that the strongest risk factors for
recidivism are shared by those with-and-without mental disorder, and highlights such contextual factors as neighborhood disadvantage. Using
corrections and census data, we determine a) the prevalence of PMDs, b) the characteristics that relate most strongly to recidivism for PMDs and non-
PMDs, and c) the relative influence of individual and contextual factors on recidivism, as a function of mental disorder.
Comparing Specialty and Traditional Supervision for Probationers with Mental Illness. Jennifer Skeem, University of California,
Irvine; Sarah M. Manchak, University of California, Irvine; Tracy Johnson, University of California, Irvine; Benjamin Gillig, University
of California, Irvine
Over 100 agencies in the U.S. have specialty caseloads for supervising probationers with mental disorder (PMDs). A national survey suggests that
these caseloads differ from traditional caseloads: they are reduced in size, comprised exclusively of PMDs, supervised by officers with relevant
training, and differ in strategies used to address noncompliance (Skeem et al, 2006). This study of 360 probationers examines the differences in
supervision practices of specialty and traditional agencies. Analyses of baseline interviews of probationers and their officers reveal strong differences
between specialty and traditional agencies in supervision strategies, officers' "boundary spanning" skills, and the quality of probationer-officer
Six Month Outcomes for Probationers with Mental Illness. Sarah M. Manchak, University of California, Irvine; Sarah Vidal, University
of California, Irvine; Ashley Lynn Boal, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
The Council of State Governments (2002) recommends that agencies adopt specialty caseloads for the supervision of probationers with mental
disorder (PMDs). However, the effectiveness of these agencies in increasing service access and improving clinical and criminal outcomes has yet to
be examined. This study examines services and outcomes at six months for a matched sample of 360 PMDs on specialty versus traditional
supervision. Relative to traditional PMDs, specialty PMDs received more mental health treatment, but did not manifest more improvement in
symptoms and functioning over a six month period. They did, however, manifest a trend toward fewer arrests and revocations.
017. Advances in the Assessment of Miranda
3:00 to 4:00 pm
Early Miranda research was narrowly focused on single jurisdictions and emphasized cognitive-developmental issues affecting Miranda comprehension. The
implicit assumption was that Miranda warnings were highly similar across jurisdictions. Recently, two large surveys (in press) demonstrated the heterogeneity
of Miranda warnings. Miranda warnings vary remarkably in length (49 to 547 words), reading level (grade 2.8 to 18), and content. In addition, Miranda
vocabulary is highly varied with 60 terms requiring at least a 10th grade achievement level. As NSF-supported research, a major initiative was the development
of Miranda measures as an important step in bridging important differences across American jurisdictions. To encourage both independent and collaborative
research, four Miranda measures will be presented in detail: 1) The Miranda Statements Scale (MSS) assesses the ability of defendants to paraphrase 10
representative Miranda warnings representing five levels of reading comprehension. 2) Interrogation Acquiescence Questionnaire (IAQ) uses pairs of logically
inconsistent sentence with easy comprehension to test defendant's acquiescence. 3) Miranda Vocabulary Scale (MVS) is a 50-item vocabulary test combining
both common and difficult Miranda words. 4) Miranda Rights Scale (MRS) is a reliable, interview-based measure that asks defendants to generate reasons to
exercise and waive Miranda rights.
Chair: Richard Rogers, University of North Texas
Development and Initial Validation of the Miranda Statements Scale. Hayley L Blackwood, University of North Texas; Richard
Rogers, University of North Texas; Daniel Shuman, Southern Methodist University; Kenneth W. Sewell, University of North Texas
Large-scale surveys by Rogers et al. (2007, in press) yielded 886 different versions of Miranda with remarkable differences in length, reading level,
and content. Currently, Miranda researchers are limited in their ability to conduct studies relevant to forensic practice and public policy. The Miranda
Statements Scale (MSS) was developed via prototypical analysis to provide representative versions. For five reading levels, two representative
versions of each Miranda component were used to construct the MSS. Tested with two defendant samples, the MSS has a reliable scoring and can be
used to evaluate Miranda comprehension at different reading levels.
Initial Validation of the Interrogation Acquiescence Questionnaire (IAQ). Kimberly Harrison, Minnesota State Operated Forensic
Services; Richard Rogers, University of North Texas; Lisa L. Hazelwood, University of North Texas
Thousands of mentally disordered offenders waive their Miranda rights each year with little or no consideration of the consequences (Rogers &
Shuman, 2004). Many suspects may attempt to cope with their arrest-related stress and the demands of those in authority through acquiescent
responding, or answering questions in the affirmative regardless of content (Gudjonsson, 2004). The Interrogation Acquiescence Questionnaire (IAQ;
Harrison & Rogers, 2006) is a research measure used for assessing acquiescence as it relates to Miranda rights and waivers. Initial psychometric
properties of the IAQ with a sample of mentally disordered offenders are promising.
Development of Miranda Vocabulary Scale (MVS). Lisa L. Hazelwood, University of North Texas; Richard Rogers, University of North
Texas; Hayley L Blackwood, University of North Texas; Kenneth W. Sewell, University of North Texas
The language of Miranda warnings varies remarkably across jurisdictions with hundreds of different warnings currently in use. The understanding of
vocabulary words is the foundation of Miranda comprehension. Difficult words and legalistic terms are especially challenging to marginally literate
defendants. Miranda Vocabulary Scale (MVS) evaluates the meaning of 50 representative words drawn from warnings across American jurisdictions.
Standardized scoring can be reliably applied to Miranda-relevant definitions and usage. As expected, the MVS has moderate correlations with WASI
vocabulary and verbal abilities. Deficits on the MVS are associated with limited Miranda reasoning.
Assessment of Miranda Reasoning: The Miranda Rights Scale (MRS). Richard Rogers, University of North Texas; Lisa L. Hazelwood,
University of North Texas; Kimberly Harrison, Minnesota State Operated Forensic Services
Miranda-waiver decisions have life-changing consequences for more than 400,000 criminal defendants, whose waivers and subsequent confessions
are done without the benefit of counsel. To be valid, waivers must be knowing and intelligent. The Miranda Rights Scale (MRS) is a reliable and
standardized measure for assessing reasons to waive and exercise Miranda rights. It is strongly associated with cognitive abilities including verbal IQ,
and reading and listening abilities. Psychological impairment (GAF scores) and language preference (non-English) contributed a small but unique
variance. As expected, the ability to recall Miranda components (knowing prong) predicts basic reasoning on the MRS (intelligent prong).
018. Do Drawings Help Young Children Provide Better Accounts of Their Experiences?: Field and Laboratory Studies
3:00 to 4:00 pm
In this symposium, two laboratory/analogue and two field studies concerned with the risks and benefits of using drawings during forensic interviews are
described. The first presentation reports that 3- and 4-year-olds were unable, using drawings, to report touches that occurred during an encounter with a
magician either immediately before or a week earlier, although older children performed better. The second presentation reports that 5- to 7-year-olds reported
touches more accurately when responding verbally rather than without a drawing after delays of 6 weeks and 7 months. Drawings were associated with more
inconsistent and inaccurate information. When drawings were presented after an exhaustive verbal interview, reports the third presentation, 4- to 13-year-old
alleged victims did not mention many new touches after the drawings although the drawings helped them -especially the 4- to 7-year-olds -to clarify touches
that had been discussed earlier. Finally, the fourth paper found that, when alleged victims were allowed to draw while being interviewed, they (especially the 4-
to 7-year-olds) provided more details in response to open-ended prompts than did children who were not allowed to draw. In both field studies, the accuracy of
the reports could not be verified, and discussion will focus on the complementary value of analogue and field studies in this area.
Chair: Michael E. Lamb, University of Cambridge
Children's Memory and Understanding of Being Touched. Maggie Bruck, Johns Hopkins University
During a magic show, children (3-7 years) touched the magician several times and the magician touched them several times. Immediately after,
children recalled the touches. Children were either given human line drawings (HLD's) and asked to point to parts of the body in response to questions
about touches or they simply answered all questions orally. The oldest children did well on the task regardless of the questioning medium. However,
3-5 year olds made many errors; HLDs tended to make performance worse. Subsequent probing suggests that these younger children did poorly
because they do not understand the concept of "touching".
"Show Me on the Drawing Where She Touched You": The Impact of Interview Technique and Delay on Children's Recall of
Bodily Touch. Deirdre Brown, University of Lancaster; Charlie Lewis, University of Lancaster; Michael E. Lamb, University of
Cambridge; Margaret-Ellen Pipe, Brooklyn College; Yael Orbach, Brooklyn College
We explored 5- to 7-year-old children's (n = 58) reports of touches that had occurred during a staged event following both 1-month and 7-month
delays. Children were interviewed about the event using the NICHD Investigative Interviewing Protocol and recall of touch was then assessed using
either 1) a human figure drawing, 2) a human figure drawing following instruction and practice in reporting touch, or 3) verbal questions. Children's
reports were analyzed for amount and accuracy and consistency of information reported across the two interviews. Implications for forensic
interviews with children will be discussed.
Do Human Figure Drawings Help Alleged Victims of Sexual Abuse Provide Clearer Accounts of Physical Contact with Alleged
Perpetrators? Yee-San Teoh, University of Cambridge; Pei-Jung Yang, University of Cambridge; Michael E. Lamb, University of
Cambridge; Anneli Larsson, University of Cambridge
Does use of a human figure drawing within a well-structured interview help interviewers elicit additional and clearer information about physical
contact that had occurred in the course of the alleged abuse? The sample included investigative interviews of 88 children ranging from 4 to 13 years of
age. Use of the drawings helped all children, particularly the youngest, to provide richer and clearer accounts about touches that had occurred. The
clarity of these accounts was also greater when details were sought using recall prompts.
The Effects of Drawing During Investigative Interviews with Alleged Victims of Sexual Abuse. Carmit Katz, University of Haifa; Irit
Hershkowitz, University of Haifa
One hundred twenty-five alleged victims of child sexual abuse were allowed to draw or given a break of equivalent length while being interviewed
using the NICHD Protocol. Children who were allowed to draw provided more details, especially central details, in response to open-ended prompts
than did children who were not allowed to draw while being interviewed. The opportunity to draw was especially helpful for the youngest children
and for those who had experienced more severe abuse. These findings suggest that drawing may generate effective retrieval cues and that providing
the opportunity to draw might be a useful investigative aid.
019. Current Directions in Alibi Research: Generation, Detection, Utilization, and Evaluation
3:00 to 4:00 pm
An alibi is a defense that the accused was somewhere other than the scene of the crime at the time an offense occurred. This symposium presents four studies on
the various aspects of alibis in the legal system. Specifically, the research includes examinations of the generation of alibis, discrimination of true or deceitful
alibis, exploration of alibi issues by officials in the legal system, and evaluation of alibis by mock jurors. Paper #1 studied the generation of true and false alibis
and what changes were made to each type after a second reporting. Paper #2 explored the ability of students to distinguish between true and false alibi
statements with an additional focus on gender of the alibi provider and evaluator. Paper #3 examined post-conviction DNA exoneration cases in the U.S. and
Canada and found that in many cases alibi evidence was not followed up nor was it mentioned in subsequent court documents. Finally, Paper #4 tested how
manipulations to the three theoretical constructs of Rusbult's Investment Model (1980) may have affected ratings of alibi believability. Implications for each
stage of the alibi in the legal system will be discussed.
Chair: Scott E Culhane, University of Wyoming
Consistency in Alibi Generation: Data for True and False Alibis. Scott E Culhane, University of Wyoming; Andre Kehn, University of
Wyoming; Allyson J Horgan, University of Texas at El Paso; Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso; Harmon M. Hosch,
University of Texas at El Paso
Participants from provided a true or false alibi regarding their whereabouts for a particular time either 5 or 12 days prior. They were asked to return
two days later and provide evidence that might support their alibi statement. It was predicted that both true and false alibis provided would include
motivated witnesses but that longer time delays would produce less evidence to validate the alibi claim and more inconsistent statements. Alibis were
evaluated based upon the level of detail provided, and the type of evidence provided as a function of time delay and true vs. false alibi condition.
Detection of Deception in Alibi Statements. Andre Kehn, University of Wyoming; Scott E Culhane, University of Wyoming; Eric J
Wohdal, University of Wyoming; Lisa Wempen, University of Wyoming
The current study examined whether or not individuals are capable of distinguishing between true alibi statements and false alibi statements. Sixty-
four undergraduate participants evaluated 12 videotaped alibi statements for veracity. The results indicate that participants were no better than chance
at detecting lies. Participants also displayed a truth bias in their judgments. Participants were more likely to belief any given statement is true rather
than a lie. Confidence also had no predictive power in distinguishing lies from true statements. The gender of the participants did not impact accuracy
The Use and Misuse of Alibi Information in Wrongful Convictions: A Review of Case Files from the Innocence Project. Tara M.
Burke, Ryerson University; Sami El-Sibaey, Ryerson University
The present research examines the original case files from the more than 200 post-conviction DNA exoneration cases in the U.S. and Canada. A
careful examination of these cases files, and the summary coding sheets that accompany them, reveals that in many cases alibi evidence was not
followed up nor was it mentioned in subsequent court documents, or even in the case summaries; this makes it doubly difficult for psychologist and
attorneys alike to fully explore (and generate accurate data of) the factors leading to wrongful convictions. The initial results of the 'recoding' of these
files will be presented.
Can the Investment Model be Applied to the Study of Alibis? Kevin W. Jolly, University of Texas at El Paso; Harmon M. Hosch,
University of Texas at El Paso
Alibi research has only reported data on differences observed between different alibi corroborators (Culhane & Hosch, 2004; Olson & Wells, 2004).
Differences within relationships may affect alibi evaluation. The proposed research examines how manipulations to the three theoretical constructs of
Rusbult's Investment Model (1980) may affect ratings of alibi believability. In Study 1, focus groups of Latino mock jurors reported what was
considered high and low levels of relationship satisfaction, investment, and alternatives; responses were incorporated into Study 2's experimental
manipulations. In Study 2, mock jurors read different examples of alibi testimony and made ratings of alibi believability.
020. Process Matters: The Importance of Procedural Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence for Juvenile Offenders
3:00 to 4:00 pm
Research over three decades has demonstrated one consistent finding: process matters. Individuals who report fair treatment by legal authorities rate them more
positively and are more satisfied with case outcomes, more likely to accept court decisions, and more likely to obey laws in the future. This interdisciplinary
panel brings together scholars from both legal and psychological backgrounds to discuss issues of process in the juvenile justice system. The first paper provides
a theoretical overview and discusses the value of interdisciplinary partnerships from the perspective of a former social worker in the system. The second paper
considers ways in which therapeutic jurisprudence may inform and improve attorney-child relationships with a focus on the value of interdisciplinary
partnerships from an attorney's perspective. The third paper reports empirical data evaluating procedural justice mechanisms in a sample of adolescent
detainees. The fourth paper reports findings from the MacArthur Juvenile Competence Study on age-based and racial/ethnic differences in anticipatory injustice,
the expectation of unfair or discriminatory treatment in the legal system. Understanding of youths' expectations and experiences of fairness throughout the
justice process is important for both examining specific case outcomes (e.g. compliance with sanctions) and promoting broader developmental outcomes (e.g.
positive orientation to law).
Chair: Jennifer Woolard, Georgetown University
Procedural fairness in Juvenile Justice Reform: Implementing Change Through Defense Based Social Work. Jaime Lee Michel,
University of Virginia
Current research and theory on procedural justice and its implications for practice with adolescents in the juvenile justice system provides theoretical
insight into potential innovations for juvenile justice practitioners. Traditionally, the Public Defender has held the advocacy role in the Juvenile
Justice System. If research continues to support a working model on the ability of procedural fairness to effect adolescents' compliance, the
enhancement of legal representation of youthful offenders, through the use of defense-based social workers, can provide a means by which to mediate
procedural fairness in the processing of youth through the system.
Defining the Lawyer-Self: Using Therapeutic Jurisprudence to Define the Lawyer's Role and Aid the Child Client. Kristin Henning,
Georgetown University Law Center
Because the attorney-client relationship is often the sole means by which a child may participate in the process of justice and earn credibility with
others in the juvenile justice system, the attorney-client relationship warrants special care and attention. This paper considers ways in which
therapeutic jurisprudence may inform and improve attorney-child relationships in juvenile court. Therapeutic jurisprudence recognizes considerable
therapeutic value in attorney-client relationships that educate, empower, and validate the child. Therapeutically inspired attorney-client relationships
not only yield immediate benefits of client-satisfaction and positive self-esteem, but may also promote effective long-term rehabilitation for children
accused of crime.
The Impact of Authority Interactions on Legal Socialization: Does Procedural Justice Affect Juvenile Offenders? Samantha Harvell,
Georgetown University; Jennifer Woolard, Georgetown University; Hayley Daglis, Georgetown University
This study applied procedural justice theory to a sample of adolescent detainees to evaluate how well perceived fairness in interactions with legal
authorities predicts attitudes about the legitimacy of law, satisfaction with trial outcomes, acceptance of court decisions, and rule-breaking behavior.
Preliminary, descriptive analyses suggest that procedural fairness judgments are related to attitudes about the law and satisfaction with case outcomes
and that there are age-based differences in both perceived fairness and legal attitudes. These findings could help justice officials refine behavior
management strategies and interventions to reduce the likelihood of recidivism and enhance positive developmental outcomes post-release.
Anticipatory Injustice Among Adolescents: Age and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Unfairness of the Justice System.
Jennifer Woolard, Georgetown University; Samantha Harvell, Georgetown University; Sandra Graham, University of California - Los
The present study examines age differences in anticipatory injustice, or the expectation of unfair or discriminatory treatment in the legal system. The
1,393 adolescents and young adults from the community or detention centers and jails were interviewed regarding demographic and justice system
experience, intelligence, expectations about fair treatment, and legal decisions. African Americans and Latinos and those with more system
experience expected greater injustice across multiple legal contexts. Anticipatory injustice increased with age among African Americans and those
with the most system experience. It also predicted choices about police interrogation, attorney consultation, and plea agreements.
021. Cognitive Psychology and Jurors' Liability Verdicts
4:15 to 5:15 pm
Chair: Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Testing for the Camera Perspective Bias in the Civil Trial Context. Debra L. Worthington, Auburn University
Research in videotaping criminal confessions suggests that camera perspective can adversely affect mock juror evaluations. This study tested for a
similar bias in the civil arena. Findings suggest that camera perspective affects evaluations of causal attributions. Jurors viewing a split-screen
deposition (head/torso of both witness and deposing attorney) were twice as likely to consider additional contributing causes to the plaintiff's illness.
Participants viewing a traditional (plaintiff-only) deposition overwhelmingly ranked the testimony as the most important case presentation, while
those viewing a split screen deposition tended to distribute their "most influential" rankings across the three case presentations.
Explaining the Disconnect between Probability and Verdict. Hal Richard Arkes, Ohio State University; Ryan Mayes, Ohio State
University; Brittany Shoots-Rinehard, Ohio State University
In 1992 Wells published a landmark study that demonstrated the astonishing non-congruence between mock jurors' liability verdicts and their judged
probability that the defendant was responsible for the damages. Based on numerous prior studies we ascertained that the principal factor influencing
the liability verdict was whether the probability information was expressed as a base rate, which dampened the likelihood of liability judgments, or
instead was expressed as describing the reliability of the evidence, which fostered liability judgments. We ran new experiments which supported this
hypothesis. We suggest that several factors impact liability judgments, only one of which is probability.
Clarifying the Relationship between Counterfactual Thinking and Hindsight Bias in the Context of Civil Legal Decision-making.
Rachel M. York, Florida International University; Kevin O'Neil, Florida International University; Ryan Winter, Florida International
University; Steve Charman, Florida International University; Carlton Waterhouse, Florida International University College of Law
The current research clarifies the diverging relationships between counterfactual thinking and hindsight bias observed in the literature thus far. In a
non-legal context, Roese and Olson (1996) demonstrated that counterfactual thinking increases hindsight bias and that this effect is mediated by
causal attributions. Conversely, in the context of a civil lawsuit, Robbennolt and Sobus (1997) found that the relationship between counterfactual
thinking and hindsight bias is negative. This study generally applies Roese and Olson's design to materials involving a civil lawsuit in order to settle
the apparent discrepancy in the counterfactual-hindsight relationship within a legal context.
Counterfactual Thinking and Negligence Verdicts: The Role of Thinking Style, Covariation, and Reaction Time. Jason A. Cantone,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Researchers investigated the role of counterfactual thinking in negligence judgments. Mock jurors read about a workplace accident and reviewed a set
of actual jury instructions before completing psychological measures and verdict judgments. Reaction times were recorded for each of the measures.
Results support counterfactual thinking as one cause of negligence verdicts and factual, covariation thinking as another causal factor. Thus, our
research suggests that a complete model of how jurors make negligence judgments should include both counterfactual thinking and factual,
covariation thinking. The paper also discusses the role that perceived normality and foreseeability play in juror determinations of negligence.
022. Domestic Violence: Issues and Interventions
4:15 to 5:15 pm
Chair: Lenore E. Walker, Nova Southeastern University CPS
American Indian Criminal Jurisdiction and Domestic Violence Issues. Cynthia Willis Esqueda, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Self rated anti-American Indian attitudes were examined for the influence on domestic violence culpability perceptions when the domestic violence
actors' race (American Indian or European American) and alcohol use (intoxicated or not) were varied. Those higher in anti-American Indian attitudes
produced more negative culpability ratings concerning American Indian women involved in domestic violence than those low in American Indian
bias. This has implications for health system treatment and legal interventions and processing. Education concerning cultural issues of and biases
against American Indians is needed for those working with American Indian health and justice systems.
Are Intimate Partner Abuse Allegations Received with Skepticism? Exploring a Process Understanding of Credibility Evaluations.
Sarah L. Desmarais, Simon Fraser University
Despite mixed findings, there remains a belief in the legal community that testimonial inconsistencies are detrimental to credibility and intimate
partner abuse (IPA) complainants in particular. This study examined whether IPA allegations are received with skepticism, and if so, why. Reading a
report describing IPA victimization or participation in leisure activities (LA), community participants evaluated complainant credibility. Complainant
gender and consistency of reports across repeated interviews were manipulated. LA reports were evaluated more favorably than IPA reports, as were
consistent compared with inconsistent reports. Analyses demonstrate that social categorization (ingroup-outgroup identification) mediates perceived
credibility of inconsistent, but not consistent reports.
Forensic Implications in the Use of the PAI with Victims of Domestic Violence. Lena Swanson, Argosy University - Seattle
The psychological assessment of victims of domestic violence can result in a misdiagnosis that over-pathologizes the victim. This can lead to an
unjust and inaccurate representation of the victim in court when testimony relies on psychological evaluation. The Personality Assessment Inventory
(PAI) is a relatively recent objective measure used in the testimony of psychologists offering information to the court. Findings of this research offer
empirical evidence of a distinct profile on the PAI for adult female victims of domestic violence (N = 111). Evidence suggests the PAI accurately
captures the sequelae of domestic violence, producing an appropriate trauma-related diagnosis.
Empirically Informed Intervention for Battered Women with BWS in Jail. Lenore E. Walker, Nova Southeastern University CPS;
Maria Karilshtadt, Nova Southeastern University CJI; Sandra Jimenez, Nova Southeastern University CPS
The research on BWS demonstrated that signs and symptoms of PTSD and distorted body image and sexuality issues and disturbances in relationships
due to power and control abuse from batterers are the issues that need to be addressed when providing interventions for women intimates of partner
violence. This 12 week program was presented to 24 women in the local jail setting. Evaluations indicated that the modules in the program were
appropriate and helpful for these women. Adjustments were made in order to accommodate to the jail setting itself.
023. Health Care Decisions
4:15 to 5:15 pm
Chair: Jeremy A. Blumenthal, Cornell Law School / Syracuse College of Law
Professional Perceptions of Psychiatric Advance Directives: A View from Stakeholders in Ontario and Québec. Daniel Lamberto
Ambrosini, McGill University
Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are legal documents allowing mentally ill individuals to make prior competent wishes for treatment choices
should they become unable to make future decisions. The objectives of this research were to: (1) assess familiarity and willingness to use PADs and
(2) identify factors predicting willingness to use PADs among legal and mental health professionals in Ontario and Québec. A Web-questionnaire was
designed to gather attitudinal data of PADs among psychiatrists, psychologists, lawyers and administrative tribunal members (N=200). Logistic
regression analyses and qualitative data were relied upon to identify clinical, ethical, legal, and implementation factors.
Designating Health Care Decision-Makers for Patients Without Advance Directives. Nina Kohn, Syracuse University College of Law;
Jeremy A. Blumenthal, Cornell Law School / Syracuse College of Law
States' default surrogate statutes allow family or friends to make health-care decisions for incapacitated patients who lack advance directives.
Although proponents suggest these statutes honor the wishes of incapacitated persons, empirical research on surrogate decision-making challenges
this justification. We show that although default surrogate statutes do a reasonable job of capturing majority preferences for health-care decision-
making processes, statutorily-appointed surrogates frequently make treatment choices that are inconsistent with patient preferences. We therefore
suggest certain statutory changes that would better effectuate patient wishes. We also identify several avenues for further empirical research that will
help improve the accuracy of surrogate decision-making.
The Role of Physician Characteristics in the Medical Care Informed Consent Doctrine. Linda Demaine, Arizona State University
In order to protect patients' fundamental right to bodily integrity, physicians are legally required to obtain their informed consent to medical care.
Courts traditionally have limited the information that physicians must discuss with patients to treatment-related topics such as the benefits and risks
inherent to a recommended treatment versus other treatments versus no treatment. In recent years, a few courts have broadened the scope of informed
consent topics to include certain physician characteristics (e.g., HIV infection, chronic alcohol or drug abuse). The present empirical studies explore
the potential policy implications of expanding the informed consent doctrine in this manner.
Psychology and Paternalism: Can Government Help People Help Themselves? Jeremy A. Blumenthal, Cornell Law School / Syracuse
College of Law
Policy debate over paternalism centers on the implications of empirical data showing individuals' tendency to make flawed decisions, especially in the
financial, health, and safety contexts. Discussion focuses on whether, and how, third parties (e.g., the government) should intervene in individual
citizens' decisions and behavior in order to "protect" individuals from the negative consequences of those flawed decisions. In this paper I introduce
and sketch the current paternalism debate in the legal academy, and review empirical research on the debiasing of both cognitive and emotional
"biases." Based on this research, I identify circumstances under which paternalism might be appropriate.
024. Juveniles' Knowledge of the Law
4:15 to 5:15 pm
Chair: Eve M. Brank, University of Florida
Parental Involvement in Juvenile Interrogations: Review of State Statutes and Implications for Research and Practice. Keith
Cruise, Fordham University; Erik S. Pitchal, Suffolk Law School; Rebecca Weiss, Fordham University
The current paper highlights findings from an updated review of statutory standards involving parental notification procedures upon arrest/detainment
of a juvenile as well as the standards regarding parental involvement in the custodial interrogation. Analysis indicated that a limited number of states
have specific statutory requirements that enhance the standard Miranda warning issued to youth to include a right to parental access. A small number
of statutes require parental presence, or adopt specific age requirements for parental presence, during youth custodial interrogations. Implications for
legal policy and forensic assessment of juvenile Miranda waivers will be addressed.
The Miranda Rights Education Project: Findings of a Longitudinal Study. Rachel Kalbeitzer, Drexel University; Martha K. Strachan,
Drexel University; Heather Green, Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University; Christina Riggs Romaine, Drexel
University; Heath Hodges, Drexel University; Kathleen Kemp, Drexel University; Natalie Anumba, Drexel University; Kento Yasuhara,
Drexel University; Melinda Wolbransky, Drexel University & Villanova University; Sanjay Bipin Shah, Drexel University; Heather
Zelle, Drexel University; Anna M. Heilbrun, Drexel University; Allison Binnicker Hart, Drexel University
This talk summarizes the findings of a two-year study examining the effectiveness of the Miranda Rights Education Project (MREP), the first
empirically-evaluated, school-based curriculum designed to teach adolescents about their rights to silence and counsel. Sixty-four students, ages 10
through 16, participated in the study and were tested prior to participating in the curriculum, after participating in the curriculum, and at one-year
follow-up. The primary objectives of this study were to examine: (1) short- and longer-term changes in adolescents' understanding and appreciation of
rights, and (2) the role of the curriculum in improvement, accounting for developmental maturation.
Defense Attorneys' Concerns about the Legal Capacities of Juvenile Defendants. Jodi Viljoen, Simon Fraser University; Twila
Wingrove, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kaitlyn McLachlan, Simon Fraser University
Although juvenile defense attorneys play a critical role in identifying potential deficits in juveniles' legal capacities, there is little research on how
frequently juvenile attorneys are concerned about their clients' legal capacities, and how they respond to potential legal deficits. To address this gap,
we examined defense attorneys' concerns about juvenile and adult defendants. Results indicated that attorneys are frequently concerned about juvenile
clients' legal capacities. In most cases, juvenile attorneys respond to potential limitations in legal capacities by spending more time with their client
and further involving parents or guardians.
One State's Attempt to Increase Juvenile Knowledge of the Court Process. Christine Driver, University of Florida; Eve M. Brank,
University of Florida
The current study evaluates juveniles' understanding of the court process and whether this can be improved by watching an instructional DVD. Pre-
and post-DVD knowledge scores were obtained from 118 juveniles currently in juvenile detention. The average percentage correct on the pre-test was
a 64% (SD=14.2%) and the average percentage correct on the post-test was 70% (SD=17.4%), t =-5.73 , p<.01. Significant differences were found
based on age and race. Although there was a significant increase in knowledge scores, average knowledge score at post-test still remained low. Due
process and justice implications are discussed.
025. Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups
4:15 to 5:15 pm
Chair: Scott Gronlund, University of Oklahoma
Improved Methodological Standards for Field Evaluations of Eyewitness Identification Procedures. Stephen James Ross, University
of Texas at El Paso; Roy S. Malpass, University of Texas at El Paso
Recent proposals for eyewitness identification procedure reforms have led law enforcement officials and policymakers to look towards field
evaluations for guidance. To date, there have been nine published field evaluations of eyewitness identification procedures. We reviewed these nine
evaluations to determine the extent to which they provide answers regarding the ecological validity of these proposed reforms. Results indicated that
the available field evaluations are limited in their ability to address these concerns. We discuss two potential failures of field evaluations and present
seven methodological improvements that will allow us to be better equipped to answer the ecological validity question.
An Evaluation of Decision Making Strategies for Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups. Lisa D. Topp, University of Texas at El Paso;
Roy S. Malpass, University of Texas at El Paso; Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso
The current studies aimed to examine decision making strategies with respect to simultaneous and sequential lineups. In the first study similarity of
fillers, target presence and order of target was manipulated across the two lineup styles. In addition we examined how these decisions influenced
phenomenological based judgments. In the second study we attempted to manipulate simultaneous and sequential lineups in order to increase
diagnosticity by having participants make a more absolute judgment. Diagnosticity was measured through a SDT paradigm. Results will be discussed
with respect to shifts in criterion and relative-absolute decision making strategies.
Probative Value of Absolute and Relative Decision Rules. Jesse Steven Breneman, University of California, Riverside; Steven E. Clark,
University of California, Riverside
It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification errors arise, in part, as a result of witnesses making relative, rather than absolute, judgments. We
instantiated four decision rules within the WITNESS model framework, to address a fundamental question: Are absolute judgments better than
relative judgments? The four models were: One-Above criterion model, Best-Above criterion model, Relative Difference model, and an Additive
model. Correct identification rates were plotted against false identification rates to produce ROC-like curves. The Best-Above Criterion model did
better than the Relative Difference Model, but the Additive model (combining absolute and relative judgments) was the best under some conditions.
Sequential Lineup Advantage: Lineup Fairness and Suspect Position. Curt A. Carlson, University of Oklahoma; Scott Gronlund,
University of Oklahoma; Steven E. Clark, University of California, Riverside; Sarah Dailey, University of Oklahoma
Sequential lineups are thought to reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification (Steblay et al., 2001), but we found that protection from
a sequential lineup emerged only when an innocent suspect stood out from the foils. Participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup
containing either a guilty or innocent suspect. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. Additional analyses of
suspect position in sequential lineups showed an increase in diagnosticity as the suspect was placed later in the lineup. These results suggest that the
sequential lineup advantage may be dependent upon lineup fairness and suspect position.
026. Crime and Punishment: Corrections Committee Invited Speaker Dr. Don Andrews
4:15 to 5:15 pm
The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model of Assessment and Rehabilitation. Don Andrews, Carleton University
The principles of RNR assist with three key clinical issues: The identification of who is best assigned to intensive rehabilitative services (moderate
and higher risk cases), the appropriate intermediate targets of change (criminogenic needs), and the most powerful influence strategies (general and
specific responsivity). The model also specifies key staffing and management concerns. Meta-analytic evidence supports the predictive validity of
RNR-based assessments and the effectiveness of RNR-based programming. The findings are very robust across types of offenders, types of criminal
outcomes, and the settings of intervention. A continuing problem is a weak understanding of specific responsivity issues such as the relatively low
participation and high drop-out rates of higher risk cases. The major problem continues to be the low quality of RNR programming in regular or
routine corrections compared to demonstration projects. Two assessment-based resolutions are suggested: a) A renewed commitment to the
integration of risk/need assessments with individualized case planning, and b) the routine monitoring of RNR adherence at the program or agency
level. More generally, reduced victimization (crime prevention) needs to be viewed as a legitimate objective of human and social services. The
intellectual challenges for RNR are criticisms from critical criminology, critical feminism, and forensic mental health: In particular, a resistance to a
predominant focus on reducing criminogenic needs. Yet, the intermediate objective of "reduced criminogenic need" refers to building rewarding
alternatives to crime and is not the equivalent of being either restrictive or dismissive of personal well-being.
027. APLS Business Meeting
5:30 to 6:30 pm
028. Corrections Committee Panel Discussion with Donald Andrews. Moderator: Joel Dvoskin. Light refreshments.
5:30 to 6:30 pm
Chair: Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
029. Graduate Student Pizza Dinner
5:30 to 6:30 pm
Clearwater (3rd Floor)
Hosted by the AP-LS Student Section. Come have a light dinner, meet the current officers, and learn what AP-LS has to offer its student members.
030. Welcome Reception
6:30 to 8:00 pm
River Deck 3 (3rd Floor)
031. University of Massachusetts Medical School Social
8:00 to 10:00 pm
Regency Suite Hospitality Suite (Room 1830)
FRIDAY, MARCH, 7
032. Mentorship Breakfast: Developing A Good Advisor/Advisee Relationship in Graduate School
7:30 to 8:30 am
Clearwater (3rd Floor)
The Mentoring Committee would like to invite AP-LS members to our annual breakfast which connects graduate students and beginning professionals with
experienced mentors in psychology and law. We will begin the session with a presentation by Drs. Edie Greene and Monica Miller on developing good
relationships as advisees and advisors. After the presentation, attendees will have the opportunity to interact with well established mentors from a variety of
disciplines including forensic, assessment, treatment, eyewitness memory, and trial consulting. A light breakfast will be provided.
033. Memory and the Law
8:45 to 9:30 am
Chair: Iris Blandon-Gitlin, California State University, Fullerton
Rapport-Building and Susceptibility to Misinformation in an Investigative Mock-Crime Interview. Jonathan Vallano, Florida
International University; Nadja Schreiber Compo, Florida International University; Steve Wood, Central Michigan University;
Alejandra Perry, Florida International University; Ana Maria Lobos, Florida International University; Daniella Villalba, Florida
International University; Daniel Kemp, Florida International University; Jeremie Cochran, Florida International University
Most investigative interviewing protocols recommend that interviewers build rapport with an adult witness and suspect to increase the quantity and
quality of information reported by the interviewee. Despite these recommendations, there is little empirical research to substantiate this assumption. In
addition, few studies have investigated whether rapport-building affects a witness' susceptibility to report misinformation. The present study
manipulates the amount of self-disclosure in the interview and the subsequent receipt of correct or misinformation about a mock-crime. Preliminary
results suggest that witnesses' frequently report inaccurate information, and report the greatest amount of misinformation when the interviewer does
not build rapport.
Consistency of Intimate Partner Abuse Reports Over Time: The Inferiority and Superiority of Traumatic Memory. Sarah L.
Desmarais, Simon Fraser University
This study examined consistency of reports of personally significant episodic memory events over time. Participants completed online calendar-based
surveys at baseline and following a six-week delay. Participants self-identified as experiencing abuse in a romantic relationship in the past year
completed surveys assessing intimate partner abuse (IPA) victimization, as well as surveys assessing participation in leisure activities (LA).
Comparison group participants completed LA surveys. In contrast to recent research, we found few differences between consistency of traumatic
versus mundane memory events. Where significant differences were observed, results suggest superiority of memory for traumatic events, but
inferiority of memory among IPA victims.
The Role of Photographs and Event Plausibility in Creating False Beliefs. Iris Blandon-Gitlin, California State University, Fullerton
The current study examined the interactive effects of photographs and event plausibility in creating false beliefs. At time one, participants rated 20
events on the Life Event Inventory (LEI) as to whether each occurred to them in childhood. At time two, participants were told that 2 target events
were plausible and two were implausible. They then used event-related photographs to visualize one plausible and one implausible event. At time
three participants completed the LEI again. Preliminary results suggest that beliefs in false events are higher when events are plausible and
photographs are used as part of the recollection process.
034. Legislators at Risk
8:45 to 9:30 am
Chair: Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln
Mental Illness as a Distinguishing Factor in Problematic Contact Behavior toward Legislators. Larry W Golba, University of
Nebraska - Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Charles Darrow, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Political figures are vulnerable to negative behaviors because they are required to be available to their constituents. Distinguishing between legitimate
contacts and potentially problematic contacts is of utmost concern for those charged with their protection. Previous research (Scalora, Baumgartner &
Plank, 2003; Scalora, et al., 2002) has shown that mental illness is a significant predictor of engagement in problematic approach behaviors toward
public officials. A discriminant analysis of 5040 cases showed that individuals displaying serious mental illness within their contact behavior were
more likely to have personal oriented (and often delusional) motives for contact and more intense contact behaviors.
Predictive Factors of Single Approach versus Intrusive Harassment Behaviors towards Legislators. Allissa Marquez, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Grace Chang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Katherine A
Schoeneman-Morris, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The increasing demand for accurate threat assessment approaches has challenged researchers to discover reliable predictors of problematic behavior
(Coggins, Pynchon, & Dvoskin, 1998). This study examined the ability of several risk factors (subject characteristics, contact characteristics, and
thematic content) to accurately distinguish between stalking versus single approach behavior toward legislators. Stalking cases were more likely to
contact multiple agencies, focus on target-related issues, use multiple methods of contact and less likely to evidence mental illness. A discriminant
analysis revealed a model that correctly reclassified 71.4% of the overall sample, including 85% of single approach cases and 50% of stalking cases.
Threat Assessment of Letter, Email and Weblog Contacts: Identifying Thematic Targeted Violence Risk Factors. Katherine A
Schoeneman-Morris, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Charles Darrow, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Grace Chang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Julia McLawsen, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; William
Zimmerman, United States Capitol Police; David Wells, United States Capitol Police
Threats aimed at public officials are increasingly communicated through electronic means (i.e., email and Internet posting). Those who pose a threat
must be identified and stopped before they engage in negative approach behavior toward their target. The current study examines 500 inappropriate
letter, email and weblog cases targeting legislators from 2002 through 2006. The goals of the study are to examine each type of correspondence for
differential content/language characteristics and differential problematic approach risk factors. Preliminary analyses revealed that emailers and letter
writers significantly differ on some characteristics and risk factors. The findings and implications will be discussed in detail.
035. Stalking: Perceptions and Risk
8:45 to 9:30 am
Chair: Matthew Huss, Creighton University
Decision-Making in Stalking Risk: The Role of Victim Vulnerability Factors. Kim Reeves, Simon Fraser University; Kevin Stewart
Douglas, Simon Fraser University
The current study explores the utility of victim vulnerability factors in conceptualizing risk and management strategies in stalking cases. We used an
on-line survey and stalking narratives to explore the criterion-related validity of victim vulnerability factors, using risk judgments and the quality of
management strategies identified by participants as the outcome variables. The number of risk factors and management strategies was greater for high
priority cases and approximately 40% of participants found victim vulnerability factors useful in conceptualizing scenarios and management
strategies. Differences between the victim vulnerability and no victim vulnerability conditions for management strategies and risk will be presented.
Lay Prototypes Underlying the Perceptions of Stalking and Sexual Harassment. Tarika Daftary, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Sheetal Ranjan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Lorraine M Phillips, John Jay College, Graduate Center, CUNY;
Maureen O'Connor, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Both stalking and sexual harassment can be characterized as actions that lie on a spectrum of behaviors that can be interpreted as romantic by one and
criminal by another. Prototype theory has relevance when it comes to classification and perceptions of individuals, situations and behaviors. We
investigated how the average person defines the concepts of stalking and sexual harassment using prototype methodology. Participants described
either a stalking or sexual harassment scenario and completed a number of follow-up questions. Results indicate that student and community samples
have similar perceptions of these behaviors, having implications for research, legal practice, prevention and intervention.
Which Batterers are the Most Dangerous Stalkers? The Link between Stalking and a Batterer Typology. Matthew Huss, Creighton
University; Sarah Norris, Creighton University
It has been proposed that domestic violence offenders can be classified into distinct subgroups based on psychopathology, generality and severity of
violence. This study examined a clinical sample of batterers to identify whether there were differences across batterer subtypes in regard to stalking
behavior. Indices of pathology, partner violence, and generalized violence were used to cluster analyze a sample of 120 batterers. The resulting three
cluster solution produced three different groups of batterers identified as generally violent/antisocial, borderline/dysphoric, and family-only batterers.
Results suggest that there are differences in stalking related behaviors across these subgroups of batterers.
036. Youth and Adolescent Behavior
8:45 to 9:30 am
Chair: Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
Development of Conduct Problems in Girls: Testing Differential Predictions of Current Theoretical Models. Cedar O'Donnell,
University of New Orleans; Paul J. Frick, University of New Orleans; Persephanie Silverthorn, University of New Orleans
The current study reviews two theoretical approaches for the development of conduct problems. Differential predictions made by the competing
theoretical models were tested in a community sample of 202 school-aged children. The participants (87 males and 115 females) ranged in age from
10 to 17 years old (M = 13.16) and were primarily African-American (60%). Results indicated that adolescent-onset conduct problem girls,
childhood-onset conduct problem boys, and adolescent-onset conduct problem boys differed from non-conduct problem children but did not differ
significantly amongst themselves on study variables. Finally, implications for current developmental models are discussed.
Predicting Externalizing Behaviors in Youth: Differential Relations of "Big Three" Personality and Callous-Unemotional Traits.
Robert D Latzman, University of Iowa; Lee Anna Clark, University of Iowa; Natasha Elkovitch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Bryce
A Carithers, University of Iowa; Jodie L Lewis, University of Iowa; Sarah A. Stellern, University of Iowa
Extant empirical literatures link both temperament traits and callous-unemotional (CU) interpersonal traits to youth externalizing behaviors (e.g.,
delinquency, conduct problems), but they rarely have been considered jointly. We examined interrelations among the "Big Three" temperament traits,
CU traits, and a dimension of externalizing behaviors in a community sample of male youth, ages 11 to 16 years. Both youth and their mothers
reported on youths' temperament, CU traits, and externalizing behaviors. Preliminary analyses suggest that Big Three temperament and CU traits have
differential relations with—and predictive ability for—youth and mother report of externalizing behaviors.
Juvenile Justice Anger Management Manual for Girls: Initial Trial Data. Kathleen Kemp, Drexel University; Christina Riggs
Romaine, Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University; Rachel Freeland, Drexel University; Jennifer Serico, Drexel
University; Anna M. Heilbrun, Drexel University
This presentation will summarize results of an initial trial evaluating an anger management intervention for female juvenile offenders. Participants
were committed to an all female, post-adjudication facility. Six youth were consented for the 18 session Juvenile Justice Anger Management (JJAM)
Intervention for Girls. Youth were assessed pre- and post-treatment using a combination of structured interviews, self-report measures, peer-
nomination ratings, and record reviews. Intervention techniques will be reviewed in this paper, and lessons learned about the study's methodology and
manual implementation will be presented.
037. Interrogations: Knowledge and Reforms
8:45 to 9:30 am
Chair: G. Daniel Lassiter, Ohio University
Police Interrogations and False Confessions: What do Jurors Believe? Netta Shaked, Claremont Graduate University; Mark Costanzo,
Claremont McKenna College; Katie Vinson, Claremont Graduate University
Jury-eligible participants were questioned regarding their beliefs about confessions and interrogations. A sample of 461 participants, recruited by a
trial consulting firm to match the jury pool of several large cities, completed a 20-item questionnaire on: (a) false confessions rates, (b) interrogation
techniques, and (c) differentiating between true and false confessions. Results indicated that jurors believed minor crimes have higher false confession
rates than serious crimes; that interrogators are better than laypersons at identifying false confessions; and that jurors would likely convict a defendant
who falsely confessed. Overall, beliefs were inconsistent with actual practices and often contrary to research findings.
Is it Time for a Revolution in the Interrogation Room? Empricially Validating Inquisitorial Methods. Mary Rigoni, University of
Texas at El Paso; Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso
The focus of this paper is a recent study that utilized the Russano, Meissner, Narchet, and Kassin (2005) interrogation paradigm to compare the
diagnostic values of British (inquisitorial) and American (accusatorial) interrogation styles. Results indicated that accusatorial methods prompted a
significant increase in false confession rates, while inquisitorial methods produced more diagnostic confession statements. Participants in the
inquisitorial condition perceived less pressure to sign a confession statement, and it was the only approach that significantly distinguished between
innocent and guilty participants' perceptions of pressure in the interrogation room.
Evidence of the Camera Perspective Bias in Authentic Videotaped Interrogations: Implications for Criminal Justice Reform. G.
Daniel Lassiter, Ohio University; Lezlee Ware, Ohio University; Matthew J. Lindberg, Ohio University; Adam E. Hasinski, Ohio
Several experiments have demonstrated a camera perspective bias in evaluations of videotaped confessions: videotapes with the camera focused on
the suspect lead to judgments of greater voluntariness and guilt than alternative presentation formats. Legal policy makers, however, might find this
research less than convincing because the interrogations/confessions used in the prior investigations were simulations, and therefore no evidence
currently establishes that the camera perspective bias importantly generalizes to authentic videotapes recorded by police and depicting actual suspects
and interrogators. Two experiments addressed this issue, and confirmed that the camera perspective bias does indeed manifest with authentic
038. Mentally Ill and Incompetent Defendants
8:45 to 9:30 am
Chair: Harmon M. Hosch, University of Texas at El Paso
The Use of Arbitrary Metrics in Competency to Stand Trial Assessment Instruments. Gianni Pirelli, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; William H. Gottdiener, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Patricia Zapf, John Jay College of Criminal
Each of the instruments developed to assist in the assessment of competency to stand trial is problematic in terms of arbitrary metrics, psychometric
limitations, and ecological validity. We review eleven competency assessment instruments, illustrate how each relies on arbitrary metrics, delineate
the implications of such usage, and provide researchers and practitioners with directions for future research and clinical-forensic practice in the
competency arena. Specifically, a 5-step approach to reducing the arbitrariness of the metrics used in the competency assessment instruments is
Screening for Feigned Incompetence to Stand Trial: An Examination of the ECST-R. Kerri Norton, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Nancy L Ryba, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Competency to stand trial evaluations are the most commonly requested evaluations by the courts, and due to high levels of malingering seen in these
evaluations, clinicians must be sure to screen defendants for feigned incompetence. The ECST-R, a recently developed instrument, is the first to
combine the assessment of competence and feigning into a single measure. The purpose of this study is to provide further research on the ECST-R by
comparing scores of honest responders and coached malingerers. Preliminary results are presented and a discussion of the validity of the ECST-R in
assessing competence and feigning follows.
The Impact of the El Paso Public Defenders Mental Health Unit: A Preliminary Analysis. Brooke Alison Smith, University of Texas
at El Paso; Harmon M. Hosch, University of Texas at El Paso; Clara Hernandez, UTEP- El Paso Public Defender; Robert Riley, UTEP-
El Paso Public Defender
In 2005, the El Paso Public Defenders office created a unit designed to handle mental health clients in the system. The Mental Health Unit has three
primary goals, most of which have been achieved in preliminary analyses. The first goal is making specialized resources available to mentally ill
clients. Secondly, the MHU wants to ensure proper placement of the clients, in a mental health facility or elsewhere. Finally, the unit was established
to provide the Public Defenders office a significant cost savings by ensuring appropriate placement of these clients, which should prevent them from
being continuously cycled through the system.
039. Do College Students Really Act Like Community Members in Jury Simulations? Not Always!
9:45 to 11:05 am
In the last 30 years, jury researchers have sometimes argued for increased ecological validity in mock jury research paradigms (c.f., Diamond, 1979) and at
other times for the insignificance of this issue (Bornstein, 1999; O'Neil, Patry, & Penrod; 2004). Bornstein (1999) informally reviewed 20 years of published
studies and found that the verisimilitude of mock jury research has been in decline, but that it did not matter because studies that compared student to non-
student samples found few differences. Still the courts have commonly dismissed jury research on relevance grounds. The question remains, "Can we support
empirically the conclusion that college student samples are similar enough to actual jurors with regard to cognitive, motivational, and emotional attributes to use
simulated studies with college student samples to generalize to actual cases?" This symposium presents 4 papers that compare college students to community
mock jurors in sexual assault, sexually violent predator, homicide, and high technology cases. We conclude that the importance of external and construct
validity is a complex issue that involves psychological variables, case facts, the law and the interaction of these factors. Our symposium ends with audience
discussion on the topic.
Chair: Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Differences between Students and Representative Mock Jurors in an SVP Hearing: Send the Jury Back. John McCabe; Daniel
Krauss, Claremont McKenna College; Joel Lieberman, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Despite concerns about generalizability and ecological validity, past mock trial research has found few differences between undergraduate and
community samples. In a mock sexual violent predator civil commitment hearing, responses of undergraduate students and representative mock jurors
were gathered and compared. Results indicated that students differed from representative mock jurors on several factors, including: 1) being less
confident in verdict; 2) evidencing a weaker gender bias towards commitment; 3) being less influenced by differences in expert testimony; and 4)
demonstrating a stronger rational cognitive processing style in decision-making.
Generic Prejudice in Students and Community Members: Is There a Difference? Stacie Nichols, University of Nebraska- Lincoln;
Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
While some researchers have concluded that few differences exist between community member and student populations on juror decision-making
tasks, the courts do not always agree. This study presented 20 criminal scenarios to community member and student participants and asked them to
make guilt decisions on each and to complete four bias measures. Results documented differences between the two groups on a variety of guilt
measures for both sexual assault and homicide scenarios. The way in which the two samples evaluated the scenarios and made guilt judgments were
different as were the effects of the bias measures predicting their judgments.
Apologetic and Alive? Capital Sentencing Decisions Based on Perception of Defendant Remorse. Desiree Adams, University of
Alabama; Stanley Brodsky, University of Alabama
Capital jurors have the task of deciding between a life and death sentence for a defendant. The overwhelming trend in the literature is that defendant
remorse impacts both community jurors' and mock jurors' sentencing decisions. However, no studies have compared the two samples regarding how
remorse specifically influences their decisions. The current study compared two community-juror samples and one college student sample on this
topic. Although quantitative analyses show weaker effects in student samples, qualitative comparisons showed that both samples responded to the
display of defendant remorse, or lack thereof, in a similar manner.
Old Dogs and New Tricks: Demographic Variables and Interest in Technology Implementation in the Courtroom. Michael P.
Griffin, University of Alabama
A series of four studies measured differences between jurors, a random-dial sample, a community college sample, and a conventional undergraduate
sample to measure differences on demographic variables and interest in the use of technology in court. Three of the data sets were specifically
collected to research this issue, while the final data set was collected during a mock trial simulation. Results suggest there are several differences in
expectations regarding technology implementation between the samples studied. Implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of
conducting future research and implementation of technology in the courtroom.
040. Use of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) in Forensic Settings
9:45 to 11:05 am
The MMPI-2-RF is a 338-item version of the instrument designed to assess the constructs measured by the MMPI-2 in a valid and efficient manner. It consists
of 50 scales: eight Validity Scales, three Higher-Order Scales that assess three broad dimensions of psychopathology, the nine Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales
added to the MMPI-2 in 2003, 23 Specific Problem Scales that assess various facets of the RC Scales, two general interest scales, and revised versions of the
PSY-5 Scales. The first paper provides a brief overview of the instrument. It will be followed by two presentations on the empirical correlates of the MMPI-2-
RF in pre-trial criminal, correctional, and civil settings. Criteria for the correlate analyses include historical behavioral and clinical data, and mental status and
diagnosis for the pre-trial criminal setting, other self-report measures for the correctional setting, and results of symptom validity testing for the civil setting.
The fourth presentation will be an MMPI-2-RF case study from a pre-trial forensic setting. The MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF protocols of a defendant evaluated for
competency to stand trial and an insanity plea will be presented. The discussion will focus on considerations in using the MMPI-2-RF in forensic assessments.
Chair: Yossef S Ben-Porath, Kent State University
Discussant: William Foote, University of New Mexico
An Overview of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form). Yossef S Ben-Porath, Kent State University
The MMPI-2-RF is a 338-item version of the instrument designed to assess the constructs measured by the MMPI-2 in a valid and efficient manner.
The test consists of 50 scales, including eight Validity Scales, three Higher-Order Scales that assess three broad dimensions of psychopathology, the
nine Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales added to the MMPI-2 in 2003, 23 Specific Problem Scales that assess various facets of the RC Scales, two
general interest scales, and revised versions of the PSY-5 Scales. A brief overview of the scales and available data on their use in forensic settings will
Utility of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) Validity Scales in Criminal and Civil Forensic Settings. Dustin Wygant, Summit
Psychological Associates; Yossef S Ben-Porath, Kent State University; Kathleen Stafford, Psycho-Diagnostic Clinic; David Berry,
University of Kentucky; Robert Gallagher, Department of Defense; David Freeman, Comprehensive Psychological Services, UCLA
Medical Center; Robert Heilbronner, Chicago Neuropsychology Group
The current study examined the utility of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) over-reporting validity scales (F-r, Fp-r, Fs and FBS-r) to
detect feigned psychiatric, somatic, and neurocognitive symptoms in the context of civil and criminal forensic settings, utilizing two simulation and
two known-groups samples. Cohen d values were large for Fs (.88) in the feigned head injury sample, Fp-r (1.64) in the feigned psychopathology
sample, FBS-r (1.45) in a personal injury/disability sample, and for F-r (1.69) in a criminal pre-trial sample. The four MMPI-2-RF over-reporting
indicators can assist in detecting threats to protocol validity in a variety of forensic settings.
Validity of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) in Forensic and Correctional Settings. Martin Sellbom, Kent State University;
Yossef S Ben-Porath, Kent State University; Kathleen Stafford, Psycho-Diagnostic Clinic; Diane Gartland, Michigan Department of
We examined the empirical correlates of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, in press) in a criminal forensic setting and
explored links between the MMPI-2-RF scales and personality dimensions in a correctional setting. The forensic sample consisted of 913 men and
327 women undergoing various court-ordered evaluations. The correctional sample consisted of 702 men tested at intake to a state correctional
reception center. Historical, mental status, and personality variables were available as criterion measures. MMPI-2-RF scales were associated with
conceptually relevant historical and personality criteria, providing evidence of the criterion and construct validity of the scales.
Use of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) in Forensic Practice Illustrated through a Competency/Sanity Case. Kathleen Stafford,
Use of the MMPI-2-RF in a forensic assessment is illustrated with a competency/sanity case. The case illustrates the utility of the test's Higher Order
Scales in assessing three broad-range areas of dysfunction (Emotional-Internalizing, Thought, and Behavioral-Externalizing), and the contribution of
the Specific Problem Scales in more narrowly focused and discrete areas of psychological and behavioral dysfunction. A comparison with the MMPI-
2 results for the same case will illustrate how MMPI-2-RF interpretation goes beyond use of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in
clarifying ambiguities in the results produced by the original Clinical Scales of the instrument.
041. The Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments-II
9:45 to 11:05 am
The fundamental due process protections established in the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona ruling were extended to juveniles in the landmark Kent v. U.S. (1966) and
In re Gault (1967) cases. Therefore, a juvenile suspect's statements offered during custodial interrogation are only admissible in court if police have provided the
suspect with warnings about his rights to silence and counsel. The suspect is entitled to waive his rights if he does so knowingly, intelligently, and voluntarily.
Since these protections were extended, psychologists and legal experts have questioned juveniles' capacities to understand their rights and judiciously exercise
them. In the late 1970s, Grisso, with a panel of lawyers and psychologists, developed the Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda
Rights to aid in determining juveniles' capacities to validly waive rights. Goldstein, Condie, and Grisso (in preparation) revised these instruments to maintain
their utility with youth today. This symposium will present the 1) underlying factor structure of the revised instruments, 2) psychometric properties of the
instruments, 3) results of the study examining juvenile offenders' comprehension of rights, and 4) comparison of results with Grisso's 1970's findings.
Chair: Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
Discussant: Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
Factor Structure of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments-II. Heather Zelle, Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel
University; Christina Riggs Romaine, Drexel University; Jennifer Serico, Drexel University; Stephanie Taormina, Drexel University
The Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Rights were created to assess individuals' basic understanding of the Miranda
rights (i.e., the knowing requirement) and their appreciation of waiving those rights (i.e., the intelligent requirement). The revised instruments, the
Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments - II, maintain that goal. It has been hypothesized that the component instruments load on two factors that
comprise the knowing and intelligent requirements. The current study utilizes confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the
MRCI-II. Data were collected from 183 youth in pre- and post-adjudication facilities in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.
Reliability and Validity of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments-II. Rachel Kalbeitzer, Drexel University; Naomi E.
Goldstein, Drexel University; Christina Riggs Romaine, Drexel University; Constance Mesiarik, Drexel University; Heather Zelle,
This paper will provide an overview of the psychometric properties of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments - II, a revision of Grisso's
(1998) Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights. Comparisons were made between the psychometric properties
of the revised instruments and those of the original instruments. Results revealed that changes made in the revised instruments maintained the utility
of the instruments while reflecting the norms of the 21st century. Similar reliability values were found when comparing data on the revised
instruments with the properties of the original instruments. Notable similarities and differences will be discussed.
Juveniles' Comprehension of the Miranda Warnings in the 21st Century. Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University; Christina Riggs
Romaine, Drexel University; Heather Zelle, Drexel University; Rachel Kalbeitzer, Drexel University; Jennifer Serico, Drexel University;
Lindsey Wrazien, Drexel University
Findings of a large-scale, multi-site study of juveniles' Miranda comprehension will be presented. Discussion will review the consistency between
current findings and the long-standing relationships between Miranda comprehension and age and IQ. Empirical evaluation of other factors commonly
considered in the totality of circumstances test will be presented. Preliminary results suggest that IQ remains the strongest predictor of Miranda
comprehension. Results also indicate that, although there is support for some factors considered in the totality of circumstances test (e.g., history of
special education), there is no supporting evidence of others (e.g., experience with police).
Then and Now: Comparing Juveniles' Comprehension of the Miranda Warning in the 1970s and Today. Christina Riggs Romaine,
Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University; Heather Zelle, Drexel University; Anna M. Heilbrun, Drexel University;
Melinda Wolbransky, Drexel University & Villanova University
Data assessing youths' understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights were collected from 183 juvenile offenders at pre- and post-adjudication
facilities in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. To examine how youths' understanding of the Miranda warning has changed over the past 30 years,
findings from this study were compared with those produced by Grisso's 1970s' research. Results suggest that today's youth do not understand their
rights any better than did their 1970s' counterparts, and, on some measures of understanding, today's juveniles demonstrated significantly worse
understanding. Verbal IQ continued to be the strongest predictor of Miranda rights comprehension.
042. Macro and Micro Factors Influencing Pathways to Risk and Resilience among Young Female Offenders
9:45 to 11:05 am
Despite a growing number of incarcerated women and girls within the justice system, this population in not well understood. Further, male-based risk and
protective factors have yet to be substantiated with this population. This symposium examines the influence of macro and micro factors on the risk and
resilience outcomes of young female offenders. We seek to examine the trajectories of these young women from multiple levels of risk, including individual,
relational, educational and societal. Specifically, we will examine Axis I and Axis II psychopathology, peer relationships, educational success, community
violence exposure, and neighborhood disadvantage. Data are presented from an in-depth longitudinal study of young female offenders. Participants were first
assessed during incarceration and then followed up approximately 1-year after release. The implications of these data for understanding the treatment and
prevention needs of young female offenders are discussed.
Chair: Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia
Discussant: Edward P. Mulvey, University of Pittsburgh
Relationship Between Mental Health Symptoms and Violent vs. Delinquent Forms of Aggression among Female Adolescent
Offenders. Tara Grover, University of Virginia; Preeti Chauhan, University of Virginia; Emily Marston, University of Virginia; Jessica
Owen, University of Virginia; Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia
The present study examines the relationship between mental health symptoms and violent and delinquent forms of aggression among girls previously
incarcerated in a juvenile correctional facility. The presence of a mental health disorder at the time of incarceration was significantly related to
offending behaviors following their release. Moreover, depression was found to have a unique predictive effect on violent offending, while anxiety
and attention disorders significantly predict delinquent behaviors. These results suggest that it is important to consider the unique developmental
trajectories of female offending behaviors when designing treatment and supervision programs for girls re-entering their communities.
Cluster B Pathology and Future Violence, Criminal Recidivism, and Psychopathology among High Risk Girls. Mandi L. Burnette,
Stanford University School of Medicine; Preeti Chauhan, University of Virginia; Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia
We examined the longitudinal association between three previously derived Cluster B personality factors, and self-reported violence, recidivism, and
psychopathology, among 102 high risk girls. Wave I included an assessment of personality using a structured interview; violence, recidivism, and
psychopathology were assessed approximately 1-year later using self-report and official records. Analyses revealed a unique pattern of associations
between the three factors and outcomes at 1-year, suggesting predictive utility in the use of Cluster B pathology to predict later outcomes.
Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to their promise for creating tailored interventions for high risk girls and women.
An Investigation of the Impact of Peer Delinquency and Community Violence on Girls Antisocial Behavior. Emily Marston,
University of Virginia; Preeti Chauhan, University of Virginia; Barabara Oudekerk, University of Virginia; Nicholas Reppucci,
University of Virginia
This study examined longitudinal relations among aggressive girls' associations with delinquent peers, exposure to community violence and antisocial
behaviors. Participants in Wave 1 were 140 incarcerated adolescent females (M age = 16.2). In Wave 2, data were obtained from 102 of the original
participants (M age = 18.9), whom had been released into the community for at least six months. After accounting for childhood victimization, peer
delinquency and exposure to community violence predicted higher levels of girls' antisocial behavior. Importantly, preliminary results indicate that
peer delinquency mediated the impact of exposure to community violence on antisocial behavior.
Neighborhood Disadvantage, Violence Exposure, and Antisocial Behavior among Female Juvenile Offenders. Preeti Chauhan,
University of Virginia; Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia; Mandi L. Burnette, Stanford University School of Medicine
The proposed study examines the impact of neighborhood disadvantage and violence exposure on future antisocial behavior among incarcerated
female juvenile offenders. Data were assessed via census tracts, self report surveys, and official police statistics. Results indicate that these girls come
from considerably more disadvantaged (i.e., more female-headed households, poverty, and unemployment) neighborhoods as compared to the State as
a whole. Furthermore, results suggest that violence exposure within the neighborhood is related to neighborhood disadvantage. While neither
neighborhood disadvantage nor violence exposure predicted self reported violent behavior, neighborhood disadvantage was predictive of re-arrest,
even after adjusting for individual level risk factors.
Educational Outcomes of Previously Incarcerated Female Youth. Barabara Oudekerk, University of Virginia; Preeti Chauhan,
University of Virginia; Emily Marston, University of Virginia; Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia
This study was an initial investigation of educational outcomes for formerly incarcerated female adolescents. Participants were 102 previously
incarcerated female juvenile offenders who had been released from a juvenile correctional facility for at least 6 months. Although youth's educational
characteristics suggested they were at great risk for academic failure, 37.2% had received a GED or high school diploma. Logistic regression analyses
revealed significant effects of age, past academic achievement, special education experience, and perceptions of opportunity on academic attainment
by late adolescence, all in expected directions. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.
043. Cross-Race Effect in Face Identification: New Research on Theoretical and Practical Aspects of the Phenomenon
9:45 to 11:05 am
This symposium will highlight the latest research on the cross-race effect in face identification - the finding that memory for faces of one's own race is superior
to that of memory for other-race faces. The studies presented herein represent attempts by the authors to gain a better understanding of the cognitive and social
psychological mechanisms responsible for the effect, and thereafter to apply these findings to issues of identification in the field. The symposium will begin by
discussing the early perceptual processes of racial categorization and perceptual identification, and their relation with subsequent processes involving long-term
recognition of own- and other-race faces. These studies lend significantly to our understanding of mechanisms that may be responsible for deficits in other-race
face processing. The final two presentations will focus on the role of professional experience and interracial contact, and the potential moderating effects of
instructions to witnesses at the time of identification. These studies seek to inform both theory and application to investigators and witnesses operating in the
Chair: Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso
Cross-racial Identification and Classification: A Cognitive Gating Mechanism for Faces. Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa;
M. Kimberly MacLin, University of Northern Iowa; Dwight Peterson, University of Northern Iowa
The research presented here examines the role of a cognitive gating mechanism on the perception of race, racial classification, and how it affects the
memory of other-race faces and faces determined to be those of the "out-group." Based on research by MacLin and Malpass (2001), and other
research that followed, MacLin and MacLin (in press) developed a hypothesis that a cognitive gating mechanism evolved through evolutionary
pressures to route facial information from out-group members to be processed differentially and in different brain regions. The data presented here is
an overview of our research and methodology used to test and examine this proposed cognitive gating mechanism.
Perceptual Identification and the Cross-Race Effect in a Visual Search Task. Jessica L. Marcon, University of Texas at El Paso;
Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso; Kyle Joseph Susa, University of Texas at El Paso; Michael Frueh, University of
Texas at El Paso; Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa
The current research examined early-stage perceptual processes that may play a role in the cross-race effect. Using a visual search paradigm, a series
of 3 experiments were conducted. In these experiments, various manipulations included the size of the identification set, encoding time, and retention
interval. Results suggest that there is evidence that the CRE can be found in the perceptual processing of faces and the practical implications will be
Temporal Mediators of Cross-Race Face Recognition. Kyle Joseph Susa, University of Texas at El Paso; Christian A. Meissner,
University of Texas at El Paso; Dirk de Heer, University of Texas at El Paso
While the Cross-race effect (CRE) has most often been demonstrated in recognition memory, its effects have also been found in temporally preceding
cognitive stages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the psychological underpinnings of the CRE by using a path-model analysis to
estimate how temporally proceeding mechanisms may mediate the cross-race effects demonstrated in recognition memory. Specifically, results
estimated the mediating influences of interracial contact and social attitudes along with racial categorization, perceptual discrimination, and
recollection. Temporal models assessing own-race faces, other-race faces, and difference scores will be discussed. Parameter estimates between the
models suggests that own-race face recognition is strongly mediated by recollection, while other-race face recognition is more strongly mediated by
Patrolling the Borders: Will Police Officers Perform Better than Bank Employees and Students with Out-group Faces? Siegfried
Ludwig Sporer, University of Giessen; Juergen Gehrke, Nottingham Trent University
The contact hypothesis and Sporer's (2001) in-group/out-group model propose better processing performance for out-group faces with increasing out-
group contact. Thirty-two border patrol officers (high contact) were compared with 32 bank employees and 64 students with Afro-American,
Hispanic, Turkish (out-group), and German (in-group) faces in a face recognition and a delayed-matching task. For all three groups, there was better
performance with increasing likelihood of contact on both tasks. Patrol officers were better with Black faces at the recognition task and better with
Black, Hispanic, and Turkish faces at the matching task.
Instructing Away the Cross-Race Effect: Does Timing Matter? Cindy Laub, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Brian H. Bornstein,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kyle Joseph Susa, University of Texas at El Paso; Jessica L. Marcon, University of Texas at El Paso;
Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso
This paper examines the potential effect of instructions at the time of study and identification in moderating the cross-race effect. The results of
several studies in this line of research will be discussed that examine both the theoretical and practical implications of instructional manipulations.
044. Child and Adolescent Psychopathic Traits: Further Investigating the Contribution to Delinquency and Aggression
9:45 to 11:05 am
Although child and adolescent psychopathic traits are promising risk factors for aggression and delinquency, further research is warranted to examine its
contribution to a greater array of negative outcomes. More specifically, examining the magnitude of associations and whether psychopathic traits demonstrate
incremental validity as these have important clinical and forensic implications for juvenile risk assessment. Utilizing multiple measures of psychopathic traits,
this symposium brings together five papers to investigate the relationship between psychopathic traits and recidivism, institutional maladjustment, and
aggression. The first paper found that the PCL:YV and self-report APSD did not predict violent recidivism, but did predict non-violent recidivism, in juvenile
offenders. The second and third papers found that psychopathic traits, assessed with the PCL:YV, APSD, SRP-II, PAI-ANT, and self-report MACI, were
moderately associated with recidivism in juvenile offenders. However, the magnitude of the relations varied across measures and the self-report MACI was not
associated with institutional maladjustment beyond other risk factors. The fourth paper found that deficient affect was associated with reactive and instrumental
aggression, and violent and non-violent offending in high-risk youth. The fifth paper found that callous-unemotional traits were associated with self-reported
proactive physical and relational aggression, and peer-rated bullying in a community sample of children.
Chair: Zina Lee, University of Alabama
Discussant: Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
Psychopathic Traits in Juvenile Offenders: A Prospective Study of Criminal Recidivism. Zina Lee, University of Alabama; Jessica
Klaver, Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center; Marlene M Moretti, Simon Fraser University
Recent equivocal evidence regarding the utility of psychopathic traits in predicting recidivism in youth samples highlights the need for prospective
studies. The current study examined the ability of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare,
2003) and the self-report Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; A. A. Caputo, P. J. Frick, & S. L. Brodsky, 1999) to predict one-year
recidivism in a sample of 113 male juvenile offenders. Results indicated that psychopathic traits predicted non-violent reoffending, but not violent
reoffending, suggesting that such traits may be less salient than presumed in the context of risk assessment.
Child Psychopathy and Recidivism: A Prospective Study. Randall T. Salekin, University of Alabama
This study examined the ability of psychopathy as indexed by four different scales (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003; APSD;
P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, 2001; SRP-II; R. D. Hare, 1991; PAI-ANT; Morey, 1991) to prospectively predict antisocial outcomes including non-violent
and violent recidivism across a three year time span. Results indicated that psychopathy was predictive of both non-violent and violent recidivism.
These findings add to the recent research showing stability by demonstrating that psychopathy in adolescents also has a cost to society with higher
rates of offending in the community.
The Incremental Validity of Self-Reported Psychopathy Features in the Prediction of Institutional Maladjustment and Recidivism
Among Severe Male Juvenile Offenders. Melanie Butler, Florida State University; Bryan Loney, Florida State University
There is an increasing interest in psychopathic traits as a predictor of institutional maladjustment and recidivism among juvenile offenders. However,
research has generally failed to assess the incremental validity of psychopathic traits as a risk variable. Data will be presented on 489 adolescent male
juvenile offenders committed to a maximum security detention facility. Criminal history, cognitive functioning, impulse control, and self-reported
psychopathic traits were assessed during routine orientation procedures. In multivariate analyses, psychopathic traits failed to contribute uniquely to
the prediction of institutional maladjustment indices but did exhibit a modest and unique contribution to recidivism. Implications will be discussed.
The Roles of Affect Regulation and Deficient Affect in Youth Violence: A Comparison of Different Age Groups. Stephanie Penney,
Simon Fraser University; Marlene M Moretti, Simon Fraser University
Children with high levels of dysregulated affect and negative reactivity experience a range of emotional and behavioral problems, including low levels
of prosocial behavior, aggression and delinquency. Alongside this research, studies have demonstrated a link between low levels of emotional
reactivity and aggression. The current study employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the joint contributions of affect
dysregulation and deficient affect in predicting aggression and violence in a sample of 179 adolescents. Results show that affect dysregulation and
deficient affect are independently related to aggression, but highlight important differences with respect to their functioning in older versus younger
Self and Peer Perceptions of Bullying and Aggression in a Community Sample of Boys and Girls with Callous-Unemotional Traits.
Annie Crapanzo, University of New Orleans; Paul J. Frick, University of New Orleans; Andrew Terranova, Rutgers University-Newark
Individuals with callous-unemotional traits tend to exhibit a lack of empathy, guilt, and emotional expression. This study investigates 282 non-
referred boys and girls who are high on CU traits and compares them to classmates low on these traits on self-reports of physical aggression, relational
aggression, bullying, and on peer ratings of bullying behavior. The results support the association between CU traits, aggression and bullying
behavior, and findings support that this is true for both boys and girls and for both self-report and peer-reported measures. Further, the current study
supports the importance of not just studying bullying behavior itself, but also studying student's behavior that may encourage bullying of other
045. Juries and the Death Penalty
11:15 to 12:15 pm
Chair: Brooke Butler, University of South Florida-Sarasota
Comprehensibility of Capital Murder Instructions: The Effects of Motivation and Simplified Flow Charts. Richard Wiener,
University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Erin Maria Richter, University of Nebraska at Lincoln; Amy Humke, University of Nebraska-Lincoln;
Evelyn Maeder, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Researchers induced motivational states in jury eligible, death qualified mock jurors and showed them a reenacted video of a first-degree murder trial.
Mock jurors completed a jury instruction, comprehension survey and sentenced the guilty defendant to either life in prison or death. Results showed
that jurors in a promotional state induced through memories of their own life experiences showed lower instruction comprehension, while those in a
promotion state induced through rewritten instructions scored higher on declarative knowledge of state instructions. Motivation did not influence
sentencing. The paper discusses the motivational limits of improving jury instruction comprehension in death penalty cases.
The Role of Anger in Juror Decision making in Capital Murder Cases. Leah C. Skovran, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Richard
Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
This research studied emotional fluctuations that mock jurors report during a capital murder trial. Prior research shows that anger leads people to
make responsibility attributions to others for negative events (Lerner & Tiedens, 2006). Using a series of experimentally induced stopping points, this
research demonstrated that changes in anger but not its absolute experience increases the certainty of a death sentence in a capital murder trial.
Furthermore, for men anger increased slowly and then dropped rapidly at the end of the trial, while for women it increased rapidly and then dropped
off slowly. Other fluctuating emotions did not influence sentences.
How Jurors Discuss a Defendant's Childhood Maltreatment When They are Deliberating on Death. Margaret C. Stevenson,
University of Illinois at Chicago; Bette L. Bottoms, University of Illinois at Chicago; Shari Seidman Diamond, Northwestern University
School of Law; Irmina Stec, University of Illinois at Chicago; Pamela Samantha Pimentel, University of Illinois at Chicago
We conducted a detailed content analysis of jury deliberations to explore psychological mechanisms underlying jurors' use of a defendant's history of
childhood abuse in deciding whether to sentence a defendant to death. First, all jurors' deliberation statements were coded for arguments to ignore the
child abuse or to use it as mitigating evidence or aggravating evidence. Second, employing attribution theory, we coded statements for evidence of
stable/unstable and controllable/uncontrollable attributions about the abuse history. Third, we tested theoretically derived hypotheses about how
jurors' attributions are influenced by juror gender, death penalty attitudes, and juror political affiliation.
Is "More" Mitigation "Better?" A Comparison of the Additive and Averaging Models in Capital Cases. Brooke Butler, University of
South Florida-Sarasota; Gary Moran, Florida International University
The purpose of the current study is to correlate level of support for the death penalty, death-qualification status, attitudes toward the death penalty
(ATDP), and legal authoritarianism (RLAQ) with both sentence preference and evaluations of different strengths of mitigation presented during a
capital trial. 240 venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in the specific research state participated in this study. Results indicated that level of
mitigation, level of support for the death penalty, death-qualification status, and scores on the ATDP and RLAQ were related to both sentence
preference and evaluations of mitigation. Legal implications and applications are discussed.
046. Distinguished Contributions to Psychology and Law Award: Dr. Stanley Brodsky
11:15 to 12:15 pm
The AP-LS Award for Distinguished Contribution to Psychology and Law honors those who have made distinguished theoretical, empirical, and/or applied
contributions to the field of psychology and law.
Picketing the New Hampshire State Prison, and Getting From There to Here. Stanley Brodsky, University of Alabama
Award addresses usually take the path of presentation of current research or the more personal path of how a career evolved in the context of
emerging knowledge and practice. The latter path will be followed for this address. The points along this path include, as the title indicates, picketing
the New Hampshire State Prison in the era of McCarthyism, participating in founding both the American Psychology-Law Society and the journal
Criminal Justice & Behavior, appreciating the issues involved in expert testimony, helping establish the psychology-law program at the University of
Alabama, and (perhaps most unlikely) Black Panthers.
Kirk Heilbrun, Drexel University
047. Children's Credibility and Memory
11:15 to 12:15 pm
Chair: Deborah A. Connolly, Simon Fraser University
Children's Memory for a Routine and Deviation from the Routine. Heidi M. Gordon, Simon Fraser University; Deborah A. Connolly,
Simon Fraser University; Heather L. Price, University of Regina
Children's memory for an instance of a repeated event, during which something unusual occurred, was examined. In Experiment 1, children watched
one or four magic shows containing details that varied across instances. Another magician interrupted children who saw one show and half who saw
four shows. The interruption facilitated memory for routine details, but repeated experience did not improve memory for the interruption. Experiment
2 included a condition in which children watched four identical shows. Results suggest that memory for the interruption improved when embedded in
a routine of fixed details. Forensic implications for child eyewitnesses are discussed.
Support Person Use and Child Victim Testimony: Believe it or Not. Chrislyn Nefas, California State University, Northridge; Eric S.
Neal, California State University, Northridge; Kelly Maurice, California State University, Northridge; Bradley D. McAuliff, California
State University, Northridge
We examined the effects of support person use on mock jurors' perceptions in a child sexual abuse case. Jury-eligible undergraduates (N=150)
watched an 11 year-olds' courtroom testimony given in the presence or absence of a support person. We hypothesized that support person presence
would lower children's perceived accuracy and trustworthiness, but would not affect perceptions of defendant guilt. Results confirmed our hypotheses.
Participants perceived the child to be less accurate and trustworthy when accompanied versus unaccompanied by a support person; however, support
person presence did not influence perceptions of defendant guilt. Implications for legal practice and research will be discussed.
The Role of Authenticity in Children's Memory and Suggestibility for a Stressful Event. Yoojin Chae, University of California, Davis;
Else-Marie Augusti, University of California, Davis; Rakel Larson, University of California, Davis; Deborah Alley, University of
California, Davis; Robin Hansen, University of California, Davis; Gail Goodman, University of California, Davis
Children's memory for stressful events has been a crucial issue in legal cases. This study examined associations between memory for inoculations and
several individual difference variables. Use of body diagrams to recount inoculations was also investigated. Age differences in memory performance
were robust. Overall, children accurately answered interview questions, but two children made false accusations of sexual assault, when asked abuse-
related misleading questions. Parental authenticity (i.e., higher scores on measures of exploration of and openness to discussion of internal states, true-
self behavior, and intimate relationships) predicted children's resistance to misleading questions. Body diagrams were associated with memory
accuracy and inaccuracy.
How Judges Describe their Evaluations of Credibility of Delayed and Timely Child Sexual Abuse Prosecutions. Deborah A.
Connolly, Simon Fraser University; Heather L. Price, University of Regina; Heidi M. Gordon, Simon Fraser University
Credibility judgments can be one of the most difficult and important tasks for triers of fact. Much of the research concerning evaluations of credibility
is based on interviews, surveys, or vignette studies. In this research, we analyzed full-text reports of criminal proceedings to explore how judges
described their assessments of complainant credibility in cases of alleged child sexual abuse that occurred in the recent or distant past. Judges
discussed credibility differently in cases that ended in convictions versus acquittals and somewhat differently if there was a long versus short delay
from the end of the alleged abuse to trial
048. Perspectives on Deception Detection
11:15 to 12:15 pm
Chair: Hugues Herve, Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission; The Ekman Group-Training Division
Are Immediate Judgments Better at Detecting Deception than Deliberative Judgments? Justin Albrechtsen, University of Texas at El
Paso; Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso; Allyson J Horgan, University of Texas at El Paso; Kyle Joseph Susa,
University of Texas at El Paso; Saul Kassin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Recent research in our laboratory has suggested that intuitive approaches to deception detection may improve the accuracy of distinguishing between
true and false accounts. The current study extends this research by employing a more practical manipulation of processing type in which participants
are instructed to enact in deliberative vs. intuitive processing as they attempt to detect deception. The theoretical and practical aspects of the results of
this line of research will be discussed.
Situational Familiarity and the Use of Nonverbal and Verbal Information in Judgments of Veracity. Marc-Andre Reinhard,
University of Mannheim; Siegfried Ludwig Sporer, University of Giessen
According to the assumptions of the situational-familiarity hypothesis, only high familiarity with a situation leads to the use of verbal information
when making judgments of veracity. Under low situational familiarity, people predominantly use nonverbal information for their judgments. In both
Experiments 1 and 2, as predicted, when familiarity was low, only the nonverbal cues influenced participants' judgments of veracity. In contrast,
participants in the high familiar condition used only the verbal cues. Experiments 3 and 4 furthermore found that participants with high situational
familiarity achieved higher accuracy in classifying truthful and deceptive messages than participants with low situational familiarity.
Effect of Interview Modality on Report Consistency: A Novel Approach to Deception Detection. Drew Leins, Florida International
University; Ronald Fisher, Florida International University
This study investigated the ability of liars and truth-tellers to consistently report spatial information across two different interview modalities. A 2 (liar
vs. truth-teller) x 2 (short vs. long inter-interview delay), between-subjects design was used. Participants were interviewed initially via verbal report
and subsequently via spatial sketch re: a target event. Liars were less consistent across report modality than were truth tellers. Results indicate that
cognitive differences between liars and truth-tellers can be detected via tests of their cognitive performance, specifically, their ability to process
Assessing Credibility in Correctional and Forensic Psychiatric Contexts: An Empirically-Based Practical Approach. Hugues Herve,
Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission; The Ekman Group-Training Division; Barry S. Cooper, Forensic Psychiatric Services
Commission; John Yuille, University of British Columbia; The Ekman Group-Training Division
Due to clear secondary gains, deception in not uncommonly experienced in forensic settings. Unfortunately, the research indicates that professionals
are generally unable to accurately detect deception, particularly in face-to-face interactions. This results in both false positive and negative errors,
often with dire consequences. The proposed talk will provide: (1) an overview of the popular myths and barriers to the accurate assessment of
credibility assessment; (2) a review of the existing research in this area; (3) an introduction to an empirically-based practical approach to evaluating
truthfulness; and (4) suggestions regarding implementing research-based credibility assessment in institutional contexts.
049. Alternative Dispute Resolution
11:15 to 12:15 pm
Chair: Donna Shestowsky, University of California, Davis School of Law
Good Lawyers Should Be Good Psychologists: Insights for Interviewing and Counseling Clients. Jean R. Sternlight, University of
Nevada, Las Vegas; Jennifer Robbennolt, University of Illinois College of Law
The best attorneys are not only great legal analysts but also great with people. Whether an attorney is dealing with her own or opposing clients,
opposing counsel, judges, jurors, witnesses, or ADR neutrals, effective lawyering requires an understanding of how people perceive, think, learn,
remember, and communicate. Yet, law school focuses almost exclusively on legal analysis, and lawyers typically improve their people skills (if at all)
only through sometimes painful on-the-job training. This paper explores the numerous ways in which psychological research is relevant to the practice
of interviewing and counseling clients and identifies areas that are ripe for psycholegal exploration.
Divorce Mediation: The Second Generation. Lola Nouryan, Hofstra University; Martha Weisel, Hofstra University
Mediation has achieved a growing acceptance as a method of resolving matrimonial disputes in a less adversarial manner. This paper explores
changes that have occurred in state legislation sanctioning divorce mediation over the last five years. The literature supports the benefits to all parties
of mediation in moderating the intensity of these conflicts. The authors examine the expansion of topics subject to mediation as well as the type of
mediation required, qualifications of mediators and funding procedures.
IPV in the Context of Divorce Mediation. Connie J. A. Beck, University of Arizona; Mindy B Mechanic, California State University-
Fullerton; Michele E. Walsh, University of Arizona
Divorce mediation is premised on the idea that disputing parties can meaningfully participate in a confidential, collaborative dispute resolution
process with a neutral third party, in a less adversarial forum than a courtroom. However, strong arguments have been made against mandating
mediation when intimate partner violence ("IPV") is present. This study used archival court documents to evaluate IPV screening in a large sample of
mediated cases. We will present the frequencies and type of abuse reported by gender and the accommodations provided to IPV victims. We will also
present the number of and types of cases screened out of mediation.
Civil Disputants' Perceptions of Dispute Resolution Options: A Longitudinal Empirical Study. Donna Shestowsky, University of
California, Davis School of Law; Jeanne Brett, Kellogg School of Management
Civil disputants have more procedural options than ever before. They can settle via negotiation, mediation, arbitration, trial or other alternatives.
Courts and lawyers that advise disputants about their options face the challenge of understanding how disputants perceive their choices. To date, no
published research has assessed disputants' perceptions both before and after experiencing a dispute resolution procedure, for the same dispute. Thus,
existing research disregards ways in which perceptions might evolve over time. To fill this gap, we present the first pre- and post-experience
longitudinal field study of actual civil disputants. Recommendations for court policy and client counseling are discussed.
050. Attorneys, Attitudes, and Jurors' Decision Making
1:30 to 2:30 pm
Chair: Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Legal Attitudes Questionnaire: Assessing Validity within Anglo and Hispanic Samples.
Stephen James Ross, University of Texas at El Paso; Scott E Culhane, University of Wyoming; Osvaldo F Morera, University of Texas at
The Legal Attitudes Questionnaire (LAQ) is one of the most commonly used measures of juror bias. There are currently 3 hypothesized factor
structures for the LAQ (Boehm, 1968; Kravitz, Cutler, & Brock, 1993; Couch & Sundre, 2001), however, the factor structure of the measure has
never been confirmed. This research assessed the factor structure and predictive validity of the LAQ within separate Anglo and Hispanic samples.
Analyses confirmed that one model (Couch & Sundre, 2001) provided statistically superior fit and stronger predictive validity estimates. Implications
of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Do Attorney Expectations Influence the Voir Dire Process? Sarah Greathouse, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Caroline
B. Crocker, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Julia Clara Busso, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jacqueline
Lynn Austin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Joe Vitriol, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer
Torkildson, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Attorneys' expectations about jurors' attitudes may influence the types of questions attorneys pose to jurors during voir dire, the responses elicited
from jurors, and the decisions attorneys make about whether to exclude a juror (i.e., behavioral confirmation). In addition, attorneys' and jurors'
motivational goals during voir dire may influence the strength of a behavioral confirmation effect. To test these hypotheses, we manipulated law
students' expectations about jurors and attorneys' and jurors' motivational goals during voir dire. Results indicate that attorneys' expectations influence
their ratings of the juror and that this effect is moderated by the attorneys' and jurors' motivations.
Hypothesis Testing in Voir Dire: Information Gathering and Inference. Caroline B. Crocker, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Julia Clara Busso, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Sarah Greathouse, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
We investigated attorneys' hypothesis testing strategies during voir dire. Attorneys read a juror profile (varying characteristics that indicate level of
death penalty support) and formulated two voir dire questions to test either the hypothesis that the juror supports the death penalty or that the juror
opposes the death penalty. Attorneys and observers provided probability estimates for the percentage of pro and anti-death penalty people who would
answer yes to the questions. Attorneys did not demonstrate an overall preference for a positive test strategy. Attorneys tended to conclude juror
support for the death penalty regardless of the type of question asked.
Playing the Race Card: Race Salience in Attorney Opening and Closing Statements. Donald Bucolo, University of New Hampshire;
Ellen Cohn, University of New Hampshire
Utilizing an aversive racism framework (Dovidio & Gaertner, 2004) we manipulated race salience (Sommers & Ellsworth, 2000) in defense attorney's
opening and closing statements to determine if highlighting a black defendant's race in these statements would increase the likelihood that a black
defendant would be found not guilty. White jurors were less likely to find a black defendant guilty when race was made salient than when race was
not made salient. These findings support the contention that "playing the race card" is a beneficial trial tactic that reduces white jurors' inclination to
find a black defendant guilty.
051. Assisted Outpatient Treatment: Emerging Research on Kendra's Law
1:30 to 2:30 pm
Mandating adherence to mental health treatment in the community is among the most contested human rights issues in mental health law. While most American
jurisdictions have statutes nominally authorizing outpatient commitment—a legal order to adhere to prescribed treatment in the community—until recently few
states made substantial use of these laws. With the enactment of assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) in New York in 1999, in California in 2003, and in Florida,
Michigan, and West Virginia in 2005, and the tragic deaths at Virginia Tech in the wake of a failed outpatient commitment order, policy interest in this topic has
soared. AOT can best be understood in the context of a broad movement to apply available "leverage" to induce people with serious mental disorder to become
engaged in treatment. This symposium will review new research underway in New York to evaluate Kendra's Law, the largest and most intensively
operationalized AOT program in the US. Presentations will provide an overview of AOT in the context of mandated community treatment, recent research on
AOT across the US, stakeholder views on the operation of the Kendra's Law and findings on alleged racial bias in application of the law.
Chair: Marvin Swartz, Duke University
Discussant: John Monahan, University of Virginia School of Law
Outpatient Commitment in the Context of Other Treatment Mandates. John Monahan, University of Virginia School of Law
Much of the debate on outpatient commitment assumes that court-ordered treatment in the community is simply an extension of long-existing policies
authorizing involuntary commitment in a hospital inpatient. In fact, however, outpatient commitment is only one of many forms of "leverage" being
used to mandate adherence to psychological and psychiatric treatment in community settings. In the social welfare system, benefits disbursed by
money managers and the provision of subsidized housing are both used to assure treatment adherence. Similarly, for people who commit a criminal
offense, adherence to psychiatric treatment may be made a condition of probation. Favorable disposition of a case by a mental health court may also
be tied to treatment participation. Psychiatric/Psychological Advance Directives can be thought of as a form of "self-mandated" treatment. The
MacArthur Foundation's Research Network on Mandated Community Treatment is engaged in a broad program of research on the uses of leverage to
promote adherence to mental health services in the community. This presentation will provide an overview of the Network's conceptual framework
and its early empirical findings on forms of leverage in addition to outpatient commitment.
Recent US Research on Assisted Outpatient Treatment. Marvin Stanley Swartz, Duke University Medical Center
Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC), also referred to as assisted outpatient treatment, is a legal intervention intended to improve treatment
adherence among persons with serious mental illness. This presentation reviews the empirical literature on the effectiveness of the procedure. US
studies of outpatient commitment and related procedures are identified and reviewed. Existing naturalistic and quasi-experimental studies, taken as a
whole, moderately support the effectiveness of the procedure, although all have methodologic limitations. Two randomized controlled studies of
involuntary outpatient commitment have conflicting findings and are reviewed in detail. On balance, empirical studies may modestly support the
effectiveness of involuntary outpatient commitment under particular conditions, though some of the evidence has been contested and the policy
Is the Implementation of Kendra's Law Racially Biased? Jeffrey Swanson, Duke University
This presentation will critically examine evidence for racial disparity in the application of involuntary outpatient commitment in New York State. In
1999, joining 41 other states with outpatient commitment statutes, the New York State legislature enacted Kendra's Law, establishing Assisted
Outpatient Treatment (AOT). Groups opposed to compulsory outpatient treatment on civil rights grounds alleged that Kendra's Law was being applied
in a racially discriminatory manner. In this presentation, we place the question of racial disparity under AOT in a larger context. This analysis shows
that the overrepresentation of blacks in AOT is nested within a much broader phenomenon of systemic, poverty-based racial disparities in the public
mental health service system. Implications for AOT policy are discussed.
Stakeholder Views of Kendra's Law in New York State. Pamela Clark Robbins, Policy Research Associates
The recent report on the effectiveness of Kendra's Law in New York State revealed considerable variation in rates of use across New York. This
variability raises numerous questions about its source. Are criteria for Kendra's Law applied differently across the state? Do programs vary widely in
referrals, recommendations to the court, resources to apply the law or other factors? As part of an independent evaluation of Kendra's Law being
conducted by Duke University and Policy Resource Associates with support of the New York State Office of Mental Health and the MacArthur
Research Network on Mandated Community Treatment stakeholders involved in the Assisted Outpatient Treatment process are being interviewed
about their views on these questions. This presentation will provide preliminary findings from these stakeholder interviews.
052. Saleem Shah Award 2006: Dr. Candice Odgers
1:30 to 2:30 pm
The Saleem Shah Award is co-sponsored by the American Psychology-Law Society (APA Division 41) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology.
The award is for early career excellence and contributions to the field of psychology and law.
A New Look at Antisocial Children Grown Up: Health, Heritability and "Hell to pay"? Candice L. Odgers, University of California,
There is currently great interest in identifying factors that explain why some children make a successful transition away from antisocial behavior,
while others do not. This talk will leverage new tools from developmental science against the classic question of what happens to "antisocial children
grown up". State-of-the-art assessments of behavior and health are now available alongside environmental and genetic risk factors in the same
longitudinal studies. This talk will present newly-available data from a 30-year longitudinal study that is providing fresh insights into the causes and
consequences of persistent antisocial behavior. Bio-marker research linking developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior to poor adult physical
health will be presented and the role of early exposure to drugs and alcohol in altering these trajectories will be discussed. A consideration of the
interplay between mental and physical-health across development will be used to recalibrate the expected "costs" and "course" of antisocial behavior
with an eye toward implications for research and public policy.
Joel Dvoskin, University of Arizona
Mary Alice Conroy, Sam Houston State University
053. Adult Sex Offenders
1:30 to 2:30 pm
Chair: Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University
Understanding the Development and Implications of Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders. Sarah L Miller, University of Alabama; Emily
E. Wakeman, University of Alabama; Carl Clements, University of Alabama; Wesley Church, University of Alabama
Recent research has sought to gain empirical knowledge about public perceptions of sex offenders (Church, Wakeman, Miller, Clements, & Sun, in
press), which has resulted in the development of a sex offender specific attitudes measure. While the study of current attitudes is important,
knowledge about the development of these attitudes has implications for education and policy development. Thus, the current study seeks to examine
the sources of attitudes toward sex offenders, as well as their relation to other attitudes and life experiences.
Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Predictors. Naomi J Freeman, University at Albany,
School of Criminal Justice; Jeffrey C. Sandler, University at Albany, School of Criminal Justice
Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of
780 female and male sex offenders in a northern state, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for
the two offender groups. Results suggested that male sex offenders were significantly more likely than female sex offenders to be re-arrested for both
sexual and non-sexual offenses. However, limited differences in terms of risk factors between female and male sex offenders were found.
Dimensions of Sex Offender Risk in a Sample of Civilly Committed Sexual Offenders. Rebecca Jackson, Pacific Graduate School of
Psychology; Lisa Mathews, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology
The current project extends the work of Roberts, Doren, and Thornton's (2002) dimensions of sex offender recidivism risk. Using the Static-99 and
the Risk Matrix 2000, Roberts et al. identified 3 dimensions of sex offender risk: General Criminality, Sexual Deviance, and Detachment. These
authors found that each of these dimensions independently predicted risk for sexual recidivism. The current study sought to investigate the utility of
this three factor model by testing its correlates in a sample of civilly committed and detained sexual offenders.
Predictive Validity of the Risk for Sexual Violence Protocol in Treated Sex Offenders. Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University;
Kelly A Watt, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Karla Jackson, Simon Fraser University
Examined the predictive validity of the RSVP risk assessment guidelines in sex offenders who completed a community treatment program.
Recidivism was defined as police investigation for sexual offenses during a 3 year follow-up; the recidivism rate was 14%. Analyses indicated that
Case Prioritization ratings, which reflect global perceptions of risk, had significant predictive validity and improved substantially over standard
criminological predictors (age, prior offenses) and more objective ratings (number of risk factors). These findings support the use of the RSVP and
also call into question conventional wisdom that actuarial decision making is superior to clinical decision making.
054. Feedback Effects
1:30 to 2:30 pm
Chair: Saul Kassin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
When is the Post-identification Feedback Effect Reversable? Deah Lawson, Iowa State University; Gary Wells, Iowa State University
This study was conducted to further examine mechanisms mediating suspicion with regard to post identification feedback. Participants made an
identification from a target absent lineup and were given feedback or no feedback about their identification. After the feedback some participants were
asked to think privately about their retrospective confidence. Participants who received feedback were administered no suspicion, suspicion or
suspicion without intent. The pattern of results as a function of the interaction of private thought and suspicion versus suspicion without intent,
however, clarifies when PIF effects are reversable and when PIF effects persevere. The implications of the research are discussed.
Exploring the Confidence Prophylactic as a Method for Abating the Post-identification Feedback Effect in Earwitness Testimony.
Angelina Jiminez, University of Alabama in Huntsville; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz, University of Alabama in Huntsville; Amy Bradfield
Douglass, Bates College; Deah Lawson, Iowa State University; Charles Goodsell, University of Oklahoma
The present study examined whether the confidence prophylactic is effective in mitigating the post identification feedback effect (PIF) in the context
of earwitness testimony. In the present study participants watched video of a staged crime. After selecting from target-absent auditory lineup
participants were given confirming post identification or no feedback regarding the accuracy of their choice. Half of the participants were also asked
to make confidence judgments before the feedback manipulation. The results revealed a post identification feedback effect but the confidence
question eliminated this effect. The beneficial effect of the confidence prophylactic disappeared after a week retention interval.
Lineup Issues: Double-blind Administration and the Post-identification Feedback Effect. Jennifer Dysart, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY; Anna Rainey, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jessi Owens, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Kristin Chong, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Victoria Z. Lawson, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
Researchers have examined post-identification feedback and double-blind lineup administration in separate investigations. Both of these factors have
been shown to influence eyewitness accuracy. To date, these factors have only been investigated together one time (Dysart & Fugal, 2006), and have
yielded unexpected results. The current study is a replication and extension of that previous work using a 2 (simultaneous, sequential) x 2 (double-
blind, not blind) x 2 (feedback, no feedback) x 2 (TP, TA) between-subjects design. Preliminary results support the finding that feedback is influential
in double-blind conditions where the experimenter does not know the answer to the lineup task.
Can I change my identification? How Confessions Corrupt Eyewitness Identifications. Lisa E Hasel, Iowa State University; Saul
Kassin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Confession is a potent form of evidence at trial. Can confessions also corrupt other evidence during a criminal investigation? Two days after
witnessing a staged theft and making an identification decision from a blank lineup, participants were "informed" about whether lineup members had
confessed or denied guilt. Among those who had initially made a selection but were told that another lineup member had confessed, 61% went on to
change their identifications. Among those in this condition who had not initially made an identification, 50% chose to do so. Feedback about
confessions and denials also produced significant shifts in confidence ratings.
055. Research and the Supreme Court
1:30 to 2:30 pm
Chair: Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The Multiple Dimensions of Privacy: Testing Lay "Expectations of Privacy". Jacqueline Mogle, Syracuse University; Jeremy A.
Blumenthal, Cornell Law School / Syracuse College of Law; Meera Adya, Burton Blatt Institute/Syracuse University
Fourth Amendment jurisprudence explicitly relies on "expectations of privacy" in evaluating the reasonableness of a search. Courts compare
defendants' subjective expectations of privacy, society's perceptions of social custom and of what constitutes inappropriate interference in that
privacy, and more objective definitions of those constructs. Little research, however, examines such perceptions, typically viewing "privacy" as
unidimensional. Using multidimensional scaling, we demonstrate the multidimensional nature of lay understandings of "privacy," identifying three
dimensions that constitute lay perceptions. We show that stimulus context influences these dimensions and overall perceptions of different law
enforcement searches. We discuss doctrinal implications and avenues of further research.
Developmental Due Process: Aligning School Disciplinary Practices with Child Development Principles. Josie Brown, University of
South Carolina School of Law
In Roper v. Simmons, the Supreme Court drew on psychology and neuroscience to identify a developmental dimension of the due process inquiry,
finding that adolescent decision-making deficits made juvenile death penalty statutes fundamentally unfair. As school disciplinary policies become
increasingly punitive and rigid in response to performance demands and fears about school violence, this paper explores the transferability of Roper's
recognition of the relevance of developmental knowledge to an evaluation of the fairness of school disciplinary practices and outlines an advocacy
agenda to secure constitutional recognition of the need to reconcile such practices with developmental principles.
Freedom and Equality: Assessing Intent in Symbolic Hate Speech. Erin Maria Richter, University of Nebraska at Lincoln; Richard
Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
This study tests assumptions the Supreme Court made in the case of Virginia v. Black (2003) which upheld a Virginia statute banning all cross
burnings committed with the intent to intimidate. One-hundred and eighty participants completed a priming task about either the First or Fourteenth
Amendment and then made guilt-decisions in a series of cases involving symbolic hate speech. Analyses revealed that participants were able to
distinguish among the intended message of the hate speech, drawing a difference between symbols used for intimidation and symbols used for free
speech. The priming task had effects on intimidation ratings but not guilt ratings.
On A Narrowly Tailored Actuarial Model of an Affirmative Action Plan in Higher Education. Evelyn Maeder, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Previous research discusses the superiority of actuarial models over clinical models in a number of areas of decision-making. The current project
sought to develop an actuarial model of affirmative action that would achieve the goal of diversity by assigning points for a number of diversity-
related characteristics in addition to standard academic admission criteria. Comparisons showed that actuarial models yielded greater perceptions of
procedural fairness, higher quality and diversity of selected applicants, and greater discrimination between high and low quality/diversity applicants.
The paper discusses how an actuarial model could pass Constitutional muster in light of recent Supreme Court cases.
056. Are Jurors Able to Follow the Law?
2:45 to 3:45 pm
Chair: Shari Seidman Diamond, Northwestern University School of Law
An Empirical Investigation of the Legal Assumptions Underlying Juror Rehabilitation during Voir Dire. Caroline B. Crocker, John
Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
To prevent jurors from being excluded for cause, judges frequently "rehabilitate" jurors who express bias. Jurors who agree to set aside their biases
and base their verdict on the evidence and the law are considered rehabilitated and eligible for jury service. An experimental study was conducted in
which biased and unbiased jurors either received normal voir dire questioning or rehabilitative questioning from a judge. Results revealed that
rehabilitation makes both biased and unbiased jurors less likely to vote guilty and that this effect may be due to both normative and informational
influence by the judge.
Do Jurors Follow the Law When Evaluating Accomplice Testimony? Katy Sothmann, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY;
Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Can jurors make appropriate use of plea agreements when an accomplice testifies against a defendant? Community members will read a written trial
stimulus in which we will manipulate the presence of accomplice testimony, a plea agreement, and judicial instructions limiting the use of the plea
agreement to the evaluation of the accomplice's credibility. After the summary, the participants will render a verdict and rate witness credibility and
criminality. Based on previous findings, we expect that the plea agreement will be used as evidence to convict the defendant even when the limiting
instructions prohibit this use of the evidence.
Observing Jury Interaction: Pretrial Publicity Affects the Qualitative Nature of Mock-Jury Deliberations. Christine L Ruva,
University of South Florida; Michelle A LeVasseur, University of South Florida
Content analyses of 30 mock-jury deliberations were performed to explore whether pretrial publicity (PTP) affects the qualitative nature of
deliberations (N = 167). Juries exposed to negative PTP were more likely than non-exposed juries to find the defendant guilty, have characteristics in
common with verdict driven juries, conduct bias evidence searches, and show evidence of predecisional distortion. Although jurors were instructed
not to discuss PTP during deliberations, all PTP exposed juries mentioned PTP at least once (M = 5.14, SD = 3.23). When PTP was mentioned,
correction by other jurors was rare, occurring only 8% of the time.
Jurors and the Law: Evidence from the Arizona Filming Project. Shari Seidman Diamond, Northwestern University School of Law;
Beth Murphy, American Bar Foundation; Mary Rose, University of Texas at Austin
Jurors often perform poorly on tests of comprehension for jury instructions, in both laboratory experiments and following jury service. Yet courts
assume that deliberating juries understand the relevant law. We studied juror use of instructions during deliberations of 50 actual civil trials. We
tracked juror mentions of instructions: (1) explicit or conceptual; (2) accurate or inaccurate; and (3) references to boilerplate or case-specific
instructions. Jurors paid substantial attention to jury instructions and their references to these legal guides during deliberations were generally
accurate, but the instructions failed in some predictable ways to provide adequate legal guidance.
057. Is Cyberstalking Stalking? Legal, Theoretical, and Measurement Issues
2:45 to 3:45 pm
This symposium provides the opportunity to examine cyberstalking in the context of its legal and theoretical framework, and to present new data on
measurement of this emerging phenomenon. The first paper provides the backdrop to understanding cyberstalking in the context of existing stalking laws and
existing understanding of stalking as a construct and as a crime. The second paper presents the development of a stalking scale featuring cyberstalking items.
Cyberstalking items were related to monitoring a partner without their knowledge using the Internet, email and cell phones. Analyses were conducted on a
diverse sample of 255 undergraduate college students. Preliminary results indicated a high rate of cyber stalking behaviors. The third presentation will focus on
an analysis of the co-occurrence of stalking with physical violence and sexual coercion. The results indicated that cyber stalking co-occurs with physical
stalking, as well as with violence and sexual coercion. The final paper will discuss the relationship between stalking and jealousy, highlighting a complex
relationship between cognitive, emotional and behavioral jealousy with physical and cyber stalking behaviors. It is hoped that this panel will begin to expose the
challenges that the ever-increasing, technological advances pose for successful measurement, monitoring, and controlling of stalking behavior.
Chair: Chitra Raghavan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Cyberstalking: A Legal and Theoretical Framework. Maureen O'Connor, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The construct of cyberstalking is introduced in the context of a psycholegal framework. Cyberstalking will be contrasted with physical stalking, with a
particular emphasis on how technology has created new challenges for detecting and defining stalking.
The Development of The Cyber Stalking Scale (CSTS). Cassandra Jones, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Lauren Reardon,
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Chitra Raghavan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Two studies were conducted to develop and assess a new Cyberstalking Scale (CSTS). Twenty-one participant-reported stalking behaviors and
participant reports of their partners' stalking behaviors were assessed before and after a self-identified worst fight. Contrary to prediction, levels of
cyberstalking behavior did not differ before and after a bad conflict for both the participant and partner. Additionally, despite reporting similar levels
of cyber stalking behaviors, self-perceptions of being stalked differed with more participants believing they had been stalked than they stalked.
Is Cyberstalking Part of Intimate Partner Violence? Abbie Tuller, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Cassandra Jones, John
Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Chitra Raghavan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of cyberstalking in conjunction with intimate partner violence and sexual coercion. Two hundred and
fifty five participants from an urban northeastern university completed measures addressing these constructs. Results indicated gender differences
among cyberstalking behaviors and significant relationships within cyberstalking, intimate partner violence, and sexual coercion. Furthermore, there
were high frequencies of cyberstalking and intimate partner violence co-occurring and very low frequency of intimate partner violence occurring
without the presence of cyberstalking. These results suggest that cyberstalking within intimate partner relationships may be consider a normal
behavior and not perceived as violating or threatening.
Stalking and Jealousy: Does the Relationship Hold Across Gender and Culture? Shara M. Davis, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Chitra Raghavan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Jealousy has been often referred to as a primary motivation for stalking. This study compared cognitive, emotional and behavioral jealousy to
cyberstalking behaviors. Men and women reported similar levels of jealousy, however, men reported more self-perceived stalking. Results support the
relationship between jealousy and stalking only for women. Women showed a strong association between stalking and cognitive and behavioral
jealousy, which are considered less common, more extreme forms of jealousy.
058. American Academy of Forensic Psychology Distinguished Contributions to Forensic Psychology Award: Dr. Ira
2:45 to 3:45 pm
Forensic Psychology as Recognized Specialty: Opportunities and Challenges. Ira Packer, University of Massachusetts
Forensic Psychology is still in its formative stages of development as a Specialty. Although it was recognized by ABPP in 1985, it was not formally
recognized as a Specialty by APA until 2001. Furthermore, only last year (2007) were Education and Training (E&T) Guidelines for Forensic
Psychology developed. This was a very significant development as it allows, for the first time, for Postdoctoral Forensic Psychology programs to be
accredited by APA. The basic elements and principles of the E&T Guidelines will be reviewed, including the focus on: broad and general training at
the doctoral level; need for organized and sequential training; exit criteria for postdoctoral trainees; and the importance of preparing trainees to attain
board certification in Forensic Psychology. These developments in Forensic Psychology will be discussed in the context of the growing emphasis in
Professional Psychology on developing clearer criteria for Specialties and specialists. This trend is motivated by: a) concern for the integrity of
Psychology as a discipline as well as b) concern for clarity and transparency for consumers of psychological services as well as students. The
literature on quality of forensic evaluations, which is briefly reviewed, highlights the need for more consistent training and standards. The growing
demand for training in Forensic Psychology provides opportunities to develop programs at the doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral levels. It also
challenges both forensic scholars and practitioners to integrate the insights and knowledge of forensic psychology into the broader discipline of
059. The Effects of Child Maltreatment
2:45 to 3:45 pm
Chair: Mark Fondacaro, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children's Legal Knowledge. Alexia Cooper, University of California, Irvine; Jodi Quas, University of
California, Irvine; Allison R. Wallin, University of California, Irvine; Thomas D. Lyon, University of Southern California
We examined 171 maltreated and nonmaltreated children's knowledge of juvenile dependency court proceedings. Four- to fourteen-year-olds, half of
whom were involved in ongoing dependency court cases because of substantiated maltreatment, were questioned about their understanding of the
dependency system. Although clear age-related improvements in knowledge emerged, some gaps in knowledge remained even among the oldest
children. Also, maltreated children exhibited better legal understanding than nonmaltreated children, but only for certain types of information. Results
have implications for understanding children's legal competency and for developing interventions to facilitate children's understanding of and
participation in dependency court proceedings.
Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children's Perceptions of the Consequences of Disclosing an Adult's Wrongdoing. Lindsay C.
Malloy, University of California, Irvine; Jodi Quas, University of California, Irvine; Thomas D. Lyon, University of Southern
California; Elizabeth Ahern, University of Southern California
Although children's willingness to disclose maltreatment is likely affected by their perceptions of consequences that might result from disclosure, few
studies have tested this possibility. In this study, maltreated and nonmaltreated 4- to 9-year-olds were read vignettes describing a child disclosing an
adult's wrongdoing to another. With age, nonmaltreated children were less likely to think that the disclosure recipient would react with anger toward
the child, whereas maltreated children were more likely to predict the disclosure recipient would be angry at the child. Results have implications for
social information processing biases in maltreated children and legal responses to abuse allegations.
Procedural Justice, Family Conflict, and Implications for Childhood Bullying. Michael Brubacher, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Mark Fondacaro, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Scott Miller, University of Florida; Veda Brown,
Prairie View A & M University; Eve M. Brank, University of Florida
Parental influence on the psychosocial development of a child is extended to include the areas of procedural justice and childhood bullying.
Preliminary findings have shown a significant relationship between the appraisals of procedural justice by school age children during the resolution of
family conflict and the manifestation of bullying behavior at school. The current study advances this model by including a mediator variable assessing
the child's cognitive assimilation of the parent's conduct along procedural justice dimensions. The sample consisted of 3,230 middle school students
from four geographical regions in the US. Findings and implications for future research will be discussed.
Child Welfare Placement and the Criminal Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment. Sarah DeGue, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Cathy Widom, New Jersey Medical School (UMDNJ)
The present study provides an update and extension of Widom (1991) and Widom and Maxfield (2001) utilizing criminal history data through 1994 to
re-examine in-depth the role of placement as a mediator of adult criminality in maltreated youth with adult arrest records through an average age of
31.8. In addition, this study examines differential associations between placement and adult criminality by race/ethnicity and gender. Preliminary
results confirm earlier findings indicating that out-of-home placement is associated with increased criminality only when it is associated with pre-
existing delinquency. However, initial results suggest that these patterns may vary by race/ethnicity and gender.
060. Intoxication, Focus, and Memory
2:45 to 3:45 pm
Chair: Jennifer Dysart, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
It's (Sometimes) in the Details: Memory for Contextual Features and Eyewitness Identification. Sean Lane, Louisiana State
University; Stephanie Groft, Louisiana State University; Cristine Roussel, Louisiana State University; Matthew Calamia, Louisiana
In two experiments, we explored the relationship between eyewitness identification and memory for contextual features. Participants studied faces and
associated details, and were tested using target-present and target-absent lineups. For each face they claimed to have seen, they were asked to
recognize associated contextual details. Accurate memory for some contextual details was associated with a higher likelihood of a correct
identification. Further, there was evidence of feature importation for false identifications (claiming to have seen details associated with the real target).
Our results suggest the importance of person-context binding, and the potential diagnostic utility of memory for contextual detail.
The Flamingo Focus Effect. Jamal K. Mansour, Queen's University; Rod C. L. Lindsay, Queen's University; Kevin G. Munhall, Queen's
Research indicates eyewitnesses to real crimes involving weapons recall more than eyewitnesses to similar staged events. Event duration may
partially explain this discrepancy. In real-life, witnesses may habituate to a weapon's presence, allowing their attention to shift to other aspects of the
environment. Participants (N=36) viewed a video in which an actor held a plastic flamingo or a three hole-punch; also two confederates walked
through the scene at different times (early and late). There was a significant interaction between Object Held and Time on identification accuracy for
confederates, F(1, 32)=7.15, p=.01. Implications for weapon-involved eyewitness events will be discussed.
Eyewitness Memory and Intoxicated Witnesses: Are They More Confident than Sober or Placebo Witnesses? Elise Hernandez,
Florida International University; Nadja Schreiber Compo, Florida International University; Jacqueline Evans, Florida International
Very little research in eyewitness memory has focused on intoxicated witnesses - a group that law enforcement interacts with frequently - and none
has examined their confidence-accuracy relationship. We manipulated intoxication between participants: Participants were either given cranberry
juice (control), cranberry juice with little alcohol (low-dose placebo) and cranberry juice with vodka (alcohol). Repeated intoxilyzer® measurements
ensured that participants' breath alcohol levels were between .06 and .09 while presented with a staged theft, a witness interview, and subsequently
providing confidence ratings. Preliminary results suggest that intoxicated witnesses may be more confident than sober witnesses in their witness
The Intoxicated Witness: Alcohol Intoxication and Person Description Accuracy. Anna Rainey, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Jennifer Dysart, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The effects of alcohol on identification accuracy have not been thoroughly investigated in eyewitness research despite the likelihood that over 400,000
crimes occur every year in the United States involving intoxicated witnesses. The current study examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on
witnesses' ability to provide accurate target descriptions. In this study results showed that intoxicated witnesses were more accurate at person
descriptions than sober witnesses. There were no differences between intoxicated and sober witnesses in accuracy of clothing descriptions.
Implications for law enforcement and future research directions will be discussed.
061. Measuring Psychopathy
2:45 to 3:45 pm
Chair: Kevin Stewart Douglas, Simon Fraser University
Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory in a Forensic Sample. Valerie M Gonsalves,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Julia McLawsen, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Matthew Huss, Creighton University; Mario J.
Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln
Preliminary research using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) has replicated the commonly used two factor
structure of psychopathy in community samples (Benning, Patrick, Hicks, Blonigen, & Krueger, 2003). The present study examined the two factor
structure, as measured by the PPI, using a forensic sample. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of the PPI in examining violent histories was
assessed. Results support the two factor structure and indicate good predictive accuracy when examining nonsexual violent charges. Results provide
preliminary support for the use of the PPI in forensic samples.
Estimating the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory from the Personality Assessment
Inventory. Kevin Stewart Douglas, Simon Fraser University; John Edens, Texas A&M University; Scott Lilienfeld, Emory University;
Norman Poythress, University of South Florida; Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
Various attempts to assess psychopathic traits via broad-band measures of personality and psychopathology have appeared in the literature recently.
This submission will examine the criterion-related validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory in the prediction of psychopathic traits as
operationalized via the Psychopathy Checklist Revised and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory in a large (N = 1,545) and ethnically
heterogeneous sample of male and female offenders. Preliminary results suggest that, although the PAI Antisocial Features scale explains the majority
of variance in psychopathy scores, other theoretically relevant PAI scales (e.g., Anxiety, Dominance) also contribute to the prediction of total and
A Multi-sample Investigation of the Construct Validity of the LPS and PPI. Catherine Wilson, Simon Fraser University; Kevin
Stewart Douglas, Simon Fraser University; John Weir, University of South Florida; Norman Poythress, University of South Florida;
Monica Epstein, University of South Florida
The construct validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) and the Levenson Psychopathy Scales (LPS) were examined in four
independent samples. Analyses from one sample demonstrate a positive correlation between the measures, as expected. The PPI showed good
construct validity in terms of its factor associations with a measure of aggression and a measure of mood. However, the results with the LPS suggest
there may be problems with its construct validity, specifically related to the primary scale. Further analyses addressing convergent, divergent, and
concurrent validity will be presented and discussed in terms of the potential utility of these measures.
Factorial Structure and Metric Equivalence of the PCL:SV across Gender and Cultural Site. Jennifer Lavoie, Simon Fraser
University; Kevin Stewart Douglas, Simon Fraser University
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PCL:SV factor and item functioning differed across gender and cultural site of assessment. Data
from existing psychiatric and correctional samples from the US (N=867) and Sweden (N=763) were analyzed. A series of CFAs using an adjusted
(WLSMV) x2 test were conducted to evaluate the structural equivalence of psychopathy factors across groups. While support for gender invariance
was found, results suggested that structure was divergent across cultural site. Metric equivalence of the PCL:SV items was also determined. Results
have implications for parallel assessment and interpretation of scale values based on established benchmarks.
062. Pretrial Influences on Jurors
4:00 to 5:00 pm
Chair: Steven Penrod, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Jurors' Background Knowledge and Beliefs. Dan Simon, USC Law School and Dept. of Psychology; Douglas Stenstrom, University of
Southern California; Stephen J. Read, University of Southern California
One justification of the jury system is the benefit of lay common sense. The current surveys tested jury eligible citizens' (N=653) background
knowledge on issues that arise frequently in criminal trials: eyewitness identification, interrogations, deceit detection, trust in prosecution experts, and
alibi evidence. Respondents' knowledge was found to be generally deficient (relative to research), and thus likely to skew judgments of fact, mostly in
favor of the prosecution. Errors interacted with respondents' attitudes and political affiliation. On the issue of death qualification, responses were
consistent with the research.
The "CSI Effect:" Individual Differences. Margaret Reardon, Florida International University; Kevin O'Neil, Florida International
This study explores the possibility that individual differences such as need for cognition, need for closure, and attitudes towards the death penalty and
the legal system moderate the relationship between crime investigation programming and guilt. Two hundred and one undergraduate students
participated in this web-based study by reading through and examining an armed robbery and murder case. Participants also completed various
attitudinal measures. Several interactions involving exposure to CSI programming and the believability of such programming with attitudes suggests
that attitudes moderate the CSI-guilt relationship. Thus only certain types of people may be influenced by this type of programming.
A Statistical Model of Generic Prejudice: Biased Judgments Independent of General Attitudes. Michael J Holtje, University of
Nebraska - Lincoln; Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Stacie Nichols, University of Nebraska- Lincoln; Jason A.
Cantone, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Researchers presented crime scenarios describing homicide and sexual assault cases to jury eligible mock jurors. Mock jurors estimated the
defendants' likelihood of guilt and completed surveys measuring their general attitudes towards homicide, sexual assault, rape, and litigation. Results
showed that the jurors demonstrated biases that were not accounted for by their general attitudes. Instead, statistically modeled factors of generic
prejudice regarding type of crime, generic prejudice regarding specific charge, adjudicative bias, and factual similarity to other cases independently
contributed to jurors' likelihood of guilt determinations. The paper discusses how generic prejudice biases influence juror decisions separate from
Influence of Predecisional Distortion and Bias on Juror Decision Making. Tarika Daftary, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Kelloir L. Smith, Graduate Center CUNY; Steven Penrod, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Pre-trial publicity (PTP) has been found to influence jurors' trial judgments and increase predecisional distortion. Jurors' could possibly form an
opinion about a case after PTP exposure, and subsequent information about the case may be evaluated and interpreted in favor of the jurors' pretrial
favored party. This paper examined the influence of biased PTP and distortion on decision making, as well as awareness of the biasing effects of PTP.
Results indicate that although jurors' do tend to get distorted they are unaware of this. Additionally, this influences their perception of evidence and
witnesses. Results and implications will be discussed.
063. Issues in Corrections
4:00 to 5:00 pm
Chair: Tonia L. Nicholls, BC Mental Health & Addiction Services and University of British Columbia
Mate Selection in Nontraditional Romantic Relationships: Why Women Seek Incarcerated Men as Romantic Partners. Marcela
Slavikova, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Nancy L Ryba, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The past three decades have witnessed a large amount of research on mate selection. However, past theories of mate selection fall short in explaining
why some women choose incarcerated men for their partners. Prior studies on the partners of prisoners focus on women who had known their partner
prior to his incarceration. Thus, these studies offer little insight into why some women choose to enter into a romantic relationship with an inmate they
did not know prior to his imprisonment. The present study has been designed to fill the gap in the current literature by examining this group of
Offenders with Co-occurring Disorders: Treatment and Recidivism. Jenni A Dillman, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer Eno
Louden, University of California, Irvine; Sarah M. Manchak, University of California, Irvine; Susan F. Turner, University of California,
Irvine; Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
This study examined treatment and recidivism rates of offenders with co-occurring disorders (COD), compared to mentally ill (MI) and non-
disordered (ND) offenders. A random sample of 900 parolees released from prisons in a large Western state in 2004 was selected from data
maintained by the state's corrections department. Results indicated that COD and MI offenders recidivate significantly more than ND offenders. The
results also indicated that COD offenders receive similar treatment dosages to MI offenders, and that both groups receive significantly more treatment
than ND offenders. The results also suggested a relationship between treatment and recidivism in this population.
Trait Impulsivity in a Forensic Inpatient Sample: An Evaluation of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Sara Chiara Haden,
NYU/Bellevue Hospital Center & John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Andrew Adam Shiva, NYU/Bellevue Hospital Center &
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Impulsivity is an essential trait to consider when working with forensic populations. The current study evaluated the use of a self-report measure, the
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), in two samples of male forensic psychiatric inpatients. Patients completed a measure of psychopathology and
institutional incidents were coded. The BIS-11 was subjected to a principal components analysis and then validated via confirmatory factor analysis.
Results failed to support a three higher-order factor structure of impulsivity; rather a two-factor structure was confirmed measuring Motor and
Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Normative information and psychometric properties of the revised BIS-11 are presented and discussed.
Profiles of Aggression among Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients. Tonia L. Nicholls, BC Mental Health & Addiction Services and
University of British Columbia; Patrick Lussier, Simon Fraser University; Johann Brink, BC Mental Health and Addiction Services /
University of British Columbia; Simon Verdun-Jones, Simon Fraser University; Jean-Francois Allaire, Philippe Pinel Institute Research
Internalized and externalized aggression in the inpatient setting pose major obstacles to hospital care and community reintegration; however, little
attention has been paid to studying typologies of aggressors. This study identified profiles of aggressive behavior among forensic inpatients.
Participants included the population of inpatients receiving services in 2004 from the a forensic psychiatric hospital. Multiple correspondence
analyses followed by hierarchical cluster analyses generated five distinct profiles of aggressive behavior in this population. The profiles suggest the
potential value of implementing unique risk reduction interventions depending on the patient's profile and correlates of aggressive behavior.
064. Psychologists, Lawyers, and Licensing Boards: Systems in Conflict
4:00 to 5:00 pm
This symposium will present, from the perspectives of psychologists, expert witnesses, and lawyers, some of the tensions in regulatory law when a psychologist
has to face charges brought by a licensing board. Issues regarding the legal basis of such charges, highlighting such concepts as limited due process will be
presented along with the perspective of an expert witness who testifies on behalf of psychologists in such hearings. In addition, we will consider the necessity
for training in "adjudication psychology" for people who serve on licensing boards, akin to the training that judges have.
Chair: David Lewis Shapiro, Nova Southeastern University
Criteria for Selecting an Attorney in Regulatory Board Hearings. David Lewis Shapiro, Nova Southeastern University
When a psychologist is facing charges in front of a licensing board, she or he needs to select an attorney who is familiar with the special rules that
govern administrative law, since they are very different from the rules governing criminal and civil law. The psychologist needs to be aware of these
as well in order to make sure that the attorney approaches the legal strategies taking into account the different rules and regulations. Concrete
examples will be given of a psychologist's consultation with an attorney to maximize the likelihood of a successful outcome.
Adjudication Psychology: Should Psychologists be Trained Like Judges? Lenore E. Walker, Nova Southeastern University CPS
At present, psychologists who serve on licensing boards do not require any formal training in how to adjudicate complaints. There is no requirement
that they understand levels of proof, due process , rights of discovery or a variety of other concepts that would assure unbiased and fair hearings.
Judges routinely receive such training. The Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards has an excellent training module but it is voluntary
rather than mandatory. This presentation will discuss these approaches to training and suggest that psychologists serving in such positions receive
formal training in a proficiency area entitled " adjudication psychology."
Developing Roles for the Expert Witness in Administrative Law. Harley Stock, Incident Management Group
A psychologist called as an independent expert in a licensing board hearing needs to address himself or herself to issues of standards of care, based on
relevant standards, guidelines, and professional literature, and whether the psychologist in question met the standard of care. This material can then be
used to rebut the vague statements that often come from regulatory boards, such as the psychologist failed to meet minimal standards or that he or she
engaged in negligent or incompetent practice.
Playing Both Sides against the Middle: Success and Failure in Administrative Law. A. Steven Frankel, Private Practice
This paper will deal with the author's experience, both as a psychologist doing expert reviews for licensing boards, and as a lawyer, representing
psychologists in front of those same boards. The author will deal with various strategies that almost inevitably fail to be effective as well as those that
stand a better chance of succeeding. Emphasis will be placed on the lawyer's need to help the psychologist stop thinking like a psychologist and adopt
an adversarial mind set.
065. How Does the Quality of Interviews with Alleged Victims of Child Abuse Affect Investigation and Intervention?
4:00 to 5:00 pm
Researchers and professional groups have invested considerable effort identifying techniques for interviewing young alleged victims of abuse that are most
likely to elicit detailed and accurate accounts. Several field studies have now shown that interviewers' adherence to 'best practices' indeed improves the
informativeness of child witnesses. In this symposium, we ask what difference it makes to criminal justice and child protection when investigative interviews
are well conducted. The first presentation shows that well conducted interviews of alleged victims yield more clues or leads that investigators can follow up
further in efforts to corroborate the victims' claims and increase certainty about the complaints. The second presentation then illustrates differences between
well-conducted and typical interviews with respect to the accuracy of both informal and systematic assessments of credibility using such tools as the CBCA.
Finally, the third presentation compares the fate of comparable complaints made in well conducted and typical investigative interviews with respect to decisions
to further investigate, file charges, and prosecute. The evidence is clear: the better conducted the investigative interview, the more likely that authorities will be
able to investigate further, evaluate plausible complaints as credible, and take appropriate steps to protect children and punish perpetrators.
Chair: Michael E. Lamb, University of Cambridge
Discussant: Kathryn Kuehnle, University of South Florida-Florida Mental Health Institute
The Effect of the NICHD Interview Protocol on the Elicitation of Investigative Leads in Child Sexual Abuse Investigations. Tamar
Darwish, University of Haifa; Irit Hershkowitz, University of Haifa
NICHD protocol-guided interviews of alleged victims were compared to matched non-protocol interviews with respect to the identification of
investigative leads, defined as reports of information which suggest new directions for investigation. In Protocol-guided interviews, more leads were
elicited using recall prompts, which are more likely to elicit accurate information. The leads provided in Protocol-guided interviews were themselves
more likely to involve central aspects of the alleged incidents, and they pointed investigators towards details that were more likely to cast light on the
accuracy of the children's accounts As a result, it was easier to independently corroborate or cast doubt on the allegations made in Protocol interviews.
The effects of the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol on assessment of credibility in child sexual abuse investigations. Irit
Hershkowitz, University of Haifa; Yael Orbach, Brooklyn College; Michael E. Lamb, University of Cambridge
Because the NICHD protocol elicits more extensive free narrative accounts of allegedly experienced events, we hypothesized that raters would be able
to judge the credibility of allegations made in protocol interviews more accurately than those made in non-protocol interviews. In this report we
present two Israeli studies designed to explore the effects of the NICHD investigative interview protocol on the assessment of credibility in statements
by alleged victims of abuse. The first study describes child investigators' ability to assess credibility while the second focuses on the discriminating
power of CBCA assessments in protocol interviews and non-protocol interviews. Overall, the NICHD protocol enhanced credibility assessment.
The Effect of the NICHD Interview Protocol on the Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Investigations. Margaret-Ellen Pipe, Brooklyn
College; Yael Orbach, Brooklyn College; Michael E. Lamb, University of Cambridge
Outcomes of 952 cases in which investigative interviews with 4- to 13- year-old alleged victims of sexual abuse were, conducted using the NICHD
Investigative Interview Protocol (n = 952) were compared with the outcomes of those 585 cases conducted by the same interviewers prior to the
introduction of the Protocol (n = 585) To determine whether the introduction of the NICHD Protocol for interviewing child witnesses had an impact
on case outcomes for the child and/or the suspect, we examined the likelihood that (1) a case is considered to be substantiated and submitted for
screening, (2) substantiated cases go to trial and criminal charges were filed, and the cases proceeds through the criminal justice process, and (3) the
speed with which a case proceeds through the criminal justice process, and (4) cases were processed with minimal delay following the reporting date.
066. Beyond the Cross-Race Effect
4:00 to 5:00 pm
Chair: D. Stephen Lindsay, University of Victoria
The Role of Processing Strategy in the Cross-Race Effect. L. Brooke Bennett-Day, Wesleyan College
The cross-race effect (CRE) states that people are better able to recognize own-race faces as compared to other-race faces. Although this finding has
been studied extensively over the past 35 years, there still exists some disagreement over the primary cause of the effect (Brigham et al, 2007). One of
the suggested mechanisms involves processing strategy as it relates to face recognition. The present research examined the involvement of configural
and featural processing in the CRE for Black and White participants by using Navon stimuli (large letters composed of smaller letters; Navon, 1977)
to either manipulate or measure processing strategy.
Perceptual Differences in the Own Race Bias: A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis. Kristin Finklea, University of California, San
Diego; David Huber, University of California, San Diego; Craig McKenzie, University of California, San Diego
To assess the perceptual expertise and differential contact basis of the own-race bias, Asian and Caucasian participants gave pairwise similarity
ratings to a set of male/female, Asian/Caucasian face images. Multidimensional scaling revealed that the dimension of race was more important than
gender. Furthermore, the fourth most important dimension for Asians corresponded to the sixth most important dimension for Caucasian, suggesting
that differential learning of appropriate perceptual characterstics may play an important role in the own race bias. In keeping with these claims, the
ratings of Asians with high interracial contact correlated more strongly to the ratings of Caucasians.
Voice Identification as a Unique Contributor to Eyewitness Identification: Exploring the Cross-accent Effect. Sarah L. Kopelovich,
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer Dysart, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Anna Rainey, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The present study sought to investigate the effect of accent on voice identification accuracy to determine the existence of an other-accent effect. The
cross-race effect, which has been supported by previous research employing simultaneous lineups, was investigated using a sequential lineup
procedure. The data reflect a trend of higher identification accuracy for same-accent identification in voice lineup tasks and same-race identification in
visual lineup tasks. Overall, face identification diagnosticity was high (10.15), as was voice identification (2.73) and the combined diagnosticity ratio
for face and voice (4.36), relative to previous rates found in identification research.
Student-investigators' Knowledge and Use of the Own-race Bias When Evaluating Eyewitness Identification Decisions. Melissa
Boyce, University of Victoria; D. Stephen Lindsay, University of Victoria; C. A. E. Brimacombe, University of Victoria
Student-investigators interviewed White or Asian witnesses about a video-taped crime involving an Asian or Caucasian criminal. Investigators then
chose a suspect and rated their pre-ID belief in their suspect's guilt. Investigators then administered a photo lineup to witnesses who either identified
the suspect, a foil, or made no identification. Finally, investigators re-rated their belief in their suspect's guilt and compared the reliability of same
versus cross-race identifications. Cross-race identifications are generally less reliable (Meissner & Brigham, 2002) and people tend to be aware of this
phenomenon (Read & Desmarais, 2006). However, does this knowledge affect how investigators weight eyewitness evidence?
067. Assessing Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents: The Controversies and the Evidence
4:00 to 5:00 pm
There has been a dramatic increase in research in psychopathic traits in youth over the past 10 years. Despite the arguments that studies of youth have great
potential for increasing our understanding of the etiology of and developmental trajectories that lead to adult psychopathy and despite the potential for
heightened effectiveness of intervention efforts with youth samples, the study of psychopathic traits in youth has proven controversial. Criticisms leveled
against this research include: 1) psychopathic dispositions cannot be reliably distinguished from features of normative adolescence; 2) scores indicative of
psychopathic traits in youth are not stable over time; 3) developmental translations of adult instruments do not adequately capture the psychopathy construct as
it is manifest in youth; 4) it is not established that the adolescent syndrome resembles the adult syndrome of psychopathy; 5) formal identification of
psychopathic features would prove damning in juvenile justice settings. Evidence addressing these criticisms indicates that measures of psychopathic features in
youth are reliable, valid, and moderately stable. Moreover, measures developed using alternative methods correlate highly with measures based on downward
extensions from adulthood. Finally, juvenile justice professionals are more responsive to criteria that are legally relevant (e.g., past behavior, risk) than to
Chair: David Steven Kosson, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science
Discussant: Paul J. Frick, University of New Orleans
The Reliability and Validity of the Psychopathy Construct as Assessed in Youth with the PCL:YV. David Steven Kosson, Rosalind
Franklin University of Medicine and Science
This paper addresses two criticisms leveled against research on psychopathic traits in adolescence: that psychopathic dispositions cannot be reliably
distinguished from features of normative adolescence, and that it is not clear that the syndrome of psychopathic traits measured in adolescents
resembles the adult psychopathy syndrome. Studies addressing the reliability and construct validity of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version
(PCL:YV) in adolescent males indicate that the items are generally reliable, and PCL:YV total scores exhibit relatively good structural and convergent
validity. Studies of discriminant validity and studies in female adolescents suggest some possible differences between the construct in males and
Psychopathy and Youth: Challenges and Relevance. Adelle Forth, Carleton University; Ian Broom, Carleton University
The term "psychopath" is a potentially powerful label that can have a profound impact on how individuals are perceived and treated within the legal
system. There have been major advances in the assessment of psychopathy in youth and the utility of psychopathy measures in the evaluation of
violence risk and treatment amenability. Two meta-analytic studies will be reviewed. The purpose of the first meta-analysis was to determine the
relative utility of psychopathy measures in predicting recidivism and other forms of misconduct in youth. Thirty-four studies were coded with
moderators being sample age, publication bias, ethnicity, and assessment format. Mean effect sizes (.25 general recidivism, .23 violent recidivism)
suggest that these instruments are effective in predicting criminal and violent recidivism, but further research is needed in establishing the predictive
utility in youthful female offenders and diverse ethnic samples. Psychopathy has traditionally been viewed as a difficult-to-treat disorder and some
have gone so far as to label it as "incurable". A meta-analysis of 20 studies was conducted to determine the extent treatment was beneficial for
psychopathic offenders, what the optimal age for intervention was, and to identify if certain moderators contributed to treatment effectiveness.
Three Questions Regarding Youth Psychopathy: Results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Donald Lynam, Purdue University;
Richard Charnigo, Purdue University; Rolf Loeber, University of Pittsburgh; Magda Stouhamer-Loeber, University of Pittsburgh
This paper addresses three concerns regarding the youth psychopathy construct: 1. the adequacy of the developmental translations of the PCL-R; 2.
the stability of psychopathy across adolescence; 3. the stability of psychopathy from adolescence into adulthood. These issues are addressed using the
Childhood Psychopathy Scale and data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. The content validity of the CPS is shown to be adequate. The stability of the
CPS across adolescence is shown to be high. The prediction of young adult psychopathy from age 13 is shown to be relatively high. Implications for
developmental psychopathology and forensic assessment are discussed.
Describing, Diagnosing, and Naming Psychopathy: How do Youth Psychopathy Labels Influence Decision Makers? Daniel Murrie,
University of Virginia; Marcus Boccaccini, Sam Houston State University
Across several studies, scholars have examined how describing a young offender as manifesting psychopathic traits, diagnosing him with
psychopathy, or naming him "a psychopath," may influence juvenile-justice decision makers. In this study, jury-pool members (N = 891) reviewed
expert testimony that manipulated: history of antisocial behavior, psychopathic personality traits, and diagnostic label (no diagnosis, conduct disorder,
psychopathy, or "psychopath,"). As in prior research, there were substantial effects for the antisocial behavior and psychopathic personality traits
underlying diagnoses, but no effects for formal diagnostic labels. However, labeling a juvenile "a psychopath" tended to sway juror decisions in a
more punitive direction.
068. An Interactive Session on Trial Consulting: Principles and Methods
5:15 to 6:00 pm
This invited address will include professional trial consultants and researchers addressing issues relevant to lawyers, researchers, and trial consultants. Practical,
theoretical, and methodological issues will be covered.
Chair: Marc W. Pearce, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Discussants: Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Timothy R. Robicheaux, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Twila Wingrove,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Ryan Winter, Florida International University; Maithilee K. Pathak-Sharma, R and D Strategic Solutions,
LLC; Robert Ray, Veritas Research, L.P.; Leslie Ellis, TrialGraphix; Mark R. Phillips, Trial Partners, Inc.
069. Expert Witness Testimony: An Interactive Workshop
5:15 to 6:00 pm
Speakers in this invited session will address issues for lawyers and expert psychologists testifying about clinical issues.
Discussants: Stanley Brodsky, University of Alabama; Joel Dvoskin, University of Arizona; Kirk Heilbrun, Drexel University
070. Issues and Advice for Expert Witnesses and Eyewitness Identification Researchers
5:15 to 6:00 pm
Speakers in this invited session will address issues relevant to lawyers and expert psychologists in the field of eyewitness reliability and memory, including
advice for young professionals who may become expert witnesses, and common issues encountered by expert witnesses.
Discussants: Steven Penrod, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer Dysart, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY;
Kathy Pezdek, Claremont Graduate University
071. Poster Session - Friday
6:00 to 8:00 pm
1. 1st Place 2006 Dissertation Award Winner: The Reliability of Intuitive Lie Detection Performance. Amy-May Leach, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Dissertation completed at Queen's University, Adviser: Rod Lindsay. This program of research examined whether individualsâ™ ability to detect
deception remained stable over time. In two sessions, held one week apart, university students viewed video clips of individuals and attempted to
differentiate between the lie-tellers and truth-tellers. Overall, participants had difficulty detecting all types of deception. When viewing children
answering yes-no questions about a transgression (Experiment 1), participantsâ™ performance was highly reliable. However, rating adults who
provided truthful or fabricated accounts did not produce a significant test-retest correlation (Experiment 2). This lack of reliability was not due to the
types of deceivers (i.e., children vs. adults) or interviews (i.e., closed-ended questions vs. extended accounts) (Experiment 3). Finally, the type of
deceptive scenario (naturalistic vs. experimentally-manipulated) could not account for differences in reliability (Experiment 4). These findings are
discussed in theoretical and legal contexts.
2. 2nd Place 2006 Dissertation Award Winner: Age of Onset of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders. Jessica Klaver, Kirby
Forensic Psychiatric Center
Dissertation completed at Simon Fraser University, Adviser: Stephen Hart. Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a constellation of
maladaptive interpersonal, affective, and behavioral traits. Psychopathic traits have strong associations with several negative outcomes in youth,
including violence and criminality. However, there are numerous developmental and ethical concerns regarding the direct extension of the adult
psychopathy construct to youth. Further, little is known about the etiology and early course of psychopathy. The goal of this study was to investigate
the onset of the interpersonal, affective, and behavioral traits of psychopathy in a sample of 115 male young offenders. Youth were assessed to
determine the presence, severity, and age of onset of psychopathic traits. Results indicated that age of onset ratings were made reliably for most traits.
Survival analysis was employed to compute median ages of onset for all psychopathic traits, which ranged from age 8 to 14. Traits reflecting deficient
affective experience, such as lacking remorse and empathy, had earlier ages of onset than did other symptoms. The interpersonal and behavioral traits
of impression management and lacking goals had the latest ages of onset. However, it is unclear whether these traits did not crystallize until later ages
or whether their earlier manifestations are unable to be detected due to a developmentally uninformed measurement instrument. High risk
developmental periods for the onset of psychopathic traits were also identified.
3. 3rd Place 2006 Dissertation Award Winner: Criminal Interrogation with Juveniles: A National Survey of Police Practices and
Beliefs. Jessica Meyer, University of Virginia
Dissertation completed at University of Virginia, Adviser: Dick Reppucci. Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects
were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily
influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This
investigation is the first standard, large-scale documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement professionals, police beliefs
about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 1,828 law enforcement officers who completed
surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that (1) while police acknowledge some
developmental differences between youth and adults and how these developmental limitations may affect the reliability of reports obtained from
young suspects in interrogation, there were indications that (2) police do not seem to apply this fundamental developmental knowledge to their
reported practices in the interrogation context and (3) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults.
4. Typology and Warning Signs of Suicide-By-Cop. Joanna L Fava, Fordham University; Lauren Dewey, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Elizabeth Arias, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
It has been estimated that more than 10% of police shootings in the United States involve a victim who deliberately provokes police gunfire in an
attempt to bring about his/her own death. These cases have been termed "suicide-by-cop" and the phenomenon is a familiar occurrence to law
enforcement officers. This paper utilizes a nationwide sample of cases involving suicide-by-cop (or attempted suicide-by-cop). It furthers the typology
research begun by Homant and Kennedy (2000) and identifies warning signs associated with each type of suicidal offender in an attempt to inform
police and others for the purpose of identification and early intervention.
5. Criminal Thinking Patterns: Are There Differences Among Different Offender Types? Jennifer M Johnson, Creighton University;
Mark Schulte, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Matthew Huss, Creighton University; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln
Criminal thinking patterns are a crucial area of study as researchers attempt to find offense specific thought patterns. One theory that attempts to
explain these patterns is the cognitive deconstruction theory (CDT). The current study used Walters' (2008) Personality Inventory of Criminal
Thinking Styles (PICTS) to assess whether CDT is supported across non sexual and different sexual offender types. Furthermore, age was used as a
covariate in the analyses. CDT was not supported. However, age was an important variable to control for when analyzing PICTS scores.
6. Female Forensic Psychiatric Inpatient Aggression: Do Prevalence, Incidence, and Severity Differ by Gender? Caroline Greaves,
Simon Fraser University; Tonia L. Nicholls, BC Mental Health & Addiction Services and University of British Columbia; Johann Brink,
BC Mental Health and Addiction Services / University of British Columbia; Patrick Lussier, Simon Fraser University; Simon Verdun-
Jones, Simon Fraser University
Mentally disordered women may be involved in more aggressive incidents than their male counterparts; yet, research concerning female inpatient
aggression is scarce. Gender differences in the prevalence, incidence, and severity of inpatient aggression were examined via a review of forensic
psychiatric inpatients' clinical files. Women were as likely as men to be verbally, physically, or sexually aggressive; however, in the vast majority of
externalized physical/sexual aggression involving women no injuries were inflicted. Findings enrich our understanding of gender similarities and
differences and enhance our capacity for accurate risk assessments and effective interventions with this complex and needy population.
7. Linking Serial Rapes: A Comparison of Similarity Coefficients. Karla B Emeno, Carleton University; Craig Bennell, Carleton
University; Natalie Jones, Carleton University; Tamara Melnyk, Carleton University
Investigators must often rely on offence behaviours when determining whether several crimes are linked to a common offender. This task requires that
investigators be able to assess the degree of behavioural similarity exhibited across crimes. Currently, researchers examine across-crime similarity
using Jaccard's coefficient. However, this practice assumes many things that have yet to be empirically verified. This study compares linking results
when using Jaccard's coefficient and the simple matching coefficient. The results suggest that the choice of similarity coefficient does not impact
linking accuracy and that other issues (e.g., what behaviours to rely on) may be more important to consider.
8. The Flynn Effect Helped Establish the IQ Criterion of Mental Retardation in an Atkins Hearing. Matthew Scullin, University of
Texas at El Paso
In 2002, the Supreme Court held in Atkins v. Virginia that individuals with mental retardation (MR) could not be executed. Two judges' evaluations
of expert testimony in the Green v. Johnson (2006, 2007) post-conviction federal habeas corpus hearing illustrate the challenge of making post-
conviction MR determinations. The judges accepted expert testimony that it was necessary to consider improvements in mean IQ test performance
(the Flynn effect) when interpreting Green's IQ scores and found that he met the IQ criterion for MR. However, the judges ruled that Green did not
have MR because he lacked significant deficits in adaptive functioning
9. The Predictive Validity of Actuarial and Dynamic Measures of Sexual Re-offense with a Community Treatment Sample.
Michelle Renee Guyton, Pacific University; Erica Vo, Pacific University; Jacqueline Christine Means, Pacific University; Pamela
Suzanne Buchanan, Pacific University; Kathryn E Marshall, Pacific University; Christopher Brown, Pacific University; Blaithin
MacMahon, Pacific University
Identification of individuals likely to commit future sexual offenses is an important question frequently asked of mental health professionals. Current
research shows that actuarial instruments have some predictive validity in identifying individuals at risk for re-offense for both violent, and to a lesser
degree, sexual offenses (Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 2006). The current project expands this area of research by comparing the ability of
several actuarial measures to predict recidivism of sample of community treated sexual offenders. Implications of the results are discussed.
10. Utility of the SIMS and the ADI in Screening for Malingering Among Disability Seeking Outpatients. Carl Clegg, West Virginia
University; Tracy A. Thomas, West Virginia University; William Fremouw, West Virginia University
Sixty-four disability seekers were administered the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), Structured Inventory of Malingered
Symptomatology (SIMS), and Assessment of Depression Inventory (ADI). Individuals were classified as honest or suspected malingering based on
SIRS scores. Additionally, 63 individuals from the community completed the SIMS and the ADI honestly or as if they were malingering depression.
Both malingering groups had significantly higher mean scores on the SIMS Total and ADI Feigning scales than both honest groups. The scores of the
malingering groups did not significantly differ. The utility rates of various cut-scores on these scales are presented and discussed.
11. Female Sexual Perpetrators: Is It More Than Just a Gender Difference? Jill Marianne Johansson-Love, University of North Texas;
William Fremouw, West Virginia University
The current study intended to contribute to the limited knowledge of female sex offenders. Prevalence estimates of female sexual offending vary from
1% to 42.7% of the sex offender population. Although most reported offenses are committed by males (UCR, 2003), disregarding female perpetrators
is problematic given the high prevalence rates identified in victim studies. This is the first study to compare adult incarcerated female sex offenders
with three other offender groups (group n = 31). The current study included data from standardized measures (MMPI-2, WRAT, LSI-R, Beta-III)
rarely seen in this literature as well as demographic, crime and victim information.
12. Training a Future Mental Health Workforce for Corrections. Marc Patry, Saint Mary's University; Philip R Magaletta, Federal
Bureau of Prisons; Donald Denney, Federal Bureau of Prisons
Virtually no literature exists on who is being trained to provide mental health services to inmates. The present study fills this gap by examining over
600 psychology trainees over 16 years who completed a one-year prison based pre-doctoral psychology internship. Demographics of the sample and
early-career choices are presented. Preliminary findings suggest that gender trends for prison internship placement are congruent with the profession's
feminization, that more interns are beginning their internships with previous correctional experience, and that nearly two-thirds find employment in
correctional facilities. Implications for training, recruitment, and maintenance of a strong psychology workforce in corrections are discussed.
13. College Students' Assumptions About Risk Factors for Juvenile False Confessions. Heather Zelle, Drexel University; Lindsey
Wrazien, Drexel University; Stephanie Taormina, Drexel University; Rachel Kalbeitzer, Drexel University; Rachel Freeland, Drexel
University; Ian Alexander, Drexel University; Melinda Wolbransky, Drexel University & Villanova University; Anna M. Heilbrun,
Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
Previous research has shown that specific characteristics of juveniles and interrogations are associated with heightened risks of false confessions.
Courts typically consider such factors when applying the totality of circumstances test to determine the validity of a Miranda waiver and the
admissibility of a confession. Because jurors accept confessions as one of the most powerful pieces of evidence, it also is important to examine
potential jurors' assumptions about juveniles' risks for falsely confessing. Therefore, this study examined approximately 500 participants' ratings of
specific characteristics of a juvenile suspect and the interrogation as risk factors for false confessions.
14. Is That Even Legal?: Perceptions of the Legality of Juvenile Interrogation Strategies. Lindsey Wrazien, Drexel University;
Heather Zelle, Drexel University; Stephanie Taormina, Drexel University; Rachel Kalbeitzer, Drexel University; Rachel Freeland,
Drexel University; Ian Alexander, Drexel University; Melinda Wolbransky, Drexel University & Villanova University; Anna M.
Heilbrun, Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
Although studies have shown that juveniles are more suggestible to police interrogation strategies than are adults, research has not examined jurors'
knowledge of the interrogation strategies police employ when interrogating juvenile suspects. This study was designed to examine potential, educated
jurors' beliefs about the legality of police interrogation strategies with juvenile suspects. It was also designed to explore whether experience with and
education about the legal system would be associated with preconceptions about the legality of these strategies.
15. The Relationship between Substance Use and Anger in a Juvenile Detention Population. Melinda Wolbransky, Drexel University
& Villanova University; Jennifer Weil, Drexel University; Michele Pich, Drexel University; Christina Riggs Romaine, Drexel
University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
Despite the high prevalence of substance use, anger, and aggressive behavior among youth in juvenile detention centers, the nature of the relationships
among these variables is unclear. The stress-coping model suggests that juveniles use drugs and alcohol to manage the emotions related to a given
stressor, yet other research indicates that youth can become emotionally labile following drug and alcohol use. One hundred and three detained
adolescents completed the substance use modules of the C-DISC, the Novaco Anger Scale, and a demographics questionnaire. Results describing the
complex relationships between substance use, anger, and aggression will be presented.
16. Juvenile Justice Anger Management (JJAM) Manual for Girls: Sessions and Activities. Jennifer Serico, Drexel University; Naomi
E. Goldstein, Drexel University; Amanda D. Zelechoski, Drexel University/Villanova Law School; Christina Riggs Romaine, Drexel
University; Kathleen Kemp, Drexel University; Rachel Kalbeitzer, Drexel University
This presentation will give an overview of each session included in the Juvenile Justice Anger Management (JJAM) Manual for Girls. The major
components of treatment will be identified, and a detailed description of the session structure will be provided. Several examples of activities and
teaching techniques will be presented.
17. The Impact of a Risk-Reduction Program Providing Academic Support, Sport Training and Mentoring. Heather Green, Drexel
University; Allison Binnicker Hart, Drexel University; Kento Yasuhara, Drexel University; Ashley Mueller, Drexel University; Kirk
Heilbrun, Drexel University
Academic Sport Mentoring Programs (ASMPs) are community-based, secondary prevention interventions designed to address risk factors such as
family dysfunction, poverty, poor school attendance and academic performance associated with high-risk, urban, minority adolescents. This
presentation will describe pilot data from a project that attempts to formally measure the impact of one particular ASMP (SquashSmarts). We will
present data describing pre-post differences on measures assessing skills in academic functioning, quality of relationships, and self-esteem. Results
will be presented in light of a potential dosage effect (time in program) as well.
18. Development of a Theory-Based, Miranda Rights Educational Program. Martha K. Strachan, Drexel University; Rachel Kalbeitzer,
Drexel University; Heather Green, Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University
This paper presents the theoretical foundation of the Miranda Rights Educational Program, an interactive, experiential role play of the police
interrogation of a juvenile suspect that is designed to teach adolescents about their legal rights. Integrating theory and research from several
disciplines, we propose that the development of legal reasoning requires both quantitative changes in the individual's repertoire of legal facts and
qualitative changes in how the individual values rights. We hypothesized that a Miranda rights educational program based on Legal Development and
Conceptual Change theories could improve youths' capacities to reason about legal rights.
19. Attorney Attitudes Toward Juvenile Legal Rights and Protections. Erika K. Penner, Simon Fraser University; Jodi Viljoen, Simon
Fraser University; Twila Wingrove, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Reforms to the juvenile justice system have extended to youth many of the protections afforded to adults; however, controversy has arisen as to
whether juveniles are developmentally mature enough to properly utilize such rights. This study examined attorney attitudes toward juvenile rights
using the Youth Legal Rights Attitudes scale. Results indicate that attorneys believe youth are entitled to greater legal protections than adults, and that
youth should be able to assert, but not refuse, their legal protections. Finally, attorneys favour juveniles' right to counsel over their right to parental
assistance. The implications of these findings for juvenile justice policy are discussed.
20. Deconstructing Treatment Amenability and Public Safety in Juvenile Decisions: A National Survey of Relevant Statutes. Sarita
T. Lyons, Drexel University; Kirk Heilbrun, Drexel University
The present study reviews statutes in the United States in 50 state and the federal jurisdictions relevant to juvenile transfer, reverse transfer, and
commitment. The two major constructs present in virtually all statutes in these areas are treatment needs/amenability and public safety. However,
different jurisdictions operationalize these constructs differently. The statutory elements described by each jurisdiction relevant to each broad area are
noted, and broad trends are described. These trends have implications for multi-jurisdictional research on juvenile decision-making, and for
researchers who develop and validate specialized forensic assessment instruments that may be used in different jurisdictions to assist legal decision-
21. Family Structure and Mental Health among Juvenile Offenders: Implications for Treatment. Roslyn M. M. Caldwell, California
Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; Stacy Martinelli, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; Christy Ann
Sauer, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo; Audrey Hansen, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
The present study examined the relationships between family structure and mental health (i.e., depression and self-esteem) among three racial/ethnic
groups (i.e., African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic) of 438 (283 males and 155 females) adjudicated juvenile offenders. The most significant
finding was the interaction effect found between race/ethnicity, family composition, and self-esteem, with adolescents living with reconstituted
families having lower levels of self-esteem than any other group. The findings from this study highlight the significant influence of the family on
substance abuse and mental health among adjudicated juvenile offenders and the implications for treatment prevention and intervention.
22. Gender, Offense Type, and Caution Scores on MAYSI-2 Scales: Implications for the Juvenile Justice System. Shannon M.
Maney, University of Massachusetts Medical School & Suffolk University; Gina M. Vincent, University of Massachusetts Medical
School; Thomas Grisso, University of Massachusetts Medical School
In order to better understand differences in mental health symptoms between violent and nonviolent juvenile offenders, this study investigated
whether detained youth with current violent offenses were more likely to reach Caution cutoffs on the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument
(MAYSI-2) than youths with current nonviolent offenses. This study found that violent girls were significantly more likely to score above Caution
cutoffs on the Suicide Ideation scale (SI), than nonviolent girls. The violent boys were significantly more likely than nonviolent boys to score above
Caution cutoffs on the Angry-Irritable (AI), Somatic Complaints (SC), and SI scales.
23. Predictive Validity of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) for Non-Violent Infractions. Michelle
Giresi-Ficarra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Veronica Chavez, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of
Nebraska Lincoln; James Peugh, University of Virginia; William Reay, OMNI Behavioral Health
The predictive validity of the CAFAS for nonviolent recidivism was examined in an at-risk youth sample. The youth were between the ages of 11-17
and were referred by child protective services, juvenile courts, juvenile probation, and local mental health services. A total of 830 at-risk youth were
assessed from 2002 to 2004 at six-month intervals. CAFAS scores were compared to latent composite behavioral indices drawn from multiple
informants. Multivariate results suggest that the CAFAS is predictive of various types of nonviolent recidivism and problematic behavior such as
running away, substance use, police contact, unexcused school absences, and property damage.
24. Treatment Process and Participation among Adolescent Sexual Offenders with Psychopathic Traits. Shannon Bader, University
of Nebraska-Lincoln; Natasha Elkovitch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Jodi Viljoen, Simon Fraser University; Mario J. Scalora,
University of Nebraska Lincoln
The current study examined the role of psychopathic traits on treatment process and participation among 163 male youth adjudicated for sexual
offenses and receiving sex offense specific treatment in a residential setting. PCL:YV scores were based on a comprehensive file review and
statistically compared to treatment process. Treatment process was operationalized by attendance at therapy sessions, participation in therapy sessions,
disruptive behaviors during treatment, and treatment plan achievement scores. Youth classified as having poor treatment process showed significantly
higher Factor 1 scores, Factor 2 scores, and PCL:YV total scores, F(1, 155)= 13.02, MSE=452.33, p < 0.001. Clinical implications are discussed.
25. Juvenile Mental Health Symptoms: Relation between Setting, Race, Gender and Age. Anna Marie Terry, University of
Massachusetts Medical School; Shannon M. Maney, University of Massachusetts Medical School & Suffolk University; Gina M.
Vincent, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Thomas Grisso, University of Massachusetts Medical School
To further understand differences in mental health symptoms between youth in juvenile justice settings as compared to youth in other settings, this
study looked at race, age, gender, and Caution/Warning scores on the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI-2). Preliminary analyses
found that youths in the juvenile justice system reported higher alcohol and drug use in comparison to their male and female counterparts. Youth in
alternate settings reported fewer mental health symptoms as compared to youth in probation, detention, and correction facilities.
26. Neuropsychology and Dusky: The Use of Neuropsychological Assessment in Determining Juvenile's Adjudicative Competence.
Jessica Gurley, Sam Houston State University; Mitchell Hugonnet, Superior Court of the District of Columbia
The number of juveniles referred for evaluations of competency to stand trial has increased in recent years (Grisso & Quinlan, 2005). Unlike adults,
juveniles can be found not competent due to developmental issues, which may stem from adolescents' incomplete brain development. In this poster,
we explore the use of neuropsychological instruments the assessment of adjudicative competence for juveniles. More specifically, we will discuss
neuropsychological instruments that may be useful in determining each facet of competence outlined by Dusky (1960) and report information from a
case study where neuropsychological testing was used in a juvenile competency evaluation.
27. Perceptions of 'Just Deserts' & Juvenile Recidivism in Florida's Faith & Community Based Delinquency Treatment Initiative.
Carrie Schrage, University of Florida; Jodi Lane, University of Florida; Lonn Lanza-Kaduce, University of Florida
Prior research about how deserving offenders are of punishment has generally focused on the attitudes of the public. Although some research exists
regarding prisoner perceptions of fairness in criminal justice (Alpert & Hicks, 1977; Zhang, Messner, & Lu, 1999), limited research exists on juvenile
offender perceptions of commensurability (i.e.proportionality) (Giordano, 1976; Krohn & Stratton, 1980). This research examines how perceptions of
commensurability among incarcerated juveniles affect behavior upon release. Do juveniles in Florida's Faith and Community-Based Delinquency
Treatment Initiative who perceive that their punishment was undeserved offend at higher levels upon release than juveniles who perceive fairness in
28. PTSD and Intimate Partner Violence: Impact of Type and Content of Abuse Incidents. Rachel Duros, Nova Southeastern
The psychological impact of intimate partner violence has been a prominent topic in the literature over the past thirty years. Battered women's
presentation and symptoms cluster continue to be poorly understood. In fact, one of the most debated constituents of Battered Woman Syndrome
(BWS) is its connection to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present study investigates the connection between the content of abuse
incidents and the women's reported PTSD symptomatology, using the Battered Woman Syndrome Questionnaire (BWSQ; Walker, 1984, 2000).
29. A Comparison of the Conviction Rates and Sentence Length of Male and Female Sexual Offenders. Erica Vo, Pacific University;
Michelle Renee Guyton, Pacific University; Christopher Brown, Pacific University; Pamela Suzanne Buchanan, Pacific University;
Blaithin MacMahon, Pacific University; Kathryn E Marshall, Pacific University; Jacqueline Christine Means, Pacific University
It has been reported that many female sex offenders do not face criminal punishment for their acts or receive shorter sentences for their crimes, and
many are allowed continued access to their victims (Coulborn Faller, 1995; Vandiver & Teske, 2006). This may place children at ongoing risk as if
individuals and institutions charged with protecting children do not direct female offenders to treatment or prosecution (Hetherton & Beardsall, 1998).
This poster will present information about the conviction rates and sentence length of male and female offenders based on the age and gender of their
30. Intimate Partner Violence and Social Support Peer Networks in Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Students. Cassandra Jones, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Abbie Tuller, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Chitra Raghavan, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY
This study sought to evaluate the relationship of perceived social support, intimate partner violence (IPV), and IPV within social support networks,
among gay/lesbian participants. Second goal was to provide comparisons with straight participants. Results indicated gay/lesbian participants had
similar levels of perceived social support and IPV within social support networks as straight participants. However, gay/lesbian participants reported
more IPV than straight participants. Additionally, while social support was not associated with reduced victimization levels for gay/lesbian
participants, it was for straight participants. These results suggest that although structure of social support is similar across groups, function specific to
violence reduction differs.
31. Police Knowledge and Utilization of Resources for Victims and Offenders of Same-Sex Domestic Violence. Brian Tesch, Chicago
School of Professional Psychology; Evan Harrington, Chicago School of Professional Psychology
The purpose of this study was to examine police officers' training with victims/offenders of same-sex domestic violence, and to examine their
knowledge of available community resources for this population. Surveys were administered to 91 police officers from 5 towns in Illinois. Surveys
were designed in "yes/no" format, with one question assessing the 6-month incidence rate of domestic violence calls. The study revealed that a
majority of officers had encountered at least one same-sex domestic violence call within the last 6 months. However, officers reported little training
regarding this issue. Additionally, few officers were aware of services available for same-sex victims/offenders.
32. Targeted Violence Against Political Figures: A Descriptive Analysis of Thought/Control Override Delusions and Mentally Ill.
Charles Derick Darrow, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Mentally ill persons are responsible for an immense amount of threatening or concerning correspondence directed towards public officials. This study
sought to differentiate between mentally ill persons and mentally ill persons who exhibited threat/control override delusions who engaged in
threatening or intimidating activity toward public officials. A sample of 1469 subjects with mental illness (of which 315 displayed TCO symptoms)
was analyzed. The results of a discriminate function indicated that those mentally ill subjects with TCO symptoms tend to focus on particular themes.
The implications of these findings for threat assessment activity will be discussed in detail.
33. Use and Misuse of Scales and Tests for Miranda Competency and Interrogative Suggestibility. Bruce Frumkin, Forensic and
Clinical Psychology Associates, P.A.
Psychologists who do assessments of Miranda competency and interrogative suggestibility often use the available scales and tests, including the
Grisso tests for Miranda competency and the Gudjonnson Suggestibility Scales. This presentation focuses on common errors in the use of these scales,
along with suggestions for their use in reports and testimony that will maximize the likelihood of their admission under Frye/Daubert standards.
34. The development of new norms for Grisso's Miranda competency scales and the Gudjonnson Suggestibility Scales. Gretchen
Lamendola, Nova Southeastern University
Gudjonsson (1997) developed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales to help assess interrogative suggestibility and psychological factors related to an
individual's response when formally questioned by law enforcement. Unfortunately, this test only used norms derived from populations within the
United Kingdom and Iceland. Recently, norms have been developed using 429 individuals who have undergone evaluations related to competency to
waive Miranda rights and/or false and coerced confessions. Grisso scores and GSS scores have been calculated for 428 juvenile and adults defendants
of all IQ ranges. These new norms are compared to the original samples in terms of relationships with age and IQ. In addition, relationships with
ethnicity, working memory, and select personality variables are also examined.
35. Case Law on the Admissibility of Expert Testimony about Miranda Competency and Interrogative Suggestibility. Solomon
Fulero, Sinclair College
Psychologists who do assessments of Miranda competency and interrogative suggestibility often use the available scales and tests, including the
Grisso tests for Miranda competency and the Gudjonnson Suggestibility Scales. These scales and tests have been the focus of a number of cases in
which their admissibility under Daubert and Frye standards have been challenged. This presentation focuses on those cases.
36. Detecting Deception in Real-Life Preinterrogative Interviews. Marianna Carlucci, Florida International University; Nadja Schreiber
Compo, Florida International University; Tanya Alonso, Florida International University
The current study seeks to expand the deception detection literature by using real-world preinterrogative interviews to discern differences in how
novices (civilians) versus experts (police officers) make decisions about deception. Videotapes of routine traffic stops depicting either liars
(incriminating evidence was found in the car) or truth-tellers (no evidence was found in the car) were edited such that the final car search was cut out.
Novices and experts watched the tapes and were asked to make truth/lie judgments about the target in each video. Preliminary results indicate
differences in deception detection between the two groups.
37. Does a Dual-Camera Approach Produce Unbiased and Accurate Evaluations of Videotaped Interrogations/Confessions? G.
Daniel Lassiter, Ohio University; Celeste J. Snyder, Ohio University; Matthew J. Lindberg, Ohio University; Shannon K. Pinegar, Ohio
Several experiments have demonstrated that videotaped confessions with the camera focused on the suspect lead to judgments of greater voluntariness
and to more difficulty accurately differentiating between true and false confessions. Despite such results, police continue to emphasize a suspect-focus
camera perspective when recording custodial interrogations. A potential compromise is to employ a dual-camera approach that would allow the full
faces of the suspect and interrogator to be presented simultaneously on videotape. A dual-camera approach did successfully eliminate bias in
voluntariness judgments (Study 1), but it failed to improve observers' ability to accurately distinguish true from false confessions (Study 2).
38. Police Officers' Beliefs about the Interrogation Process. Melissa Russano, Roger Williams University; Fadia M. Narchet, University
of New Haven
Given the weighty nature of confession evidence (e.g., see Kassin, 1997), it is important to understand the interrogation process through which most
confessions are elicited. The purpose of the current study was to survey police officers regarding their beliefs about and perceptions of the
interrogation process. We report results about what techniques police officers believe are least and most effective in eliciting confessions, the extent to
which they support videotaping of interrogations, and their estimations about how long a typical interrogation lasts and what percentage of custodial
suspects waive Miranda. Implications of the findings will be addressed.
39. The Effect of Crime Type on Perceptions of Harsh Interrogation Techniques. Fadia M. Narchet, University of New Haven; Melissa
Russano, Roger Williams University; Jenny L Griffin, University of New Haven
The use of extreme interrogation techniques has become highly publicized in recent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore
perceptions of the use of harsh techniques during interrogations, with a specific focus on whether crime type affects those perceptions. Eighty
participants read a vignette describing a suspect accused of and interrogated for one of four crimes (child molestation, murder, burglary, and
terrorism). Participants were more likely to endorse the use of extreme interrogation techniques when the suspect was accused of terrorism, child
molestation, and murder than when accused of burglary. Implications of the findings will be discussed.
40. The Effect of False Confession Type on Juror Decision-Making. Emily Ann Peterson, Roger Williams University; Melissa Russano,
Roger Williams University
The purpose of the present study is to determine how jurors perceive different types of false confessions, and how confession type affects their
decision-making. Participants read a short vignette about a murder case in which the suspect provides either no confession, a coerced-compliant, or a
coerced-internalized false confession. Participants then provide a variety of ratings, including ratings of guilt, interrogation coerciveness, reliability of
the confession, and believability of the suspect's assertion of innocence. It is hypothesized that participants will be more skeptical and critical of the
coerced-internalized false confession as compared to the coerced-compliant false confession.
41. Discriminating True, Suggested, and Fabricated Accounts with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Approach. Krystle Lynn
Rowe, California State University, Fullerton; Iris Blandon-Gitlin, California State University, Fullerton
One way human cognition is manifested is through natural language. Previous research suggests we can learn about people's thoughts, emotions, and
motives objectively through the use of linguistic analysis. Such analysis has been conducted by James Pennebaker and colleagues through the use of a
computer-based coding system called Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). Extending previous research, the present study examined the
feasibility of the LIWC to discriminate among accounts of forensically relevant events -- true, deliberately fabricated, and suggested to have occurred.
Results revealed a few linguistic differences among the accounts.
42. Predicting Sentence Certainty in a Capital Punishment Trial: The Role of Attitudes and Instruction Comprehension. Megan
Beringer, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Richard Wiener, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Erin Maria Richter, University of
Nebraska at Lincoln
Research examining capital punishment sentencing decisions shows that attitudes toward capital punishment are strong predictors of sentencing
decisions. Research also shows that jury instruction comprehension predicts capital sentencing. This experiment examined the relationships between
attitudes, instruction comprehension, and sentencing. Participants viewed a reenactment of a capital punishment trial, then chose to sentence the
defendant to life in prison or death. Path analysis revealed that both attitudes and instruction comprehension had direct effects on sentence certainty,
with greater support for capital punishment leading to less certainty in a life sentence, and greater comprehension leading to more certainty in a life
43. Death Be Not Proud: Is a Life Sentence Harsher than the Death Penalty? Amy E. Smith, San Francisco State University
Much research has at its core the belief that, in a capital case, the worst possible outcome is a death sentence; few scholars have explored the
possibility that, for some, life in prison without possibility of parole (LWOP) may represent a more punitive sentencing option. Combining qualitative
and quantitative data, this paper presents two studies which suggest that for some participants, LWOP is perceived as a harsher punishment than
death, and may be selected because the participant wants the defendant to suffer more. This research has important implications for advocates,
researchers, victims and defendants, as well as policy- and decision-makers.
44. Accountability and Prejudice: When Careful Trial Processing Heightens Racial Bias in Mock-Jurors' Decision-Making. Donna
Eisenstadt, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Michael Leippe, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
White participants read a trial transcript in which the defendant was either Black or White. Under standard instructions to carefully evaluate evidence,
fewer guilty verdicts were made when the defendant was Black - a "reverse discrimination" effect. Under high accountability instructions that the
study was government sponsored and tested ability to make a correct decision, more guilty verdicts were made when the defendant was Black - a
discrimination effect. Prejudice and stereotypes may bias trial processing even when jurors feel accountable, to the extent they are compelled to apply
personal stereotypical beliefs they presume are valid.
45. Age, Competency and American Juries. Joseph Hamm, University of Northern Colorado; William Woody, University of Northern
Jurors should equally evaluate every legally competent defendant in adult court. Thus, once deemed competent to stand trial and charged as an adult, a
marginally competent juvenile and a clearly competent adult defendant should be evaluated similarly by jurors. Participants (N = 340) read jury
instructions and a trial summary in which the defendant's age and competency were manipulated as between-participant variables. Participants
rendered verdicts and, if appropriate, gave sentencing recommendations. Several significant effects were identified. The results for this study can
inform defense and prosecution attorneys and address conflicts in the literature investigating juveniles tried as adults.
46. Beyond a Reasonable Doubt: The Effect of Language of Testimony on the Reasonable Doubt Standard. Brooke Alison Smith,
University of Texas at El Paso; Harmon M. Hosch, University of Texas at El Paso
A quantifiable measure of reasonable doubt was used to investigate the leniency effect for Spanish speaking defendants (Hosch, Tubb, and Shaw,
2004). Participants watched a trial stimulus containing a defendant testifying in English, Spanish with English translation, or not testifying, and
supplied before and after ratings of reasonable doubt. Results showed that, again, mock jurors were less likely to convict the Spanish-speaking
defendant. No support was demonstrated for a change in reasonable doubt for Spanish-speaking defendants. An interaction was detected between
participant speaking language and defendant language, demonstrating that Spanish-speaking participants were more likely to convict an English-
47. Blaming the Mother: Determinations of Blame and Responsibility in Fatal Child Neglect. Bridget L Hanson, University of North
Dakota; Cheryl Terrance, University of North Dakota
This study investigated the determination of blame and responsibility in a fatal child neglect scenario by varying parent (i.e., mother or father) and
caregiving responsibility (i.e., primary or non-primary). Participants read a newspaper article depicting a story about a child who died after being left
unattended in a vehicle and assessed the amount of blame and responsibility attributed to each parent. Overall, results revealed a significant
interaction such the mother who violated stereotypes by not being the primary caregiver for her child was deemed more responsible and blameworthy
than any other condition for the child's death. Courtroom implications are discussed.
48. Complex Questions asked by Defence Lawyers but not Prosecutors Lead to Convictions in Child Abuse Trials. Angela Dawn
Evans, University of Toronto; Kang Lee, University of Toronto; Thomas D. Lyon, University of Southern California
Studies assessing the interplay of language in child court cases have demonstrated that attorneys' language influences the competency of a child's
testimony (Zajac & Hayne, 2003; Zajac, Gross, & Hayne, 2003). However, we currently do not know whether the complexity of attorney's questions
influences the trial verdict. The present study addresses this question. Forty-six child sexual abuse court transcripts were analyzed for the complexity,
wordiness and number of questions asked. Results indicated that the complexity of defense questions predicted the trial verdict correctly 73.9% of the
time, but that increased complexity was associated with convictions, not acquittals.
49. Comprehensibility of Capital Sentencing Instructions: The Need to Improve Guided Discretion. Judy Platania, Roger Williams
University; Katharine Alyssa McIntyre, Roger Williams University; Brian L. Cutler, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Although the semantic and syntactic comprehensibility issues associated with jury instructions are well documented, the importance of clear language
in jury instructions has been recognized in relatively few courts. Considering the stakes for a capital defendant, giving instructions that jurors do not
necessarily understand is dangerous. In the present study, we evaluated comprehensibility of capital sentencing instructions through a standardized
readability index. Results indicate sentencing instructions are well above the comprehension level of many Americans. The importance of improving
guided discretion among capital sentencing jurors is discussed.
50. Do Attorneys' Expectations Influence Juror Behavior in Voir Dire? Julia Clara Busso, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Sarah Greathouse, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Caroline B. Crocker, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Jacqueline Lynn Austin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Joe Vitriol, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY;
Jennifer Torkildson, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
We examined whether attorneys' expectations about jurors' trial-relevant attitudes influenced information elicited from venirepersons during voir dire.
We manipulated attorneys' expectations about whether venirepersons were pro-prosecution or pro-defense (independent of their true attitudes),
whether the attorney was motivated to ingratiate or seek information, and whether the venireperson was motivated to get on the jury. Blind raters
judged venirepersons to hold expectation-consistent attitudes when both attorneys were motivated to ingratiate rather than to gather information and
venirepersons were motivated to please the attorney. Thus, behavioral confirmation processes may affect the accuracy of information that attorneys
elicit from jurors during voir dire.
51. Effects of Parole Instructions on Jurors' Non-Capital Sentence Recommendations. Valerie Perez, Florida International
University; Kevin O'Neil, Florida International University
This study examined the effects of parole instructions on jurors' sentencing decisions. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothetical
model in which instructions influence sentence severity primarily through perceptions of future dangerousness. 343 mock jurors read a trial vignette
and were 1) given no parole instruction, 2) told the defendant was eligible for parole, or 3) told the defendant was eligible for parole but required to
serve a minimum sentence. Results indicate that jurors recommended more severe sentences in the parole-eligible condition than in either the parole-
eligible with mandatory minimum sentence or no instruction conditions, in that order.
52. Field Survey of Juror Misconduct. Kelloir L. Smith, Graduate Center CUNY; Steven Penrod, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
Evidence not presented in court, ruled inadmissible, stricken from the record, or introduced by a juror during deliberation are forms of extrinsic
evidence (EE). Evaluation of EE can deprive the defendant their right to cross-examine witnesses who testify against him. Inadmissible evidence
influnces jurors' decision-making; however, the rate of jurors consideration of EE and juror misconduct is unknown. This study surveyed ex-jurors to
explore the prevalence of juror misconduct. Fourteen percent of the sample discussed inadmissible evidence, 20% discussed the defendant's prior
record, and 18% reported a juror with expertise on a case relevant issue served on their jury.
53. How Death Qualification Systematically Excludes Jurors Based on Religious Characteristics, Justice Philosophy, Cognitive
Processing, and Demographics. Monica K. Miller, University of Nevada, Reno; R. David Hayward, University of Nevada, Reno; Alicia
Summers, University of Nevada, Reno
The death qualification process has been criticized because it tends to eliminate certain groups of individuals. This study examined whether the
process systematically excludes jurors based on religious characteristics, justice philosophy, cognitive processing, and demographics. Death
qualification can be predicted by religious affiliation, devotionalism, fundamentalism, and Biblical interpretism; but not evangelism. Death
qualification is predicted by the belief that murderers deserved to die, but not by beliefs that criminals deserve mercy, forgiveness, or payback.
Neither need for cognition or faith in intuition predicted death qualification. Finally, gender and race predicted death qualification, while age and prior
jury duty did not.
54. Jury Pool Members' Beliefs about Deficits in Adaptive Functioning. Lisa Kan, Sam Houston State University; Beth Caillouet, Sam
Houston State University; Marcus Boccaccini, Sam Houston State University; Kim Turner, Sam Houston State University; Ramona
Noland, Sam Houston State University; John Clark, Troy University
Although mental health professionals can argue for a MR diagnosis in Atkins-type cases, the ultimate decision about MR is made by a judge or jury.
The purpose of the current study was to examine jury pool members beliefs about behaviors associated with mental retardation and to compare those
beliefs to those from people who work with persons with MR. Overall, jury pool members were likely to perceive only very severe impairments as
indicative of MR, whereas mental health professionals perceived milder to moderate impairments as indicative of MR.
55. Measuring Attitudes Toward the Insanity Defense: Scale Development and Validation. Amanda J. Monier, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY; Catrin Andersson, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Tarika Daftary, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Research has shown that jurors' decisions in insanity defense cases are influenced by pre-existing attitudes towards the defense and mental illness in
general. In light of evidence showing that current voir dire processes may not be sufficient to uncover juror biases, this two-part study sought to
design a scale that could identify jurors' attitudes towards the insanity defense and predict verdict in insanity cases. Results indicate that the scale has
good reliability. Research and policy implications will be discussed, focused on the voir dire process.
56. Online Predator Sting Operations: Entrapment? Christopher Sean Peters, Western Carolina University; Dara A Williams, Western
Carolina University; Alvin Malesky, Western Carolina University
This study explored the practical implications of using the entrapment defense within the context of an undercover police investigation targeted at
catching online sexual predators. Preliminary analysis revealed that including the definition of entrapment did not have a bearing on determination of
guilt or innocence. However, who initiated the conversation did impact both the determination of guilt or innocence and the confidence participants
had in their decision. When the undercover agent initiated the sexual conversation, significantly more participants found the defendant innocent.
Participants who found the defendant guilty also expressed significantly less confidence in their opinion.
57. Postmortem Punishment? Deceased Defendants, Punitive Damages, and Jurors' Intentions. Timothy R. Robicheaux, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Brian H. Bornstein, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The current study explored the effects of a defendant's death on decisions involving punitive damages and on state emotions. Participants read a trial
summary concerning a car accident in which the defendant suffered minor, serious, or fatal injuries. Then they made legal decisions, reported their
intentions for those decisions, and reported state emotions. Participants rated intentions for awarding punitive damages differently across conditions,
specifically intentions to punish and to deter. Deceased defendants elicited higher ratings of sympathy, which negatively correlated with decisions of
punitive liability. Legal and psychological implications will be discussed.
58. Studying Pretrial Publicity: A Content Analyis of the Father Paul Shanley Case in Boston. Sara Appleby, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY; Margaret A Hagen, Boston University; M. Caroline Rast, Georgia State Univeristy
Research on the effects of pretrial publicity on potential jurors has been criticized for lacking ecological validity. At the same time, media coverage of
high-profile crimes has proliferated. To augment ecological validity and relevance, researchers recently have undertaken content analyses of the
publicity surrounding specific cases. In this study, we analyzed the content of the pretrial publicity in the notorious case of Paul Shanley, a Boston
priest accused of child sexual abuse. Results showed that, when compared to a lesser-known hockey coach facing similar charges, Shanley's case
received vastly disproportionate negative coverage, potentially biasing his jury pool.
59. The Effect of Apologies on Potential Litigant Legal Reasoning. Erica Noelle Drew, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs;
Edith Greene, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine how different types of apologies potential litigant's legal actions. Using vignette
methodology, participants read through a scenario in which they assumed the role of an injured grocery store patron. Two independent variables were
manipulated: the nature of the apology offered by the store owner (full, partial, or none) and severity of the injury sustained (mild or severe). Results
indicated injury severity to have a stronger effect on a victim's decision to pursue litigation than the type apology offered by the wrongdoer.
60. The Effects of Mock Juror Demographics on Decisions to Civilly Commit Sexually Violent Predators. Daniel Krauss, Claremont
McKenna College; Sarah McFadden, Claremont McKenna College; Allison Strother, Claremont McKenna College; Hillary Tribbs,
Claremont McKenna College; Susan Sparrow, Pomona College
This study examined the effects of gender, race, and political affiliation on verdicts rendered by community jurors in a mock sexually violent predator
(SVP) civil commitment hearing. Two hundred and forty community members participated in the experiment. After viewing a 1½ hour videotape,
jurors answered "yes" or "no" as to whether the respondent should be civilly committed and rated their confidence in this decision. The results
indicated that females were more likely than males to favor commitment; however, race and political affiliation had no impact on jurors' decision to
commit. Implications and future avenues of research are discussed.
61. The Effects of the Reasonable Woman Standard on Perspective Taking and Judgments of Sexual Harassment. David
Zimmerman, University of North Carolina Wilmington; Sarah Raab, University of North Carolina Wilmington; Katie McClure,
University of North Carolina Wilmington; Emalee Weidemann, University of North Carolina Wilmington; Bryan Myers, University of
North Carolina Wilmington
The reasonable woman standard has been suggested as a way to remedy males' biased judgments of hostile workplace cases relative to females.
However, reasonable woman instructions promote weak effects in altering the perspective of males. Past research has failed to directly measure
perspective taking. The present study suggests the need to strengthen legal instructions and more directly assess perspective taking in sexual
62. The Influence of Pre-Trial Publicity and Legal Authoritarianism on Juror Decision Making. Cassandra Hoy, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY; Melanie Donovan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Tarika Daftary, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Steven Penrod, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Numerous studies have been conducted on pretrial publicity (PTP) and is influence on juror decision making. These studies have indicated pretrial
publicity tend to influence a juror's decision of a case. Research has also indicated that a juror's decision making can be influenced by attitudes such as
legal authoritarianism. This study explored the interaction of PTP and legal attitude on a juror's verdict. Results show that PTP and legal
authoritarianism both influence juror verdicts.
63. "I Don't Buy It." Investigating the Jury Deliberation Process. C. Dominik Güss, University of North Florida; M. Florencia Torres,
Unievristy of North Florida; Michelle Marie Burgos, University of North Florida; Linda Foley, University of North Florida
How do juries come to a decision? Previous research has focused on guilty versus non-guilty factions, individual difference variables, and context
variables to explain juries' verdicts. This study analyzed the deliberation of 12 mock juries following the problem-solving stage model. Jury
deliberations were tape-recorded, transcribed, and coded. Results showed that a) problem-solving theory is useful in analyzing jury deliberations, b)
40% of jury's statements were personal opinions and experiences, c) the total number of statements in a jury deliberation and specific stages were
related to juries' decisions. In sum, the deliberation process influenced the jury's final decisions.
64. Ecological Validity Issues in Jury Simulation Research: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Eyewitness Expert Testimony. Elizabeth
Avila-Mora, Claremont Graduate University; Kathryn Sperry, Claremont Graduate University; Kathy Pezdek, Claremont Graduate
This study assessed whether mock jurors' perceptions of defense expert testimony on eyewitness identification vary based on differing levels of
ecological validity. Mock jurors participated in a 4 (no eyewitness expert, expert after eyewitness, expert before eyewitness, or expert plus
prosecution rebuttal witness) x 2 (trial presentation: video or transcript) between-groups design (415 jury-eligible participants). Mock jurors presented
with the trial transcript reported that the expert was more understandable and influential compared to participants presented with the trial video, but
ratings of guilt did not differ by modality. Implications for conducting jury research are discussed.
65. The Transfer of Juvenile Sexual Offenders to Criminal Court. Frank DiCataldo, Roger Williams University; Katherine Provencher,
Roger Williams University; Bridget Hanagan, Roger Williams University
This paper will review juvenile transfer statutes in all the states and the District of Columbia identifying special provisions and procedures specifically
designed for juvenile sexual offenders. Many state legislatures have recently passed statutes requiring the automatic transfer of juvenile sex offenders
to criminal court. Other states have allowed for discretionary decisionmaking on the part of the prosecution. The implication of these recent law
changes will be discussed.
66. The Civil Commitment of Juvenile Sexual Offenders as Sexually Dangerous Persons. Michael Crooks, Roger Williams University;
The civil commitment of sexual offender law were largely devised to regulate and manage the sexual risk of adult offenders. But many state laws
were written to include juvenile sex offenders. A review of existing state commitment laws for sexual offenders revealed that a large proportion of
them, about two-thirds, are written to include juvenile sexual offenders or adults whose only sex offense occurred while they were a juvenile. The
implications of this finding will be discussed.
67. Characteristics of a Forensic Psychiatric Population After Legislative Changes in Canada to the NCRMD Defence. Kimberly
Sahlstrom, Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission; Alicia Spidel, University of British Columbia; Tonia L. Nicholls, BC Mental
Health & Addiction Services and University of British Columbia; Johann Brink, BC Mental Health and Addiction Services / University
of British Columbia
Since legislative changes in Canada amending provisions for those found NCRMD, the number of successful defences has increased (Livingston, et
al., 2003). Recent research suggests that the NCRMD defence is a more appealing option as those found NCRMD are spending less time in the
forensic psychiatric system than previously, and that the index offences have been less serious in nature (Livingston, et al., 2003). Despite the growing
NCRMD population, few studies have looked at the clinical, historical and socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals (Desmarais et al.,
submitted). In addition, it is unknown whether the trends described above have also continued.
68. How Accurate Are Determinations of Competence to Stand Trial? Douglas Mossman, Wright State University Boonshoft School of
In medical research, diagnostic accuracy often is assessed against some "gold standard" method (often a tissue diagnosis) that establishes the "truth."
But when forensic clinicians assess competence to stand trial (CST), no gold standard exists. (Though trial judges determine outcomes, their decisions
are not infallible.) We combined latent structure analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods to overcome the absent gold standard
and quantify accuracy of CST assessments. Using "sanitized," previously submitted court reports as their data source, raters assigned defendants
scores on understanding, reasoning, appreciation, and Dusky-defined competence. Accuracy computations showed that raters' ROC areas often
69. Judges' Perspectives on Stress and Safety in the Courtroom: An Exploratory Study. David Flores, University of Nevada, Reno;
Monica K. Miller, University of Nevada, Reno; Jared C. Chamberlain, University of Nevada, Reno; James T. Richardson, University of
Nevada, Reno; Brian H. Bornstein, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
One hundred sixty-three judges were surveyed in an effort to integrate the study of courtroom stress and safety and expand on the limited existing
work focusing on judges. Findings related to five general research questions. First, judges reported feeling responsible for juror stress and utilized
numerous informal preventative strategies. Second, results suggest judges are susceptible to occupational stress. Third, judges reported moderate
levels of concern for personal and family safety, adopting various measures in response. Fourth, analyses revealed a consistent positive relationship
between safety concerns and stress. Finally, two individual difference variables were found. Implications are discussed and recommendations offered.
70. The Effect of Legal Training on Judgments of Rule Violations. N. J. Schweitzer, Arizona State University; Michael J Saks, Arizona
State University; Ian Tingen, Arizona State University; David Lovis-McMahon, Arizona State University; Brittany Cole, Arizona State
University; Natalie Gildar, Arizona State University; Derek Fay, Arizona State University
A sample of law students was presented with a scenario that described a teacher who contemplates violating a school's blind-grading rule. We
manipulated the mandatory/discretionary nature of the rule, whether there was a good or bad reason for the violation, and whether the teacher
ultimately violated the rule. We found that law students are much more fixated on the technical aspects of rules than were laypeople or lawyers from
an earlier sample. However, like the lawyers and laypeople, law students forgave rule violations when there was a good reason for it, despite
professing the superiority of rules to outcomes.
71. A Study of Subtypes of Psychopathy in Adolescent Offenders. Alicia Spidel, University of British Columbia; Heather Gretton, Youth
Forensic Psychiatric Services; Hugues Herve, Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission; The Ekman Group-Training Division
Research has identified four subtypes of psychopaths in adult forensic populations: the classic psychopath, the explosive psychopath, the manipulative
psychopath, and the pseudo-psychopath (Hervé, 2003). This however has not been investigated in adolescents. The current study looked at 645 male
and female adolescents and found that there are similar subtypes in adolescents.
72. Does Emotional Intelligence Play a Mediating Role between Psychopathy and Aggression? Angela Rickelm, Sam Houston State
Emotional intelligence was investigated as a mediating factor between aggression and psychopathy assessed using the Psychopathic Personality
Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld 1996) in male and female residents (N = 92) from a Drug Abuse Comprehensive Coordinating Office (DACCO). Emotional
intelligence was analyzed using Wong and Law's emotional intelligence scale (2002). The Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire (1992) was
used to measure aggression. The mediation analysis did not yield significant results. However, emotional intelligence was found to be significantly
correlated with psychopathy, p< 0.05, and one of its underpinning factors Impulsive Antisociality (PPI-II), p< 0.01.
73. Prediction of Recidivism using the PCL-R and the PICTS within a Forensic Sample. Valerie M Gonsalves, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Matthew Huss, Creighton University
The Psychopathy Checklist- Revised (PCL-R) has been well established as a predictor of recidivism in the literature. However, the research generally
points to Factor 2 as a stronger predictor of recidivism than Factor 1; therefore it may be useful to look at additional measures in conjunction with the
PCL-R to improve the prediction of recidivism. As such, the present study utilized the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS)
in order to examine if predictive power could be improved. Results indicate that the PICTS marginally improves the predictive power of the PCL-R.
Implications for future research are discussed.
74. Psychopathic Traits and Attachment Behavior: Does a Predictable Relationship Exist? Tawny Danielle Mack, Georgia Southern
University; Amy Hackney-Hansen, Georgia Southern University
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported psychopathic traits and attachment behavior. It was hypothesized that attachment
avoidance and psychopathic traits would be positively related. Two-hundred eleven participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-
Revised scale (Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000) and the Primary and Secondary Psychopathy Scale (Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995). The data
were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. Attachment avoidance scores significantly predicted Primary and Secondary Psychopathy Scale
scores, R = .30, R2 = .09, R2 adj = .08, F(2, 209) = 9.86, p < .00.
75. Psychopathy and Adolescent Females: Does Gender Moderate the Relation Between Childhood Trauma and PCL:YV Scores?
Trevor Barese, Roger Williams University; Nathan Cook, Roger Williams University; Frank DiCataldo, Roger Williams University
A growing rate of violence among female adolescents has led to an increased interest in gender differences associated with the assessment and
prevention of psychopathy. The literature supports gender differences in both base rate and factor structure of psychopathy as assessed using the PCL-
R and PCL:YV. Furthermore, childhood trauma, in the forms of abuse and disrupted attachment, has been positively correlated with scores on both
the PCL-R and PCL-YV. The unique factor structure of female psychopathy and growing literature on psychopathy subtypes among males raises
questions about the universality of developmental risk factors.
76. Semantic and Emotional Processing among Psychopathic Female Inmates: Results of a Lexical Decision Task. Melissa I.
Phillips, University of Toledo Medical Center; Linda Hatzenbuehler, Idaho State University
Psychopathy is a syndrome of related behavioral and interpersonal symptoms. This study examines whether female psychopaths demonstrate the
emotional processing deficits observed among male psychopaths. Participants were 80 female inmates. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, 2nd
edition (Hare, 2003) was used to create psychopathic (n=22) and nonpsychopathic (n=29) groups. A lexical decision task measured reaction time to
concrete, abstract-emotionally negative, abstract-emotionally positive, and abstract-emotionally neutral words. It was hypothesized that
nonpsychopaths would respond faster to abstract compared to concrete words and to abstract-emotional compared to abstract-neutral words;
psychopaths were not expected to show differential responding. Mixed support for study hypotheses was found.
77. Constitutional Crisis or Personal Preference? Hate Crime Law Attitudes and their Correlates. Anthony Sarkees, University of
Three personal traits-- homonegativity, social dominance orientation, and legal egalitarianism-- are assessed and linked to attitudes toward hate crime
laws. Individuals who hold negative beliefs toward gay men and lesbians, prefer inequality between social groups, and favor equal treatment before
the law do not support hate crime laws and perceive them negatively. Implications for the results are discussed, as well as an interpretation of them in
the context of the cultural debate regarding expansion of hate crime protections by the United States government.
78. Incorporating Stakeholders into Research Planning: PATHWAYS - Evaluating the closure of a tertiary psychiatric hospital.
Tonia L. Nicholls, BC Mental Health & Addiction Services and University of British Columbia; Nathalie Gagnon, Simon Fraser
University; Kevin Stewart Douglas, Simon Fraser University; Johann Brink, BC Mental Health and Addiction Services / University of
British Columbia; Deborah Ross, BC Mental Health and Addiction Services; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University
The PATHWAYS project is an evaluation of the implications of the closure of Riverview Hospital, British Columbia's only tertiary, civil psychiatric
hospital. This presentation will document the development of this large-scale naturalistic study. In particular, we demonstrate how we incorporated
stakeholders into the research planning process and present data from a small study designed to canvass stakeholders' opinions on the objectives and
methods of the proposed study. Integrating patients, families, front-line staff, clinicians, and decision-makers into the development of the study has
been a valuable process anticipated to increase participation in the project and the integrity of the results.
79. Racing Against the Clock: An Examination of a Curfew Ordinance That Holds Parents Accountable. Ashley Kolnes, University
of Florida; Eve M. Brank, University of Florida
In recent years, juvenile curfews have been implemented with the goals of decreasing juvenile delinquency and eliminating criminal risk factors for
minors. The purpose of the current research is to examine a city ordinance that added a parental responsibility component to their former curfew law.
The only change in the new law is that now parents, not minors, are held responsible for noncompliance with the city's curfew. Pre- and post-
ordinance implementation contrasts, nested neighborhood effects, and demographic/social characteristic comparisons are conducted to determine
effectiveness and potential unintended effects of this law.
80. Sex Offender Registries: Curiosity, not Caution, as a Motivation for Viewing. Christa A. Jones, Roosevelt University; Evan
Harrington, Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Sex-offender registries allow citizens to identify and monitor sex-offenders living in their communities yet little research exists regarding their
usefulness. This research sought to identify participants' attitudes toward sex-offenders and motives for accessing registries. Attitudes were assessed
using Altemeyer's Right Wing Authoritarianism scale and an original scale developed to assess attitudes regarding sex-offenders and the registry.
Twenty-nine percent of participants reported having viewed a registry and mostly did so out of curiosity rather than out of fear or concern for safety.
Authoritarians were found to be more favorable toward sex-offender registries and had a greater belief in their effectiveness.
81. The North Carolina Online Sex Offender Registry: Are Childcare Providers Aware? Jennifer Leigh White, Western Carolina
University; Alvin Malesky, Western Carolina University
This study investigated childcare providers' knowledge of the North Carolina Sex Offender Registry (NCSOR). Childcare providers' in each county in
North Carolina were surveyed via telephone interview to investigate their use of the registry as well as their views regarding the NCSOR. One
hundred twenty three childcare centers responded to the survey. Responses revealed that most providers have knowledge of the NCSOR (87.9%) but
do not access the website for work purposes (53.2%). In addition, very few centers had a policy mandating employees to check the website (3.2%).
82. The Rights and Responsibilities of Gay Parents: How do Same-Sex Partners Perceive Parental Roles? Jared C. Chamberlain,
University of Nevada, Reno; Monica K. Miller, University of Nevada, Reno; Carina Rivera, University of Nevada, Reno
With the growing number of gay unions, the legal system must determine the rights and responsibilities of non-biological parents. This research
assists judicial decision-making by examining the experiences, roles, responsibilities, and intent of same-sex parents. Results from a two-part study
revealed that same-sex parents face legal difficulties in establishing parental rights for the non-biological parent. Further, biological and non-
biological partners typically assume equal parental roles: they share parental responsibilities, they have similar bonds with their children, and they
show parental intent. In determining legal rights of non-biological parents, courts should consider that non-biological parents generally assume a full
83. The Witness Credibility Scale Revisited: Studies of An Outcome Measure for Expert Witness Research. Michael P. Griffin,
University of Alabama; Stanley Brodsky, University of Alabama; Bridget Larson, University of Alabama; Robert Cramer, University of
The Witness Credibility Scale (WCS) was designed to serve as an outcome measure of expert witness believability. No published measure exists for
assessment of the credibility of expert witnesses. The current study addressed this gap by developing and cross-validating a measure of perceived
witness effectiveness. We hypothesized that credibility was a product of four factors: "likeability", "believability, "trustworthiness", and
"intelligence." A 41-item measure initially was constructed based on successive iterations of ratings by a panel of judges, and was administered to 264
undergraduates. A factor analysis of the data yielded four factors: "knowledge", "likeability", "trustworthiness", and "confidence." The final version of
the WCS used 20 adjectives with four subscales of five items, each subscale reflecting high loadings on the four factors. The scale was then tested in
four additional studies in which the scale successfully differentiated between groups of experts in manipulated conditions. The empirical data from
these studies permit a scholarly foundation for comparative outcome data in research investigations.
84. Witness Self-Efficacy: Development and Validation of the Construct. Robert Cramer, University of Alabama; Stanley Brodsky,
University of Alabama; Jamie DeCoster, The University of Alabama; Tess Marie-Schrader Neal, University of Alabama
Building on witness outcome research such as the Witness Credibility Scale, the present proposal defines the construct of Witness Self-Efficacy
(WSE). Our studies have sought to validate the construct and Witness Self-Efficacy Scale (WSES). Study one results demonstrated that the WSES
possesses excellent reliability and construct validity relationships. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed the WSES to assess a unitary construct
similar to other forms of self-efficacy. Study two featured a mock testifying scenario requiring mock defendants to testify and complete a broader
range of construct validity questionnaires. The results were framed in terms of applications for witness preparation.
85. Juror Perceptions of Expert Witness Credibility in SVP Hearings. Darrel Turner, Sam Houston State University; Marcus
Boccaccini, Sam Houston State University; Daniel Murrie, University of Virginia
This ongoing study examined real jurors' perceptions of expert witnesses and their testimony in SVP hearings. Findings from four cases (43 jurors)
revealed that jurors felt more influenced by testimony relating to tests of risk assessment or to clinical experience than testimony relating to
psychopathy. However, experts who jurors believed were most influenced by risk assessment tests were seen as less credible than experts jurors
believed were most influenced by clinical experience.
86. Using Lineup Composition to Distinguish Between Absolute and Relative Decision Rules. Ryan A Rush, University of California,
Riverside; Steven E. Clark, University of California, Riverside
Absolute and relative decision rules may be differentiated by the conditions under which witnesses make identification versus nonidentification
responses. According to an absolute decision rule witnesses make identification decisions when the best match is high, whereas according to a relative
decision rule witnesses make identifications when the difference between the best and next-best matches is large. These decision rules were examined
in two target-absent lineups, one designated a "6-5" lineup, and the other a "4-2" lineup" (the numbers represent matches to memory for each lineup
member). Results, and fits of the WITNESS model, supported a relatively relative decision model.
87. Choosing and Rejecting: Reported Strategies for Lineup Decisions Vary in Accuracy. Stephanie Groft, Louisiana State University;
Sean Lane, Louisiana State University; Cristine Roussel, Louisiana State University
When witnesses choose a lineup member or reject the lineup, they may make such decisions by very different processes. We examined the prevalence
of different bases of identification decisions and their accuracy. Participants studied faces either once or twice, and were tested using target-present
and target-absent lineups. Following a lineup decision, participants indicated the basis for choosing a lineup member (recollection, familiarity or
relative judgment) or rejecting the lineup (distinctiveness heuristic, lack of familiarity, or recall to reject). Results revealed a shift in the strategies
used depending on the "strength" of initial encoding and reported strategies differed in their accuracy.
88. Computer-Generated Faces Are Not Processed Like Real Faces. Curt A. Carlson, University of Oklahoma; Scott Gronlund,
University of Oklahoma
Three experiments examined whether computer-generated faces are processed like real faces. Inversion did not affect accuracy for CG faces.
Experiment 3 showed that increased encoding time had no effect on recognition memory performance or RT for real faces; but for CG faces, both
accuracy and RT increased as study increased. Conclusions regarding RT were bolstered by an examination of RT distributions and latent variables
derived from the EZ Diffusion model. CG faces are processed less configurally than are real faces, which has implications for their use as stimuli in
research that examines the cognitive processes underlying various applied memory phenomena.
89. Fast and Confident: Postdicting Eye-witness Identification Accuracy in a Field Study. Melanie Sauerland, University of Giessen;
Siegfried Ludwig Sporer, University of Giessen
The combined postdictive value of confidence and decision time judgments was evaluated in a field experiment with ten targets. Seven-hundred-and-
twenty passers-by were asked for directions in a pedestrian area. Subsequently, they were approached by an in-terviewer and asked to make an
identification from target-absent or target-present lineups. The time and confidence boundaries that optimally discriminated correct from incorrect
choosers were at 6 s and at 90%, respectively. On average 97.2% of the fast and confident choosers were accurate, 31.8% of the slow and non-
confident choosers. Replacing measured decision times with participants' estimated decision times lead to similar results.
90. Flashbulb Memory of 9/11 Terrorist Attack: Recall Consistency. Janat Fraser Parker, Florida International University
Flashbulb memory for the 9/11 attack was tested across groups in which time between tests was equalized at 2 months. The delayed group whose
memory was indexed 1 month after the event was more consistent than the immediate group whose memory was indexed 1 day after the event.
Opportunity to develop a coherent story over the first month may be more critical to consistency than an overall shorter retention interval.
91. How Accurate are Interviewers' Recollections of Investigative Interviews: Examining Omissions from Interview to Report.
Amy R. Hyman, Florida International University; Nadja Schreiber Compo, Florida International University
Investigators oftentimes do not record witness interviews relying on memory, interview notes and/or subsequent reports as the only remaining source
of "accurate" documentation when reconstructing witness statements. Little is known about how well interviewers remember interview content and
about factors influencing their memory. The present study examined mock interviewers' memory for interview content and the impact of note-taking
and delay on the likelihood that information is reported vs. omitted during subsequent recall. Interviewers' reports were compared to actual interview
videotapes, to determine the quantity and type of information, both interviewer and witness statements, lost between the interview and subsequent
92. Perceptual Discontinuities in the Perception of Other Race Faces: Implications for Examining the Cross-race Effect. Priyanka
Joshi, University of Northern Iowa; Dwight Peterson, University of Northern Iowa; Erin Lane, University of Northern Iowa; Devon
Leslie, University of Northern Iowa; M. Kimberly MacLin, University of Northern Iowa; Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa
Researchers have implemented morphing techniques to prepare stimuli to examine racial categorization and cross-racial identification. Using these
techniques, researchers often designate faces at regular intervals along the morph continuum to represent degree of raceness. For example, a 50%
morph using African-American and Caucasian faces,(the mathematical mid-point on the continuum), would be considered Half African-American and
Half Caucasian. Data presented here suggest that the perceptual mid-point is different from the physical mid-point. Our data demonstrates that a third
entirely different race emerges around the 50% mid-point. These data raise methodological concerns for studies examining race and racial
identification using morphed stimuli.
93. The Effect of Pre-Lineup Exposure on Eyewitness Identification. Ryan D Godfrey, University of California, Riverside; Steven E.
Clark, University of California, Riverside
Research on pre-lineup exposure has been consistently shown to have detrimental effects on the accuracy of eyewitnesses. Although having been
observed consistently in the literature, there is not unanimous agreement on the underlying cause. This study examined the effect of viewing a showup
prior to the administration of a lineup. Participants who made an identification on the showup identified the same suspect from a lineup at a
significantly increased rate. The results are discussed with theoretical explanations such as unconscious transference, commitment effects, and
94. The Effects of Pre-identification Feedback on Eyewitness' Retrospective Confidence Reports. Joy McClung, University of
Alabama in Huntsville; Deah Lawson, Iowa State University; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz, University of Alabama in Huntsville; Andy Cling,
University of Alabama in Huntsville; Paige Brown, University of Alabama in Huntsville; Brandon Sentell, University of Alabama in
Huntsville; Jessica Swanner, University of Arkansas
This study was designed to examine the effect of pre-identification feedback on eyewitness confidence. All participants received unbiased lineup
instructions and were then given either feedback or no feedback. Afterwards, they were asked to make an identification from a target-absent lineup.
Participants who received feedback were in one of three conditions that were designed to affect their confidence rating. The results demonstrate that
pre-identification feedback, even when paired with unbiased lineup instructions, leads participants to be more likely to choose and more confident in
that choice than compared with participants receiving no feedback. The implications of the research are discussed.
95. The Influence of Race on Crime Scene Memory. Sarah Cavrak, Georgia State University; Heather Kleider, Georgia State University
As a result of the insurmountable evidence that racial bias influences eyewitness memory and jury decision-making, the current study asked whether
race-crime congruency influences false memories. Participants watched a slide show depicting a staged robbery scene. Two days after viewing the
stimulus, participants were primed with positive or negative stereotypes about black or white men followed immediately by a source memory test
wherein they assigned perpetrators to actions. Preliminary results reveal that participants falsely attributed more crime-related behaviors to the black
than the white perpetrator, but accurately identified the white perpetrator actions more often than the black perpetrator actions.
96. The Weapon Focus Effect On Memory for Female Versus Male Perpetrators. Kerri Pickel, Ball State University
Previous eyewitness memory research suggests that weapons attract attention due to their unusualness in many contexts. Specifically, weapons are
often inconsistent with the schema activated by witnesses, and this inconsistency causes witnesses to pay more attention to weapons than they would
to neutral objects. If this hypothesis is correct, an especially strong weapon focus effect should occur when a perpetrator holds an object that is
primarily associated with the opposite rather than the same gender. Consistent with this prediction, a handgun reduced the accuracy of witnesses'
descriptions of a female perpetrator more than descriptions of a male perpetrator.
072. Minority Affairs Committee Reception - All Welcome!
8:00 to 9:30 pm
Clearwater (3rd Floor)
073. Drexel University Reception (All Welcome)
8:30 to 11:00 pm
Regency Suite Hospitality Suite (Room 1830)
074. University of Nebraska Law and Psychology Program Reception
8:30 to 11:30 pm
St. Johns (3rd Floor)
SATURDAY, MARCH, 8
075. Jurors, Sex Offenders, and Child Victims
8:00 to 9:00 am
Chair: Bette L. Bottoms, University of Illinois at Chicago
Assessing Community Attitudes towards Sexual Offenders: A Partial Replication. Carl Clements, University of Alabama; Sarah L
Miller, University of Alabama; Emily E. Wakeman, University of Alabama; Wesley Church, University of Alabama
After the initial development of a scale to measure attitudes towards sexual offenders, we extended the study to a large community sample (N=503)
via random telephone survey. Similar results were found with respect to factor structure, which included perceptions of social deviance, capacity to
change, desire for community notification, and blame/severity dimensions. Respondents displayed the most ambivalence about sex offenders' social
deviancy but strongly endorsed community notification practices. Education, but not race, income, or community size, appeared to be negatively
correlated with judgment harshness. Males were somewhat less punitive in their assessments. Scale and sample extensions are suggested.
Visually Representing Crime Prototypes: Can Multidimensional Scaling Explain the Prototypicality of Child Sexual Abuse
Attributes? Jennifer A. Tallon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
The purpose of this study is to investigate how we can apply the use of multidimension scaling (MDS) to the study of crime prototypes. Data were
collected through the use of an attribute-sorting task with MDS as the statistical analysis. Participants were asked to sort a list of attributes associated
with a child sexual abuse trial according to their prototype (typical vs. atypical) and the trial outcome (truly guilty vs. truly innocent). Preliminary
results indicate that clear typical and atypical data clusters exists, but we only observe truly guilty data clusters.
"She Should Have Been More Upset..." Expectancy Violation Theory and Jurors' Perceptions of Child Victims. Bradley D.
McAuliff, California State University, Northridge; Kelly Maurice, California State University, Northridge; Eric S. Neal, California
State University, Northridge
We examined the effects of expectancy violation on jurors' perceptions of an alleged child sexual abuse victim. Jury-eligible community members
(N=187) viewed a DVD of a 5 year-old actress who was nervous, avoided eye contact, and cried (confirmation condition) or was calm, maintained
eye contact, and did not cry (violation condition) while testifying. No effects emerged for jurors' perceptions of child accuracy or defendant guilt.
Jurors perceived the child's trustworthiness and defendant's past/future likelihood of abuse to be higher when their expectancies were violated versus
confirmed. We discuss the implications of our findings for accommodating child victims in court.
Betrayal of Trust: Jurors' Reactions to Priest- and Teacher-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse. Tisha Wiley, University of Illinois at
Chicago; Bette L. Bottoms, University of Illinois at Chicago; Maria Szczech, University of Illinois at Chicago; Serena Johnson,
University of Illinois at Chicago; Scott McCartney, University of Illinois at Chicago
Using mock trial methodology with a jury-eligible sample, we examined case judgments and reactions to priest-perpetrated vs. teacher-perpetrated
child sexual abuse. Defendant sexual orientation was varied (gay vs. straight), as was child victim gender. Few differences between priest- and
teacher-perpetrated abuse emerged, but jurors reacted more negatively to gay vs. straight defendants, particularly when victims were boys. Regression
analyses revealed that jurors' reactions to the defendant's betrayal of trust and jurors' feelings of moral outrage were the strongest predictors of case
076. Inmates, Violence, and Mental Health
8:00 to 9:00 am
Chair: L. Thomas Kucharski, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Adjustment to Jail and Mental Illness. Jaymie Linn Lyons, Eastern Washington University; Kayleen Islam-Zwart, Eastern Washington
University; Laura Ruge, Eastern Washington University
The number of offenders sent to American jails and prisons has been increasing at a steady rate. Coupled with these increases, a number of offenders
enter confinement with psychopathology. This study examined the effect of mental illness on adjustment reaction to jail. Inmates who had a history of
mental illness were expected to show more difficulty adjusting to jail than inmates with no history of psychopathology. Participants were male and
female jail inmates (N = 175) who completed a diagnostic interview and the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire within 24 hours of detention. Results,
discussion, and future directions will be discussed.
Sexual Violence of Female Prisoners: A Public Policy Analysis of Midwestern Rape Statistics. Jason A. Cantone, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Michelle Giresi-Ficarra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Kate
Walsh, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Valerie M Gonsalves, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Congress passed the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 1993 (PREA), hoping to end prison rape, but basing the legislation upon admittedly insufficient
data. Responding to the issue that even less data exists regarding female inmates, we surveyed 168 female inmates about current and past
victimization in prison settings. The inmates reported a higher victimization rate than the one relied upon by Congress when we accounted for
unreported acts and PREA's broader definition of rape. Our research also addresses public policy arguments, offering suggestions on how prison
officials can create a safer environment which fosters reporting sexual abuse.
The Validity of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide with Female Inmates. Mark Hastings, Loudoun County Mental Health Center &
George Mason University; Shilpa Krishnan, George Mason University; Jeffrey Stuewig, George Mason University; June Tangney,
George Mason University
The present study examines the predictive and incremental validity of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide in a large sample of female and male jail
inmates. Significant gender differences were observed in VRAG item and total scores, as well as in correlations with other measures of aggression.
VRAG scores were significantly correlated with institutional misconduct and recidivism for male inmates, but not for female inmates. Incremental
validity analyses indicated that the VRAG added to the prediction of institutional misconduct and recidivism beyond that of psychopathy for male, but
not female inmates. Implications for clinical practice and future research will be offered.
Psychopathy and Institutional Misconduct: An Investigation of Criminal Defendants. Scott Duncan, United States Penitentiary,
Atlanta; Joseph Andrew Toomey, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; L. Thomas Kucharski, John Jay College of Criminal
This study used a sample of 264 inmates (age: M=36.69, SD = 9.99; ethnicity: White = 49.2%, Black = 45.5%, Other = 5.3%) from whom PCL-R
data were obtained via interview and extensive file review as part of a court ordered referral by the Federal Courts, in order to determine the utility of
the PCL-R in predicting institutional misconduct. Results suggest PCL-R Factor 2 and Facet 4 are useful in predicting sentence length, days in secure
housing, and total incident reports. Results will be discussed in terms of the utility of the PCL-R in making decisions regarding inmate security.
077. Preventive and Therapeutic Interventions
8:00 to 9:00 am
Chair: Dale E. McNiel, University of California, San Francisco
Mixing Faith-based and Cognitive Behavioral Interventions in Juvenile Corrections. Ronald Akers, University of Florida; Lonn
Lanza-Kaduce, University of Florida; Jodi Lane, University of Florida; Carrie Schrage, University of Florida
The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice instituted a pilot program that joined faith-based interventions (chaplaincy, volunteer services, mentoring)
with cognitive behavioral secular programming (Thinking for a Change; Motivational Interviewing) in several residential facilities. This paper
examines the complementary and conflicting features of the admixture of approaches, as well as the challenges posed for implementation. It explores
changes in institutional adjustment as gleaned from the narratives of institutional incident reports filed before and after the pilot was launched.
Improved outcomes were found for the two facilities that were more successful in implementing the interventions.
Domestic Violence Fatality Review Teams: Collaborative Efforts to Prevent Intimate Partner Femicide. Kelly A Watt, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Nicole E. Allen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Intimate partner femicide is the single most common form of murder perpetrated against women. Domestic Violence Fatality Review Teams have
emerged as a means of understanding and preventing future fatalities. Due to their rapid growth, little is known about the nature of these teams or
what they accomplish. This study employs qualitative methods to examine (1) how these teams attempt to promote systems change by describing their
goals, structures, processes, and outcomes, (2) what critical issues or tensions underlie their efforts to promote systems change that may account for
how they are set up and what they achieve.
Representing Criminal Defendants in Incompetency and Insanity Cases: Some Therapeutic Jurisprudence Dilemmas. Michael L.
Perlin, New York Law School
Lawyers who represent individuals with mental disabilities often fail to provide minimally effective assistance of counsel, in part because of "sanism,"
an irrational and stigmatizing prejudice. This issue becomes especially in incompetency and insanity cases. In recent years, Therapeutic Jurisprudence
(TJ) scholars have begun to study the relationship between TJ and the criminal trial process, but there exists little or no scholarship addressing this
relationship in the context of incompetency and insanity cases. This paper will discuss the reasons for this, and will offer suggestions for new
scholarly directions in this area of law and policy.
Effects of Training on Risk Assessment for Suicide. Dale E. McNiel, University of California, San Francisco; Samantha R. Fordwood,
University of California, San Francisco; Christopher M. Weaver, University of California, San Francisco; John R. Chamberlain,
University of California, San Francisco; Stephen E. Hall, University of California, San Francisco; Renee L. Binder, University of
California, San Francisco
This study evaluated the impact of training in evidence-based risk assessment for suicide. Forty-five trainees in psychiatry and psychology
participated in a workshop on risk assessment. Before and afterwards, participants wrote progress notes in response to vignettes that addressed the
patients' risk of suicide. A comparison group of 10 psychiatry trainees completed the measures before and after a general workshop on evidence-based
medicine. Researchers rated the progress notes using a coding system that included quality of risk analysis, identification of risk factors, and
development of intervention plans. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for baseline skill, showed that training improved documentation quality.
078. Juvenile Delinquency, Reasoning, and Culpability
8:00 to 9:00 am
Chair: Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia
Age and Delinquency-Based Differences in Maturity of Antisocial Reasoning. Kathryn Modecki, Arizona State University
The question of adolescent decision maturity holds significant ramifications for today's youth. The present study is based on open-ended responses to
hypothetical vignettes and measures maturity of judgment (Scott, Reppucci, & Woolard, 1995; Steinberg & Cauffman, 1996) via qualitative analyses
and standardized scales in adolescents (ages12-18), adults (ages 35-63), and delinquent youth (ages 14-17). Results suggest that adolescents and
adults differ significantly in the maturity of their reasoning. However, adolescent within-group differences stemmed from the reasoning that sensation
seeking was an incentive for engaging in antisocial behavior. Taken together, these results offer the potential to inform adolescent-focused legal
policies and interventions.
A Mediation Model of Age, Cognitive Control, and Decision Making. Anne-Marie Rose Leistico, University of Pittsburgh Medical
Center; Jamie DeCoster, The University of Alabama; Randall T. Salekin, University of Alabama
This study examines whether cognitive control (i.e., attention, memory, and response inhibition) mediates the relation between age and decision
making. Eighty-three male participants—43 detained adolescents and 40 young adult offenders—completed a computerized measure of cognitive
control (i.e., AX-CPT), self-report and interview-based measures of decision making (i.e., future orientation, risk perception, and sophistication-
maturity), and measures of potential alternative explanations (e.g., diagnosis, intelligence). Cognitive control only mediated the relation between age
and sophistication-maturity. A reverse mediation model was also significant. Neither of these mediation models remained significant after removing
the influence of diagnosis. We discuss the implications of our findings.
The Effects of Gender and Length of Time Between Crime and Adjudication on Juveniles' Trials. Kimberly Anne Larson, Drexel
University and Villanova Law School; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel University; Amanda D. Zelechoski, Drexel University/Villanova Law
Juveniles' trials are often delayed for a variety of reasons, and developmental changes associated with adolescence distinguish their delays from those
of adults in many ways. Two-hundred ninety-five judges completed surveys assessing the effects of defendant's gender and age at the time of trial
(age at time of crime was held constant) on judges' ratings of guilt, appropriate sentence length, level of responsibility, likelihood of recidivism, and
dangerousness. Results revealed a main effect for age, no main effect for gender, and no age x gender interaction. This paper will address implications
of these findings for decisions about postponement of trials.
Perceptions of Adolescent Autonomy, Judicial Culpability and Political Value Judgments. Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia;
Elizabeth S Scott, Columbia University; Jill Antonishak, United States Senate
This study probed general laypersons' attitudes about processing youths in adult criminal court across a range of offenses, explored attitudes about age
of autonomous decision-making for several activities outside the criminal justice context, and examined the interaction between these two realms. The
major finding was that adults favor adult punishment of adolescent offenders at younger ages than they favor autonomy in other decision-making
contexts; the gap is widest for those who identify themselves as Conservatives.
079. Co-Witness Information
8:00 to 9:00 am
Chair: Lora M Levett, University of Florida
The Post-identification Feedback Effect is Moderated by Source Credibility. Elin Skagerberg, Sussex University; Daniel Wright,
People's responses to different testimony-relevant questions (confidence in the identification, attention paid to the culprit, etc.) can be affected after
making an identification by finding out who other people identified and if you identified the suspect. In three studies we show that the size of this
effect relates to the credibility of the other people. Thus, discovering how many children made the same identification produces no effect, while
discovering how many police officers made the same identification has a large effect. The largest effects, however, are when the experimenter says
that you identified the suspect versus identifying a filler.
Changing the Response Criterion for Free Recall and Recognition Tasks Affects Acceptance of Information from Co-Witnesses.
Daniel Wright, Sussex University; Fiona Gabbert, University of Abertay; Amina Memon, University of Aberdeen; Kamala London,
University of Toledo
Guidelines for the cognitive interview stress that the interview should be a free recall task and that the witnesses should report all they can. This is a
lenient response criterion. Instructions for line-ups, a recognition task, are that you should be confident that your identification is accurate. This is a
strict response criterion. In two studies we vary the response criterion for free recall and recognition tasks. We also introduce both accurate and
inaccurate postevent information from a co-witness. In every case, the more lenient response criterion increased both the amount of accurate and the
amount of inaccurate information reported.
Negotiating Memorial and Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect of Social Information on Eyewitness Identification Accuracy.
Lisa E Hasel, Iowa State University; Gary Wells, Iowa State University
Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and
criterion setting. The presence of extra-memorial information, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information.
Before attempting lineup identifications, participants learned about the identification decision of a co-witness. The plausibility of the co-witness's
decision, the timing of the co-witness information, and the confidence of the co-witness were manipulated across two experiments. The interaction of
confidence and plausibility as well as the effects of timing of extra-memorial information reveal important dynamics in negotiating memorial and
Social Psychological Factors in Eyewitness Behavior: Conformity in Choosing Behavior. Lora M Levett, University of Florida; Jill
Driest, Nova Southeastern University
Multiple eyewitnesses for the same crime are rarely separated throughout the identification process, which may lead to witnesses sharing information
about the crime and investigation process. We examined whether learning a co-witness's lineup decision (to choose from or reject the lineup) and
subsequent confidence could influence a second eyewitness's choosing behavior. We found that the co-witness's lineup choice and confidence were
significant predictors of participant conformity. When the co-witness chose someone from the lineup or had high confidence, participants were more
likely to conform to that behavior compared to if the co-witness rejected the lineup or had low confidence.
080. Psychopathy and Sexual Violence
8:00 to 9:00 am
Chair: John Edens, Texas A&M University
Is There a Psychopathic Sexuality Taxon? The Devil's in the Details, Not in the Genes. David Marcus, University of Southern
Mississippi; John Edens, Texas A&M University; Glenn M Sanford, Sam Houston State University
Harris et al. (2007) have made the provocative claim that the combination of indicators of coercive and precocious sexuality with indicators from the
PCL-R identify a psychopathic sexuality taxon and that this taxon represents a naturally selected trait. Because this "selectionist hypothesis" would
have profound implications, a detailed review of the supporting evidence is warranted. There are various details in Harris et al.'s study, including their
sample selection, factor analyses, and taxometric analyses that bear close scrutiny. We will present a critique of their statistical methods, and an
analysis of the difficulties with explaining psychopathy from this evolutionary perspective.
Psychopathy and Sexual Aggression: The Role of Attachment Styles. Kim Reeves, Simon Fraser University; Kevin Stewart Douglas,
Simon Fraser University; Norman Poythress, University of South Florida
This study examines the relationship between psychopathy and attachment styles and their implications for sexual aggression in an undergraduate
sample using well-established psychopathy measures. Seventy-seven percent of males and 58% of females admitted to engaging in at least one type of
sexual aggression. Less serious and more serious forms of sexual aggression were associated with psychopathy as measured by the Levenson Self-
Report Psychopathy Scale and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory. Neither avoidant nor anxious attachment style mediated the relationship
between psychopathy and sexual aggression. Further mediational hypotheses will be tested with secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful
The Co-occurrence of Psychopathy and Sexual Deviance as Risk Factors for Sexual Violence. Karla Jackson, Simon Fraser
University; J. Don Read, Simon Fraser University; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University
This study examined the relationship between psychopathy and sexual deviance in terms of their co-occurrence and as risk factors for sexual
recidivism. Overall, they proved to be independent factors, although a few specific components of each were positively correlated. No interaction
effect was found between psychopathy and sexual deviance in predicting sexual recidivism, a finding that again suggested these two risk factors act
independently and share an additive, as opposed to multiplicative relationship. While psychopathy and sexual deviance as individual risk factors
predicted sexual recidivism, these findings were not replicated across all of the analyses within this study.
Does Disorder Matter? Effects of Disorders and Inconsistent Information in a Sexually Violent Predator Trial. Dae Ho Lee,
Claremont Graduate University & Superior Court of California, County of Orange; Daniel Krauss, Claremont McKenna College
In Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) civil commitment cases, jurors' preconceptions of an SVP's diagnosed mental disorders may affect their decision-
making. This experiment investigated whether mock jurors would be: 1) influenced by the type of mental disorder (psychopathy vs. pedophilia); and
2) influenced by evidence inconsistent with the diagnosis. Results reveal that the type of mental disorder did not influence jurors' final civil
commitment verdicts. However, the diagnosis did influence the judgment of appropriate length of civil commitment. Furthermore, results indicate that
mock jurors who read the inconsistent information gave less weight to the respondent's mental disorder in civil commitment decisions.
081. Perspectives on Expert Testimony and Jurors
9:15 to 10:15 am
Chair: Mara L. Merlino, University of Nevada, Reno
How Expert Are Jurors at Detecting Internal Validity Threats in Expert Evidence? Kelly Maurice, California State University,
Northridge; Eric S. Neal, California State University, Northridge; Bradley D. McAuliff, California State University, Northridge; Amy
Diaz, California State University, Northridge
This study examined jurors' (N=248) ability to detect internal validity threats in expert evidence. We varied the internal validity (valid, missing
control group, confound, experimenter bias) and ecological validity (high, low) of an expert's study across eight conditions. Ratings of expert
evidence quality and expert credibility were higher for the valid versus missing control group study. Variations in internal validity did not influence
verdict or plaintiff credibility ratings. No differences emerged as a function of ecological validity. Ratings of expert evidence quality and
expert/plaintiff credibility were positively correlated with verdict. Implications for trials containing expert testimony will be discussed.
Jurors' Assessment of the Scientific Limitations of Forensic Identification Science. Dawn McQuiston-Surrett, Arizona State
University; Kathryn Buttrum, Arizona State University; Michael J Saks, Arizona State University
An experiment examined whether the understanding and impact of forensic testimony could be improved by informing jurors about the limitations of
such expertise, and how this interacted with ultimate opinion testimony. Jurors read a trial summary containing a forensic expert who conducted hair
comparisons. During his testimony, he either offered an opinion on the identity of crime scene hairs, or did not. Jurors were then informed about
limitations of microscopic hair examination, or were not. Results indicated that ultimate opinion testimony resulted in more punitive judgments, but
jurors largely ignored the limitations of forensic science in evaluating the evidence.
The Role of the Clinical Expert and the Predictive Ability of the CSI Scale. Morgan Sampaio Moffa, Newport Psychological Services
& Roger Williams University; Judy Platania, Roger Williams University
Judicial safeguards for adjudication involving disputed confession are lacking. Innocent defendants are convicted of crimes based sometimes on solely
their confessions. The current study examined the relative effectiveness of different types of confession expert testimony on perceptions of key
aspects of a trial involving a disputed confession. Additionally, a CSI Scale was developed and included as a measure of participants' agreement with
a statement concerning the qualities of forensic type evidence. Preliminary results show this scale's utility to predict verdict choice. Empirical expert
witness testimony was slightly more effective than clinical testimony, and perception of interrogation coercion was a functioning of tactic.
Science in the Law School Curriculum: Meeting the Needs of Law Students through Science Education. Mara L. Merlino, University
of Nevada, Reno; James T. Richardson, University of Nevada, Reno; Jared C. Chamberlain, University of Nevada, Reno
This paper presents selected results from a national multimodal survey of 225 law professors from across the United States who teach evidence, law
and science, and science education courses (70% cooperation rate). Professors were asked about whether the Daubert trilogy has changed the role of
evidence professors or their teaching methods, about the importance of teaching science topics to their students, and about students' expectations for
them in the current climate of fast-paced scientific and technological discovery. Findings will be discussed in the context of interdisciplinary and
multi-disciplinary education for law students.
082. Mentally Ill Offenders
9:15 to 10:15 am
Chair: David Marcus, University of Southern Mississippi
Neuropsychological Deficits and Psychopathy: A Systematic Literature Review. Sanjay Bipin Shah, Drexel University; David
DeMatteo, Drexel University
Research on the neuropsychological correlates of psychopathy is continuously expanding. The body of work done on this topic has typically examined
individual parts of the brain and their potential association with psychopathic traits. This project is a systematic literature review that will synthesize
research examining the frontal lobes, amygdala, corpus callosum, angular gyrus, and their combined effects on the expression of psychopathic traits.
Despite recent advances in knowledge, many channels remain open for further research. Thus, a goal of this project is to shed light on promising areas
for future research on this topic.
Neural Correlates of Aggression and Lack of Insight. Daniel Antonius, New School for Social Research; Deb D'Angelo, Nathan Kline
Institute for Psychiatric Research; Andrew Adam Shiva, NYU/Bellevue Hospital Center & John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY;
Babak Ardekani, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research; Matthew Hoptman, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
and NYU Medical Center
Lack of insight is a risk factor for aggressive behavior in forensic mental health patients. Recent imaging research has examined the neural correlates
of insight, which has important implications for the emerging field of forensic neuroscience. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the
association between insight and aggression from a neural substrate perspective. Accordingly, we examined correlations between aggression, insight,
and white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging. The results suggest that insight deficits are associated with severity of aggression,
and that the pericaudate white matter may play an important role in this relationship.
Temporal Patterns of Arrest in a Cohort of Adults Receiving Mental Health Services. William H Fisher, University of Massachusetts
Medical School; Albert J. Grudzinskas, Jr., University of Massachusetts Medical School; Kristen Roy-Bujnowski, University of
Massachusetts Medical School; Jonathan C. Clayfield, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Stephen M. Banks, University of
Massachusetts Medical School; Nancy Wolff, Rutgers University
Persistence in and desistence from offending have been a longstanding focus among criminological researchers, but despite the concern about
offenders with mental illness, this issue has not has not been addressed in this population. The Massachusetts Mental Health - Criminal Justice Cohort
Study, using the "trajectory analysis" approach utilized by criminological researchers, is a longitudinal study examining temporal patterns of arrest
among the a cohort of mental health services recipients followed for roughly 10 years. The presentation describes findings of this study, the
methodology and the potential uses of the data derived from such analyses.
Failure to Replicate a Pathological Dissociative Taxon in a Large Offender Sample. David Marcus, University of Southern Mississippi;
Norman Poythress, University of South Florida; John Ruscio, The College of New Jersey
Do pathological dissociative experiences reflect a categorical condition, qualitatively different from "normal" dissociative states, or quantitative
variation along a continuum? Taxometric analyses by Waller and associates identified 8 items from the Dissociative Experiences Scale that appeared
to assess a pathological dissociation taxon (DES-T). However, attempts to validate this taxon have yielded mixed results. Our study applied
taxometric methods to DES scores from an offender sample. We failed to find consistent evidence that the DES-T identifies a taxon. These results
suggest it may be premature to conclude that pathological dissociation is a qualitatively distinct phenomenon, at least among offenders.
083. Saleem Shah Award 2007: Dr. Christian Meissner
9:15 to 10:15 am
The Saleem Shah Award is co-sponsored by the American Psychology-Law Society (APA Division 41) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology.
The award is for early career excellence and contributions to the field of psychology and law.
Building a Better Mouse Trap: The Importance of a Laboratory Science for Improving Practice in the Interrogation Room.
Christian A. Meissner, University of Texas at El Paso
Research on interrogations and confessions has involved both field / case study methods and, more recently, experimental laboratory methods. This
talk will discuss the relative merits of each approach, and highlight the special contributions of a laboratory science for developing more diagnostic
approaches to eliciting interrogative information and for improving our understanding of the psychological mechanisms leading to confession.
Margaret Bull Kovera, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Mary Alice Conroy, Sam Houston State University
084. Juvenile and Adult Sex Offenders
9:15 to 10:15 am
Chair: Jeffrey C. Sandler, University at Albany, School of Criminal Justice
Probable Cause as a Sexually Dangerous Person for a Cohort of Sexual Juvenile Offenders. Arthur Pearson, Bedford Policy Institute;
Paul Nestor, University of Massachusetts Boston; Frank DiCataldo, Roger Williams University
This study examines the legal and clinical characteristics of a sample of 129 juvenile sexual offender referred for probable cause hearings as SDP.
They are compared to a matched sample of juvenile ex offenders not referred for probable cause to determine what legal and clinical characteristics
distinguish them. 20 of the juvenile sex offenders were found to meet the standard for probable cause as SDP. They are compared to the juvenile sex
offenders who were found not to meet the standard for probable cause.
The Predictive Validity of the ERASOR, PCL:YV, and YLS/CMI Among Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended. Jodi Viljoen,
Simon Fraser University; Natasha Elkovitch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Shannon Bader, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J.
Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Daniel Ullman, Lincoln Regional Center
Research has yet to determine which assessment tools, if any, can accurately predict reoffending among sexually abusive adolescents. To address this
gap, the present study examined the predictive validity of the ERASOR, YLS/CMI, and PCL:YV with 194 male adolescents, who were followed for
an average of 7.16 years after completing a sex offender treatment program. The YLS/CMI and PCL:YV were significantly predictive of nonsexual
reoffending, while the ERASOR showed promise in predicting sexual reoffending. Notably, the PCL:YV and ERASOR structured ratings were
significantly less effective in predicting reoffending among adolescents aged 15 and younger than among older adolescents.
Will Adam Walsh Work? A Preliminary Examination of SORNA as Applied to Juveniles. Michael Caldwell, University of Wisconsin
- Madison; Michael Vitacco, Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services; Mitch Ziemke, University of Alabama
Ninety - one juvenile sex offenders were categorized into risk tiers using the criteria contained in the federal Sex Offender Registration and
Notification Act of 2006 (SORNA, also known as the Adam Walsh Act) and the risk assessment tools used in three states to establish risk levels in
similar state sex offender registration laws. Participants were followed for an average of 68 months (SD = 29.4 months) to determine general, violent
and sexual recidivism rates. The results will be discussed along with potential pitfalls of translating scientific findings into public policy in this area.
A Time-Series Analysis of New York State's Sex Offender Registration and Notification Law. Jeffrey C. Sandler, University at
Albany, School of Criminal Justice; Naomi J Freeman, University at Albany, School of Criminal Justice; Kelly Socia, University at
Albany, School of Criminal Justice
Public outrage toward sexual offenses and the severe consequences that result from sexual victimization has prompted federal and state governments
to enact registration and community notification laws to better protect communities from sexual offending. Despite the widespread use of these laws,
limited empirical research has been conducted to examine the impact of registration on public safety. Therefore, utilizing time-series analyses, this
study examined differences in sexual offense arrest rates before and after the enactment of New York State's Sex Offender Registration Act. Results
provide no support for the effectiveness of registration and community notification laws in reducing sexual offending.
085. Preschoolers and Young Witnesses
9:15 to 10:15 am
Chair: Victoria Talwar, McGill University
Adults' Abilities to Discern True from False Memory in Preschoolers. Stephanie Dara Block, University of California, Davis; Donna
Shestowsky, University of California, Davis School of Law; Daisy Segovia, University of California, Davis; Gail Goodman, University
of California, Davis
The present study examined adults' abilities to discern true from false memory in preschoolers. Claims of suggestibility and false memory are frequent
in criminal trials of child sexual abuse, and thus it is important to evaluate adults' abilities to discriminate true from false child testimony. Students and
laypersons were presented with video clips of children answering questions about true and false events. Participants then indicated if they believed
that the event occurred and rated various characteristics of the reports and children (e.g., likelihood of lying). Results have important implications for
adults' discernment of true and false reports.
Preschool Children Demonstrate the Verbal Overshadowing Effect in Face Recognition. Laura Melnyk, King's University College at
the University of Western Ontario; Sarah Gibbons, King's University College at the University of Western Ontario
Verbal overshadowing occurs when verbalizing a description of a target impairs later face recognition. This effect has important implications for
forensic settings, but few studies have involved live events or child witnesses. In the present study, three- to 6-year-old children observed a male
target. Some children then verbalized a description of the target. When shown a photographic lineup, the children who described the face showed an
impairment in identification of the target. This provides the first evidence that young children are susceptible to the verbal overshadowing effect and
that the effect can occur with a live target presentation.
The Influence of Promises on the Veracity and Detail of Children's Reports. Kay Bussey, Macquarie University
Research findings are mixed about whether promises promote truth telling. This study investigated if knowledge about lying, truth telling, and
promises is necessary for promises to promote truth telling. Participants were 66 predominantly White children between the ages of 5 to 7 years who
witnessed an event involving an adult commit a transgression. Results revealed that although children were highly knowledgeable about lies, truth,
and promises, this did not predict actual truth telling. Further, making a promise did not facilitate truth telling but heightened the amount of detailed
information reported about the witnessed event. Implications for children's testimony are discussed.
Does Promising to Tell the Truth Increase Truth-telling Behavior in Children and Adolescents? Angela Dawn Evans, University of
Toronto; Victoria Talwar, McGill University; Kang Lee, University of Toronto
Previous research indicates that promising to tell the truth significantly reduces lie-telling by children between the ages of 3 and 7 years (Talwar, Lee,
Bala, & Lindsay, 2002). However, the influence of promising has not been assessed with older children and adolescents. The present study examined
whether promising to tell the truth increases 9- to 16- year-olds truth-telling behavior about a transgression. Results are consistent with previous
findings with younger children indicating that promising to tell the truth increases truth telling behaviour in older children and adolescents. Results
will be discussed in terms of implications for legal systems.
086. Goals, Norms, and Justice
9:15 to 10:15 am
Chair: Larry Heuer, Barnard College, Columbia University
Procedural Justice and the Adolescent Offender. Suzanne O. Kaasa, University of California, Irvine; Lindsay C. Malloy, University of
California, Irvine; Elizabeth Cauffman, University of California, Irvine
Procedural justice refers to how fairly a person believes he/she was treated during an interaction with an authority figure. In this study, over 300
incarcerated adolescent males were questioned about their perceptions of procedural justice relating to their last court experience. In addition, their
opinions and attitudes regarding the justice system in general as well as their incarceration experience in particular were assessed. Youths with a more
negative perception of procedural justice held worse attitudes regarding staff and operations at the institution, and also displayed more behavior
problems than youths with a positive perception of procedural justice about their case.
Why Ordinary People Comply with Environmental Laws: A Structural Model on Normative and Attitudinal Determinants. Ana M.
Martín, Universidad de La Laguna; Bernardo Hernández, Universidad de La Laguna; Martha Frías, Universidad de Sonora
The purpose of this study was to test the relative impact of variables formerly related to compliance with ordinary laws, on compliance with
environmental laws, given that environmental transgressions are a rather peculiar form of illegal behavior. 444 students answered a questionnaire
assessing self-reported compliance, thirteen norm-related variables, and three sustainability attitudes. The data were processed within a structural
equation model. Results are coherent with previous studies on ordinary laws, but also suggest that the relationship between personal and subjective
social norms have to be refined and that sustainability attitudes play a relevant role in compliance with environmental laws.
Punishment and Beyond: Achieving Justice Through the Satisfaction of Multiple Goals. Dena M. Gromet, Princeton University; John
Darley, Princeton University
Two studies investigate the hypothesis that people's desire for punishment does not preclude a desire for fulfilling other justice goals (e.g., restoring
the victim). Study 1 demonstrated that for serious offenses, people prefer a procedure that allows for the achievement of both restoration (restorative
justice conference) and retribution (prison sentence). Study 2 showed that although people felt it was important to punish the offender to achieve
justice, they viewed additional justice goals as equally necessary. These findings suggest that the availability of multiple sanctions, including both
retributive and restorative elements, satisfies people's vision of justice.
Respect and Threat: Authority-Subordinate Disparities in Responses to Transgressions. Diane Sivasubramaniam, Barnard College,
Columbia University; Larry Heuer, Barnard College, Columbia University; Sarah Suzanne Becker, Barnard College, Columbia
University; Chelsea Louis Hobgood, Barnard College, Columbia University; Leah Newkirk, Fordham University
Those who enact legal procedures (authorities) and those targeted by procedures (subordinates) differ in their notions of justice. This study explored
the conditions under which this disparity occurs. Participants read a vignette describing the interrogation of an airline passenger, in a 2 (Role:
Authority, Subordinate) x 2 (Respect: High, Low) x 3 (Threat: Low, High, Moral) between-subjects experimental design. Results indicated
differences between those randomly assigned to the authority and subordinate roles, driven by differences in the moral significance of a perceived
threat. Authorities perceived a passenger with harmful intentions as more morally offensive, and were more punitive in response.
087. The Future of Graduate Education: Reports on Graduate Training and Higher Education in Psychology and Law
10:30 to 11:50 am
This symposium sponsored by the APLS Teaching, Training and Careers Committee will provide current information concerning graduate education and
predoctoral internships in psychology and law, in a way that is accessible to prospective students, faculty and training directors. The first two papers involve the
identification and detailed description of graduate programs in forensic and legal psychology, and the compilation of that information into a directory on the
AP-LS website. The authors will discuss the process of gathering and compiling data, as well as the characteristics and distinctiveness of these programs. The
next two papers will focus on pre-doctoral internships. The first presenter will discuss a new directory of forensic predoctoral sites, the process of collecting this
data, and how to access the information on the AP-LS website. The second paper will discuss characteristics of various internships, and attributes of the "ideal
internship candidate" as described by training directors. The final paper will discuss survey results from clinical directors at forensic mental health institutions to
assess their views, expectations, and attitudes of master's level psychologists.
Chairs: Garrett Berman, Roger Williams University; Terese Hall, Comprehensive Psychology Services
Current Graduate Programs and Degree Options in Psychology and Law. Terese Hall, Comprehensive Psychology Services; Garrett
Berman, Roger Williams University
Graduate programs in psychology and law have been proliferating in recent years. However, no systematic effort has been made to identify these
programs, and little is known about the nature and characteristics of these programs. This research compiled current information concerning graduate
education in forensic and legal psychology, identifying current programs and various degree options offered. It is intended to be of assistance to
prospective students in searching for appropriate graduate programs, as well as to provide comparative data for the various programs.
Look No Further! Presenting a New and Complete Guide for Graduate Programs in Psychology and Law. Garrett Berman, Roger
Williams University; Terese Hall, Comprehensive Psychology Services; Nathan Cook, Roger Williams University; Sarah Birmingham,
Roger Williams University; Lauren Williamson, Roger Williams University
Members of the AP-LS Teaching, Training, and Careers (TTC) Committee are developing a new on-line directory for graduate programs in
psychology & law. The goal of this exercise was to construct a systematic approach that would assist prospective students interested in obtaining
information about graduate programs in psychology and law. Surveys were mailed to 40 directors of various psychology and law programs (e.g.,
Ph.D., Psy.D., joint Ph.D./J.D. and M.A.). Survey items included questions about admissions criteria, employment opportunities, faculty, program
facts, and research opportunities. Currently, 18 directors have responded and their responses will be grouped according to topic, and organized so that
prospective students will be able to easily compare each program.
Bridging the Gap Between Doctoral Programs and Internships: What Makes One a Successful Applicant. Allison Croysdale, Auburn
University; Alvin Malesky, Western Carolina University
Over three hundred pre-doctoral internships offer major and/or minor rotations in forensic psychology (Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and
Internship Centers -APPIC). Unfortunately, little is known about the type of graduate training needed for doctoral students to be competitive when
applying to these internship sites. Most graduate programs emphasize assessment training to prepare students for their pre-doctoral internship. The
current research identified training experiences considered necessary by internship training directors, specifically related to administering assessment
instruments. This research is intended to assist future internship applicants in bolstering their chances of being accepted to forensic related internship
What Makes One A Successful Applicant to Pre-doctoral Forensic Internships? Alvin Malesky, Western Carolina University; Allison
Croysdale, Auburn University
Over 300 pre-doctoral internships offer forensic training; however, little is known about the specific qualities training directors look for in applicants
to these programs. Thirty-seven training directors from forensic pre-doctoral internship participated in this study. Based on their responses, doctoral
students would be advised to gain experience conducting cognitive-behavioral therapy. In addition, graduate students should attempt to acquire
knowledge working with axis two disorders as well as substance abuse disorders, bipolar disorder depression, and schizophrenia. Students should also
attempt to gain practicum experience in hospital or detention/correctional type settings prior to applying for internship. Further recommendations are
A Survey of Forensic Mental Health Directors on the Clinical Role and Duties of Master's Students. Frank DiCataldo, Roger
Williams University; Donald Whitworth, Roger Williams University; Robert M Russo, Jr., Roger Williams University; Bridget Hanagan,
Roger Williams University; Marykate MacHardy, Roger Williams University; Garrett Berman, Roger Williams University; Matt
Zaitchik, Roger Williams University
This paper will describe a detailed survey of public-sector forensic mental health centers in the states of Massachusetts and Rhode Island regarding
the clinical duties and professional activities of Master's of Psychology professionals. The results will provide data about the prevalence of master's
level psychologists employed in these sites along with a detailed description of their degree of professional independence, clinical activities and duties
and value within these settings. It is hypothesized that these sub-doctoral professionals have assumed primary clinical responsibility for the treatment
and management of forensic patients in these settings.
088. Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Special Population Requiring Special Attention
10:30 to 11:50 am
This program is designed to provide participants empirically informed and innovative correctional and mental health strategies for working with mentally
disordered offenders. Specifically, this program will summarize the results of four studies of mentally disordered offenders in differing stages of the criminal
justice system: pre-imprisonment, imprisonment, pre-release, and re-entry. This program will begin with a summary of data from a multi-site investigation
focusing on the prevalence of mental illness in an incarcerated population and subsequent mental health needs. This program will then present results from a
meta-analytic review of treatment programs for mentally disordered offenders, with particular emphasis on effective intervention strategies. With the majority of
inmates eventually released from prison, increasing efforts have aimed at predicting recidivism. The third presentation in this program will present data
regarding perception of criminal justice risks, with particular emphasis on risk for mentally disordered offenders. Finally this program present the results of a
longitudinal study with mentally disordered and non-mentally disordered offenders that examined factors that increased risk of recidivism as well as identify
risk and needs of mentally disordered offenders.
Chair: Daryl G. Kroner, Correctional Services of Canada
Discussant: Daryl G. Kroner, Correctional Services of Canada
Estimating Mental Disorders and Service Need Components in Federal Offenders. Philip R Magaletta, Federal Bureau of Prisons;
Pamela M Diamond, University of Texas at Houston; Erik F Dietz, Federal Bureau of Prisons; Dawn Daggett, Federal Bureau of
Prisons; Scott M Camp, Federal Bureau of Prisons; John Baxter, Federal Bureau of Prisons
Offenders with mental illness represent a salient component of the correctional population requiring mental health services. The present study draws a
population estimate of such offenders using data sources available within a correctional system. Combining lifetime mental health severity indices and
current diagnosis from an admissions cohort of 2,855 offenders findings suggest 15.2% of newly admitted offenders may need some level of mental
health services. Implications informing the work of clinicians, administrators and policy makers are made and future research is encouraged for
estimating equally important population components requiring correctional mental health services such as head injured and substance abusers.
Treatment of Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Research Synthesis. Robert Morgan, Texas Tech University; Dave B. Flora, York
University; Daryl G. Kroner, Correctional Services of Canada; Jeremy F. Mills, Carleton University; Femina Varghese, Texas Tech
University; Jarrod S. Steffan, Missouri Department of Mental Health
Although interventions have proven effective in reducing criminal recidivism with non-mentally ill offenders, there is a paucity of information
regarding effective treatment and service strategies specifically designed for mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). The purpose of this presentation
is to provide results from a meta-analytic review of studies that examined the efficacy of criminogenic and mental health treatment with MDOs. For
purposes of this investigation, 12,154 abstracts were reviewed and 1,148 documents were collected and evaluated with standardized inclusion criteria.
Themes from the literature and results of this study will be presented, as will implications for working with MDOs.
Perception of Criminal Justice Risks: Dread, Uncertainty and Mental Illness. Jeremy F. Mills, Carleton University
This presentation reports on a replication of Slovic, Fischhoff and Lichtenstein's (1980) analysis of the underlying factors to risk perception. Criminal
justice risks were included and a two-factor solution was supported. Results indicate that people tend to overestimate the rate of crime; however, their
estimates are not related to dread risk, uncertainty or perceived risk. Additionally we report on the results of research which examines the
communication of risk information using descriptive categories. Finally, the perception of specific mental illness diagnoses was examined by
comparing the likelihood to reoffend with non-mental illness scenarios both anchored and non-anchored with explanations of baserate information.
Understanding Barriers to Re-entry for Parolees with Mental Disorder. Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine
The first step toward developing programs to promote re-entry for parolees with mental disorder (PMDs) is to understand that nature of the problem.
The unsupported assumption is that the problem is mental disorder, and the way to fix it is by providing psychiatric treatment. In this study, we assess
a matched sample of 221 parolees with- and without- mental disorder, and track their six-month rates of recidivism. We (a) compare the prevalence of
risk factors and criminogenic needs, as a function of mental disorder, and (b) identify the unique and common risk factors that relate most strongly to
089. Using Longitudinal Data to Address Policy Issues in Juvenile Justice
10:30 to 11:50 am
Policy makers and practitioners in juvenile justice seek sound empirical information about how aspects of this system operate and the possible outcomes of
alternative courses of action. Yet often time sound information is scant, since the juvenile system lacks integrated data systems and many of the issues at hand
do not lend themselves to controlled designs. Little is known, for example, about the ability of the juvenile system to individualize care, the impact of
supervision and services on successful community reintegration, the impact of transfer policies on youth with similar backgrounds and the effects of sanctioning
experiences on subsequent community adjustment. This symposium uses a large, longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders, the Pathways to Desistance
study, as an illustrative example for using longitudinal data to address timely policy issues in juvenile justice. The symposium brings together multiple
disciplines (public policy, public health, criminology and psychology) and empirical evidence to inform discussions regarding the treatment of offenders in the
"deep end" of the system. The papers here illustrate that a dynamic dialogue between policy makers and longitudinal researchers can improve practice regarding
serious offenders in the justice system.
Chair: Edward P. Mulvey, University of Pittsburgh
Estimating Treatment Effects in the Pathways to Desistance Study. Robert Brame, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
The Pathways to Desistance study is a prospective longitudinal research project which enrolled 1,354 serious offenders during adolescence and is
currently following these offenders into adulthood. Data are collected through multiple extensive interviews with the offenders and a variety of
administrative sources. The study was designed to identify interventions and experiences that increase or decrease the likelihood of involvement in
future offending. Estimates of the magnitude of these impacts are called "treatment effects." In this paper, I describe some of the analytical problems
that commonly arise in studies of treatment effects based on the Pathways data.
Testing Policy Assumptions Regarding Service Provision to Serious Adolescent Offenders. Carol Ann Schubert, University of
Pittsburgh; Edward P. Mulvey, University of Pittsburgh; Helen Chung, The College of New Jersey
We use longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study to examine two policy-relevant questions associated with service provision in the
juvenile justice system. First, we consider the ability of service settings within the juvenile system to provide individualized care. Second, we look at
the types of support (supervision and community-based services (CBSs)) that are related to successful community re-entry. We find a differential
level of success by facility type in matching service provision to need. We also find a relationship between type of support and positive adjustment in
the community. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.
A Collaborative Study of the Effects of Transfer to Adult Court. Edward P. Mulvey, University of Pittsburgh; Carol Ann Schubert,
University of Pittsburgh; Tom Loughran, University of Pittsburgh
Laws governing the transfer of juvenile offenders to adult court have changed dramatically recently, but there is limited research on outcomes for
adolescents who are transferred. This presentation examines the effects of transfer in a study relevant county, using data from the Pathways to
Desistance study. The questions addressed were developed collaboratively with stakeholders in the local juvenile justice system, and a propensity
score matching approach was used to compare groups. Results indicate predictable variability in outcomes among transferred cases, no general effect
on re-arrest, and "local" effects related to offense severity. Implications of these findings for policy changes are discussed.
Estimating a Dose-Response Model of Sanctioning Effects Using a Longitudinal Dataset of Serious Juvenile Offenders. Tom
Loughran, University of Pittsburgh
The effect of harsher sanctions on subsequent recidivism is an important policy question in juvenile justice, yet it has received little empirical
attention. Cross-sectional datasets are limited by their inability to both properly account for selection effects and properly model recidivism as an
outcome. We address these shortcomings by incorporating longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance study. This rich dataset allows for
rigorous control of selection effects by balancing across many background characteristics and accounting for exposure time when modeling later
offending. Using this approach, we will estimate a dose-response relationship between incrementally harsher sanctioning and later offending.
090. A Developmental Approach to Juvenile Interrogation: Perspectives from Parents, Cops, Kids, and Prosecutors
10:30 to 11:50 am
Assumptions about juveniles' responses to interrogation, the impact of parents on the interrogation process, and the effectiveness of law enforcement techniques
rest primarily on experience, intuition, and court interpretation. This interdisciplinary symposium presents data from the perspectives of parents, youth, police
officers, and prosecutors on developmental aspects of police interrogation of minors. The first paper evaluates to what degree families understand, or fail to
understand, basic components of rights and process through latent class analysis of 170 parent-youth pairs' performance on assessments of interrogation
knowledge. The second paper tests the relationship between law enforcement officers' belief that the kids they interrogate are different from "normal" kids and
their use of coercive interrogation techniques with young suspects. The third paper describes the extent, circumstances, and case outcomes associated with
police questioning and interrogation of juveniles through an in-depth study of a diverse local jurisdiction. The fourth paper reviews the case law and statutory
framework for juvenile interrogation and discusses the implications for the charging and prosecution of juvenile and criminal cases with youthful defendants
from the perspective of an assistant prosecutor.
Chair: Jennifer Woolard, Georgetown University
Classifying Parent-Youth Pairs' Knowledge About Police Questioning and Interrogation: An Exploratory Analysis. Jennifer
Woolard, Georgetown University; Hayley Daglis, Georgetown University; Samantha Harvell, Georgetown University
Adolescents know less than adults about police questioning and interrogation. From an intervention perspective, it would be helpful to In this paper
we use Latent Class Analysis to understand to what degree families understand, or fail to understand, basic components of rights and process. Three
latent classes combined to classify families' knowledge risk status, which was predicted by youth age, IQ, and gender, as well as interactions between
youth age and youth justice system experience, youth race, parental IQ, and household socioeconomic status. Implications for identification and
intervention with youthful defendants and their parents are discussed.
But the Kids I Interrogate Are Different from Normal Kids! Jessie Kostelnik, University of Virginia; Jessica Meyer, University of
Virginia; Nicholas Reppucci, University of Virginia
There is anecdotal evidence that some police espouse the belief that "the kids I interrogate are more savvy than normal kids." Goals are to understand
whether youth with prior legal experience are indeed more savvy, and to document the relationship between espousing this belief and using coercive
interrogation techniques. Results from Study 1 indicate that there are no consistent group differences in understanding of the interrogation process
between youth with and without legal experience. The results from Study 2 indicate that this belief among police is related to an increased likelihood
in reporting the use coercive interrogation techniques with children.
Police Interviewing and Interrogation of Juvenile Suspects in Custodial and Non-Custodial Settings. Hayley Daglis, Georgetown
University; Jennifer Woolard, Georgetown University; Samantha Harvell, Georgetown University
Empirical research to date on police interrogation of juveniles has focused primarily on custodial interrogations; very little is known about how,
where, and under what circumstances police informally question youth. Because different legal protections apply to youth in custodial versus non-
custodial contexts, it is critical to examine actual youth behavior and police practices in these separate contexts. The present study examined police
questioning and interrogation by interviewing 126 police officers attending juvenile preliminary hearings. Results indicate that most police-youth
encounters are informal interviews and that juveniles frequently volunteer incriminating information. Implications for law and policy are discussed.
Legal and Practical Aspects of Youth Interrogation: A View from the Prosecutor's Office. William E. Jarvis, Prince William County
Office of the Commonwealth Attorney; Jennifer Woolard, Georgetown University
Assumptions about juveniles' responses to interrogation rest primarily on experience, intuition, and court interpretation. Case law, statutes, and
training provide mixed messages about youths' capacities. We review the statutory framework and case law on youth interrogation. Next, we describe
the training environment for law enforcement investigators, drawing on specific experience with local departments and a statewide homicide
investigators' association. Then, we discuss the implications of interrogation practices for the charging and prosecution of juvenile and criminal cases
with youthful defendants from the perspective of an assistant prosecutor. Finally, we discuss some practical implications of conducting interrogation
research through academic-practitioner partnerships.
091. False Confessions: Dispositional and Situational Risk Factors
10:30 to 11:50 am
The Innocence Project has identified over 200 wrongful conviction cases, a number which many claim to be the tip of the iceberg. False confessions are the
second leading cause of wrongful convictions in the United States making it imperative to identify factors that increase suspects' risk for confessing to crimes
that they did not commit. This symposium brings together cutting-edge research focusing on risk factors for false confessions, both dispositional and situational,
and includes laboratory studies and those conducted in the field with actual offenders. Study 1 investigated the self-reported prevalence of false confessions
among a national sample of offenders with serious mental illness. Study 2 examined the frequency with which serious juvenile offenders falsely confessed as
well as the long-term mental health consequences of such confessions. Two laboratory studies investigated the effects of common interrogation techniques on
the likelihood of confession. Study 3 tested the causal effects of three techniques - the "set-up question," the "sympathetic detective," and the "alleged failed
polygraph results." Study 4 examined the effectiveness of bluffing about the existence of false evidence. A leading expert, who has been studying false
confessions for almost two decades, will discuss the studies' theoretical and practical implications.
Chairs: Lindsay C. Malloy, University of California, Irvine; Allison Redlich, Policy Research Associates
Discussant: Saul Kassin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The Prevalence of Self-Reported False Confessions Among Offenders with Serious Mental Illness. Allison Redlich, Policy Research
Associates; Henry J. Steadman, Policy Research Associates
Because of a combination of psychologically manipulative interrogation tactics, a complex legal system, and inherent vulnerabilities typical of mental
disorders (e.g., proneness to confusion, lack of assertiveness), persons with mental illness may be at particular risk for false confessions. In this
presentation, self-reported prevalence estimates of false confessions among offenders with mental disorders will be provided. Data were collected
from six sites nationally. Individual lifetime false confession rates ranged from 9% to 28% depending upon site. Prevalence was also examined by the
event (opportunity to falsely confess). Event false confession rates ranged from 1% to 8%.
False Confessions Among Serious Juvenile Offenders. Lindsay C. Malloy, University of California, Irvine; Suzanne O. Kaasa,
University of California, Irvine; Elizabeth Cauffman, University of California, Irvine
Youth may be at particular risk for making a false confession. The present study investigated false confessions and exposure to interrogation
techniques known to increase the risk of false confessions among serious juvenile offenders (n = 195; mean age = 16.4). Results revealed that 42% of
juveniles had falsely confessed to a crime at least once. Most youth confessed to protect someone else (67%) or because they were promised a lesser
sentence (57%). Falsely confessing also had implications for mental health and behavior while incarcerated, although the results varied by motive.
These implications will be discussed.
Recommending False Confession for the Innocent. Deborah Davis, University of Nevada, Reno; Richard Leo, University of San
Francisco; Aaron McVean, University of Nevada, Reno; William C. Follette, University of Nevada, Reno
Three interrogation techniques (the "set-up question," "sympathetic detective," and "alleged failed polygraph results") were tested by having
participants read transcripts of an innocent defendant being interrogated about a sexual abuse crime. These variations affected participants'
recommendations regarding the wisdom and consequences of confession. The sympathetic detective and set-up question led subjects to perceive that
the detective can help obtain the best possible outcome by confessing, and that confessing to "accidentally" committing sexual abuse will result in
significantly better outcomes than being charged with intentional abuse. Results shed light on how people reason about achieving the best outcome
Inside Interrogation: The Outright Lie, the Bluff, and False Confessions. Jennifer Torkildson, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Saul Kassin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Research shows that presentations of false evidence—a permissible interrogation trick—can lead innocent people to confess to crimes they did not
commit. However, the common tactic of bluffing about the mere existence of evidence (without the additional pretense that it implicates the suspect)
is not believed to pose the same risk. Using the computer crash paradigm, we compared tactics and found that bluffing significantly increases the risk
of false confession—and is just as powerful as the presentation of false evidence. These results are discussed in light of recent theorizing on the
phenomenology of innocence.
092. Developmental Aspects of Psychopathic Traits from Early Childhood through Young Adulthood
10:30 to 11:50 am
Although much is known about the negative correlates of psychopathic traits in youth, little research has examined the development of the disorder. This
symposium brings together four papers to investigate important developmental aspects of psychopathy, including the onset and stability of traits, from early
childhood through young adulthood. The first paper draws on two longitudinal studies to show that disregard for rules, an indicator of poor conscience
development, is stable throughout early childhood, and that this stability is explained by the action of genetic factors starting as early as 18 months of age. The
second and third papers examine the onset and stability of psychopathic traits in male juvenile offenders, revealing that one quarter of the sample displayed
severe manifestations of the psychopathic syndrome by mid-adolescence and that psychopathic traits possess low to moderate stability across 6-months, as
assessed by the PCL:YV and self-report APSD. The fourth paper studies a sample of male twins across 6 years into young adulthood to demonstrate that
Detachment and Antisocial factors of psychopathy are moderately stable, structurally invariant over time, and strongly correlated indicators of an underlying
Chair: Jessica Klaver, Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center
Discussant: John Edens, Texas A&M University
Disregard for Rules in Early Childhood: Developmental Course, Early Predictors and Genetic-Environmental Etiology. Amelie
Petitclerc, Laval University; Michel Boivin, Laval University; Richard Tremblay, University of Montreal
Disregard for rules is indicative of poor conscience development, thus its study can enhance understanding about the early development of
psychopathic and antisocial behavior. Disregard for rules was measured yearly in two samples of children (including a twin sample) during early
childhood. We observed a small group of children (4.3%) who followed a high, stable trajectory of disregard for rules. Risk factors were male sex and
maternal history of antisocial behavior, teenage pregnancy and post-natal depression. Behavior genetic analyses in the twin sample showed that
genetic factors were responsible for most of the continuity in early childhood disregard for rules.
Psychopathic Traits in Juvenile Offenders: A Retrospective Investigation of the Onset of the Syndrome. Jessica Klaver, Kirby
Forensic Psychiatric Center; Zina Lee, University of Alabama; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University; Marlene M Moretti, Simon
Fraser University; Kevin Stewart Douglas, Simon Fraser University
The current study retrospectively examined the onset of the psychopathy syndrome in 115 male juvenile offenders. The PCL:YV was augmented to
assess the onset of psychopathic traits and determine Total scores across childhood and adolescence. Results suggested that psychopathic traits could
be detected at early ages, 50% of participants possessed a moderate level of traits (score ≥ 20) by age 14, and 25% reached a severe level of
traits (score ≥ 30) by age 15. The largest increases in scores occurred between ages 12 to 15. Implications for the assessment and treatment of
adolescent psychopathic traits are discussed.
Stability and Change of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders. Zina Lee, University of Alabama; Jessica Klaver, Kirby Forensic
Psychiatric Center; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University; Marlene M Moretti, Simon Fraser University; Kevin Stewart Douglas,
Simon Fraser University
There is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescence due in part to questions regarding the stability of traits. The
current study examined the 6-month stability of psychopathic traits in a sample of 83 male adolescent offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist:
Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) and the self-report Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; A. A.
Caputo, P. J. Frick, & S. L. Brodsky, 1999). Results indicate low to moderate stability of psychopathic traits and highlight the need to ensure that
indicators are developmentally-informed.
Stability and Invariance of Psychopathy-Related Traits in Youth Across 6 Years. Craig Neumann, University of North Texas; Daniel
Blonigen, University of Minnesota; Bryan Loney, Florida State University; Jeanette Taylor, Florida State University; William Iacono,
University of Minnesota
Recent studies have documented the stability of psychopathy-related traits in youth across time. The bulk of this research has relied upon observed (or
manifest) correlational strategies to gauge the strength of the stability of such traits. Unfortunately, use of manifest, as opposed to latent, variables will
produce biased estimates of the stability of traits, given that the former are influenced by measurement error. Manifest variable approaches also fail to
test for measurement invariance. The current study used a structural equation modeling approach to precisely gauge stability of psychopathy traits
across 6-years, as well as test for measurement invariance over time.
093. Building Bridges to New Scholars Luncheon
12:00 to 1:30 pm
River Terrace 1 (3rd Floor)
Hosted by the AP-LS Executive Committee and Minorities Affairs Committee.
094. Murder on a Sunday Morning: Research Meets Real Life
1:45 to 3:15 pm
In this special plenary session, five experts will present and discuss their perspectives on the award-winning documentary "Murder on a Sunday Morning." The
movie chronicles the arrest and trial of 15-year-old Brenton Butler in Jacksonville in May, 2000. Brenton was falsely identified as a murderer and then
confessed under coercive conditions. His lawyers, Ann Finnell and Patrick McGuiness, identified these issues at trial and convinced the jury of Brenton's
innocence. Ann Finnell and Patrick McGuiness will be part of the panel. Portions of the movie will be shown, and we encourage all attendees to watch the
Chair: Patricia Griffin, Policy Research Associates, Inc
Gary Wells, Iowa State University
Saul Kassin, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Jennifer Eberhardt, Stanford University
Patricia Zapf, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
095. Civil Litigation Issues
3:30 to 4:30 pm
Chair: Ryan Winter, Florida International University
Apology in Civil Litigation: Helpful or Hurtful? Kevin Boully, Persuasion Strategies; Debra L. Worthington, Auburn University
This study examined the effects of a nursing home defendant's apology during a simulated civil trial. A 1 X 3 experimental research design evaluated
the effects of a defendant's summary argument containing a full apology, partial apology or no mention of apology. The apologetic defendant did
enjoy some positive benefits, but little data suggest that an apology accepting responsibility, offering repair, and promising forbearance benefited the
defendant more than an equivocal expression of remorse. Findings provide some instruction for attorney-advocates taking nursing home litigation to
Defendants Get Hurt, Too! The Effects of Defendant Injury Severity on Liability Decisions in Negligence Cases. Timothy R.
Robicheaux, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Brian H. Bornstein, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Despite research concerning plaintiff injury severity's effects on legal decisions, no research has fully explored the effects of a defendant's injuries. In
a simulation study, we considered the effects of a defendant's injuries on liability decisions in an automobile negligence case. Mock jurors were more
likely to find the defendant liable for the accident when both the defendant and the plaintiff suffered severe injuries. When only one party suffered a
serious injury, liability decisions did not differ. While participants reported more sympathy for the more injured parties, this state emotion did not
predict liability decisions.
Do Different Per Diem Arguments Make Cents Without Lump Sums? Tejah Duckworth, California State University, Northridge;
Bradley D. McAuliff, California State University, Northridge; Chrislyn Nefas, California State University, Northridge; Nam Dang,
California State University, Northridge; Brian H. Bornstein, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Attorneys often suggest a per diem argument (PDA) or mathematical formula to help jurors determine non-economic damages in civil cases. We
examined whether different dollar/time quantifications (none, $10/hour, $240/day, $7,300/month) and a lump sum (none, $175,000) influenced pain
and suffering awards in a simulated personal injury case. Jurors (N=317) awarded less damages and exerted less cognitive effort when presented a
larger dollar/time quantification ($7,300/month) compared to $10/hour or no PDA/no lump sum. Jurors who received the PDA alone were less
influenced by the plaintiff attorney's closing argument and awarded less damages than those who received a combined lump sum/PDA argument.
The Effects of Psychological Injury on Liability and Damage Determinations in Two Sexual Harassment Cases. Jonathan Vallano,
Florida International University; Ryan Winter, Florida International University
Although sexual harassment complainants often experience harassment-based psychological injuries, few studies have focused on the impact of
psychological injury on liability and damage award determinations. The present study assessed whether the severity of psychological injury and type
of legal standard (reasonable person vs. woman) affected mock juror's decisions in two hostile environment sexual harassment cases. Participants high
in hostile sexism found less liability and awarded lower damages than low hostile sexist participants. In addition, the presentation of mild
psychological injury (compared to high or no psychological injury) increased damage awards for participants who reflected and applied the reasonable
096. Violence Risk Assessment
3:30 to 4:30 pm
Chair: Daniel Murrie, University of Virginia
Risk Status or Risk State? Overlap between Problematic Personality Traits and Risk State Scores. Patrick Joseph Kennealy,
University of California, Irvine; Jennifer Skeem, University of California, Irvine; Elizabeth Nicholson, Simon Fraser University;
Chistine Kregg, University of California, Irvine; Eliza Hart, University of California, Irvine
A growing body of evidence suggests that the predictive utility of several risk assessment tools may be based on their shared assessment of
problematic personality traits that emphasize risk status. In this study of 221 parolees with- and without- mental disorder, we assess the association
between these traits and instruments that are designed to go beyond risk status to capture risk state (the HCR-20 and LS/CMI). We also determine
whether these associations differ as a function of mental disorder, and test the incremental utility of each instrument in predicting recidivism after
controlling for personality. Implications for risk management are discussed.
Assessing Risk of Violent Behavior among Veterans with Severe Mental Illness. Eric Elbogen, University of North Carolina-Chapel
Hill; Jean Beckham, Durham VA; Marvin Swartz, Duke University; Jeffrey Swanson, Duke University
Research has examined factors associated with violence in severe mental illness (SMI) and among veterans without SMI, but few studies have
identified violence risk factors among veterans with SMI. In a multivariate analysis of n=278 veterans with SMI (specifically schizophrenia, bipolar
disorder, or major depression), we found violent behavior was predicted by brain injury, PTSD, substance abuse, and homelessness. Results are
relevant to clinicians treating Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, suggesting a combination of characteristics related to violence by non-veterans with SMI
(e.g., homelessness) and veterans without SMI (e.g., PTSD) should be considered for violence risk assessment of veterans with SMI.
Predicting Recidivism with the MnSOST-R, PAI, PCL-R, and STATIC-99 in a Statewide Sex Offender Sample. Marcus Boccaccini,
Sam Houston State University; Daniel Murrie, University of Virginia; Jennifer Caperton, Federal Bureau of Prisons
How well do sex offender risk assessment measures predict reoffense when administered as part of routine correctional practice? We examined the
predictive validity of the STATIC-99, MnSOST-R, PCL-R, and the Personality Assessment Inventory among a large (most n's > 1,500) sample of
convicted sexual offenders released to the community. Predictive validity was generally poor, particularly for the PCL-R, which was entirely
unrelated to reoffense. Predictive values for the STATIC-99 and the MnSOST-R, though significant with respect to some types of reoffense, were
lower than expected. Results for certain PAI subscales, though not designed as risk measures, were relatively strong.
Interrater (Dis)Agreement on Risk Measure Scores Completed by Opposing Evaluators in Sexually Violent Predator Trials. Daniel
Murrie, University of Virginia; Marcus Boccaccini, Sam Houston State University; Darrel Turner, Sam Houston State University;
Meredith Meeks, Sam Houston State University
Actuarial risk measures usually reveal strong interrater reliability values in research contexts. But how well do raters agree on risk scores when the
raters are expert witnesses retained by opposing sides in adversarial legal proceedings? We examined rater agreement for the STATIC-99 and
MnSOST-R as scored by opposing experts in Sexually Violent Predator proceedings. Results revealed poorer rater agreement values than those
reported in non-adversarial settings. Rater disagreement was less pronounced for the STATIC-99 (ICC1,A = .71), but greater for the MnSOST-R
(ICC1,A =.47). Score differences were often in the direction supporting the party who retained the expert witnesses's services.
097. Invited Speaker: Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt
3:30 to 4:30 pm
Jennifer L. Eberhardt received a PhD in Psychology from Harvard University in 1993. Before coming to Stanford in 1998, she held a joint faculty position at
Yale University in Psychology and African & African American Studies where she was also a research fellow at Yale's Center for Race, Inequality, and Politics.
At Stanford, she has conducted programs of research in areas ranging from social neuroscience to the intersection of psychology and law. In her most recent
work, she examines how social representations of race can affect visual perception and neural processing. In 2002, she received a Distinguished Alumnae
Award for this research from the University of Cincinnati (where she completed her undergraduate education in 1987). She is a research fellow at the Center for
the Comparative Study of Race and Ethnicity (CCSRE). Additionally, she joins Hazel Markus in directing the Mind, Culture, and Society specialization track
for advanced undergraduates. She has served on the Committee of Visitors for the National Science Foundation. She is currently a member of the American
Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Society for the Psychological Study
of Social Issues. During the 2005-2006 academic year, Dr. Eberhardt served as a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences.
The Criminalization and Dehumanization of Blacks in the Modern Era. Jennifer Eberhardt, Stanford University
In Part 1 of this talk, Dr. Eberhardt will present studies that demonstrate an association of African Americans with criminality. She will argue that this
association influences how both ordinary citizens and police officers perceive and analyze the people and objects they encounter. For example, the
mere presence of a Black face enhances people's ability to detect degraded images of weapons. The association of Blacks with criminality can also
determine whose faces capture our attention. Dr. Eberhardt will demonstrate that this association is strongly related to death sentencing decisions as
well. In Part 2 of this talk, she will present studies to show that African Americans are not only associated with crime, but they also are associated
with animals, apes in particular. For example, exposing people to images of apes leads people to visually attend to Black faces. This Black-ape
association also has implications in the criminal justice context. For instance, Dr. Eberhardt and her colleagues examined this association using a data
set of death eligible defendants in the city of Philadelphia over a 20-year period. They found that newspaper articles written about these Black
defendants were more likely to contain animal imagery than articles written about White defendants and that animal imagery predicted death
sentencing. Although people typically understand the dehumanization of African Americans as a thing of the past, this research demonstrates that
modern racial bias can operate through subtle processes yet produce effects that lead to egregious racial inequalities.
098. Investigative Interviewing of Children
3:30 to 4:30 pm
Chair: David La Rooy, Kingston University
Children's Disclosure of Sex Abuse: A New Approach to Answering Elusive Questions. Jason J Dickinson, Montclair State University;
Joseph Del Russo, Passaic County Prosecutor's Office, NJ; Anthony D'Urso, Montclair State University
In collaboration with a nothern state's special victim's unit, this paper examined disclosure patterns for sexual abuse by comparing the accuracy and
completeness of children's reports elicited in taped forensic interviews with objective evidence of abuse they experienced—videotapes made by
perpetrators that depict sexual abuse of their victims. Among our major findings, one-third of victims initially denied they were abused during their
forensic interview and, overall, children failed to report nearly half of the discrete abuse events they experienced. Implications for forensic
interviewing and the current debate regarding the validity of Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome will be discussed.
The Effects of an 8-Month Intensive Training and Feedback Program for Investigative Interviewers of Children. Heather L. Price,
University of Regina; Kim P. Roberts, Wilfrid Laurier University
Twelve investigative interviewers took part in a training project. First, interviewers submitted pre-training interviews for transcription and coding.
Next, interviewers participated in a 2-day training session on basic child development and were introduced to a structured interview protocol. Then,
interviewers received 2 months of weekly verbal and written feedback. Third, interviewers participated in a 2-day "refresher" training session, which
was followed by 6 months of weekly or bi-weekly feedback. Comparisons of pre- and post-training interviews indicated that interviewers increased
use of desirable prompts and amount of information elicited from children in response to such prompts and decreased use of undesirable prompts.
Does Type of Memory Practice Matter when Interviewing Children about a Repeated Event? Sonja Brubacher, Wilfrid Laurier
University; Kim P. Roberts, Wilfrid Laurier University; Martine B Powell, Deakin University
Children aged 5 to 8 participated in 4 sessions of the "Laurier Activities" which involved tasks such as completing a puzzle. After 1 week, children
were interviewed based on the NICHD protocol, which includes a 'practice phase'. The current study manipulated 'type of practice' in 3 between-
subjects conditions. Children practiced describing specific instances, (incident-specific practice), or what generally happens, during a repeated event
(scripted practice). Control children described a novel event. Incident-specific practice benefited younger children most by encouraging them to
disclose multiple incidents earlier and recall more details. Differences in accuracy across conditions were not significant.
The Effects of Repeating Questions in Forensic Interviews with Children. David La Rooy, Kingston University; Michael E. Lamb,
University of Cambridge; Catherine Mcmanamon, Kingston University
The present study examined the effects of repeating questions during 37 forensic interviews by British police officers of alleged abuse victims aged
between 4 and 11 years. Repeated questions made up a small proportion (5%) of the questions asked. Children provided consistent answers to
repeated questions 54% of the time, elaborated on their previous answers 25% of the time, and contradicted their previous responses 7% of the time.
The findings are discussed with reference to the operational definition of repeated questions in forensic interviews, and the implications for forensic
099. Dealing with Mentally Ill Domestic Violence Perpetrators: A New Judicial Model
3:30 to 4:30 pm
People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's
interventions programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new
approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This session will described and evaluate this
pioneering model. A Miami-Dade County Domestic Violence Court Judge will describe the new therapeutic model that she pioneered. A Professor of Law and
Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, an expert on therapeutic jurisprudence, will situate this model within the context of other problem-solving
courts and discuss how the court uses principles and approaches of therapeutic jurisprudence. Next, a recent graduate of the Forensic Psychiatry Fellowship
Program at the University of Miami, will report the results of a retrospective and longitudinal study of 20 cases in the Domestic Violence Mental Health Court
followed over a two year period, comparing them to a sample of non-mentally ill perpetrators processed by the court in the same period.
Chair: Bruce Winick, University of Miami
Discussants: Debra White-Labora, State of Florida 11th Judicial Circuit the Miami-Dade County Court; Yanira M Olaya, University of Miami
100. Presenting Research to Courts
3:30 to 4:30 pm
Chair: Robert Schopp, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Court-Appointed Experts in State Trial Courts. Stephanie Domitrovich, Erie County Court; Mara L. Merlino, University of Nevada,
Reno; James T. Richardson, University of Nevada, Reno
This paper reports the results of a mail survey of 178 state court trial judges from Texas, Michigan, Indiana, and Arizona about their use of and
opinions about court-appointed experts. Their reasons for choosing or declining to exercise their inherent power to appoint experts, the kinds of expert
testimony most frequently seen by the judges in this sample, judges' views of the costs and benefits associated with using court-appointed experts, and
judges' perceptions of court-appointed vs. privately-retained experts will be discussed in the context of implications for judges, attorneys, and experts.
Using Statistical Evidence to Prove Causality to Non-statisticians. Palmer Morrel-Samuels, University of Michigan; Peter D. Jacobson,
School of Public Health, University of Michigan
No contemporary guide exists for attorneys to use statistical data to create demonstrative evidence about causality. We outline a new theory
explaining the perception, comprehension, and recall of quantitative graphs. Consistent with this theory, we contend that four hallmarks of causality
are critical: evidence of Association, Prediction, Exclusion of Alternative Explanations, and Dose dependence. We test our theory in 87 smoking
litigation cases. In 80% of the cases, if movants used all four hallmarks their argument prevailed; moreover, the higher the number of hallmarks used,
the greater the likelihood of a favorable decision. We provide guidelines for using causal graphs.
Study Space Analysis: A New Method For Describing And Evaluating Research Literatures. Roy S. Malpass, University of Texas at
El Paso; Colin G. Tredoux, University of Cape Town; Nadja Schreiber Compo, Florida International University; Dawn McQuiston-
Surrett, Arizona State University; Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa; Laura Zimmerman, Applied Research Associates; Lisa D.
Topp, University of Texas at El Paso
Transforming research findings into policy recommendations requires evaluative criteria beyond traditional academic review. Policy development
involves literatures and criteria for examining adequacy of the underlying research as a policy base are needed. At the level of the studies many are
obvious: high quality studies, well reported and replicable, consensus on their validity, and ecological validity for application. At the research
literature level the distribution of important variables in the literature are important. We discuss policy adequacy criteria and present the Study Space
concept for evaluating breadth of coverage and gaps in our knowledge in policy research domains.
Amicus Briefs and Expert Testimony: Roles, Rules, and Responsibilities. Robert Schopp, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
The literature in psychology and law includes substantial discussion of the legitimate range of expert testimony by psychologists regarding
dangerousness in the context of capital sentencing. The American Psychological Association recently submitted an amicus brief regarding the
significance of delusional impairment for a condemned offender's competence to face execution. This presentation reviews that brief and reflects upon
the purposes and limitations of amicus briefs and of expert testimony as two methods for communicating psychological expertise to the courts. The
presentation is intended to promote reflection upon and refinement of the manner in which both are applied.
101. Legal Psychology and Police Behavior
4:45 to 5:45 pm
Chair: Scott Lilienfeld, Emory University
Measuring Police Attitudes toward Persons with Mental Illness to Inform First Responder Training. Jonathan C. Clayfield,
University of Massachusetts Medical School; Kenneth E. Fletcher, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Albert J. Grudzinskas,
Jr., University of Massachusetts Medical School
This presentation will focus on the creation of the Mental Health Attitude Survey for Police (MHASP), an instrument designed to measure police
attitudes. The involvement of consumers in the creation of the MHASP will be highlighted. The process of psychometric validation of this instrument
will be described, and data obtained from a pre and post training assessment using the MHASP to measure changes in attitudes will be discussed.
Finally, the use of the tool to help inform the development of a 40-hour Crisis Intervention Team training curriculum, and an eight hour generalist
training module for first responders will be addressed.
The Role of Intuition in Decision Making Among Law Enforcement Officials. Chriscelyn M. Tussey, University of Virginia Health
Center; Donald Robertson, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Todd Negola, Mount Aloysius College; Lynda Federoff, Indiana
University of Pennsylvania
The study aimed to operationalize intuition by examining the roles of experience, emotional arousal, time constraints, and risk in decision making
style and confidence among law enforcement officials. Results suggested that increased emotional arousal was associated with increased intuitive
decision making. And, individuals with law enforcement experience were more confident than those without, on all decisions; however, confidence
was associated with risk. Post-experimental questionnaire results revealed perceptions of intuition. The results support the notion that intuition has a
pertinent role in decision making and continued efforts to operationalize the construct will lead to relevant training for law enforcement.
Validity of the M-PULSE Validity Scales: Correlation to MMPI-2 Validity Measures. Avetis Topchyan, Center for Forensic Studies,
Alliant International University; Robert A. Leark, Center for Forensic Studies - Alliant International University; Sherry Skidmore,
Center for Forensic Studies, Alliant International University
This current study was designed to evaluate the M-PULSE validity scales. Police candidates (5821)had been administered the M-PULSE, and the
MMPI-2.The two validity measures (IM & TA) were correlated to validity measures on the MMPI-2 scales. The analyses yielded correlations
between the IM and MMPI-2 L scale (.60) and K scale (.41). The IM was significantly negatively correlated with the F scale, the Fb scale, and the
VRIN scale. The TA validity scale was correlated with the MMPI-2 F scale, Fb scale, TRIN scale, and VRIN scale. The TA scale was found to
significantly negatively correlate with the K scale.
Science and Pseudoscience in Law-Enforcement: The Role of Psychology in Identifying Valid Police Methods. Scott Lilienfeld,
Emory University; Kristin Landfield, Emory University
Like psychological practitioners and researchers, police and other law enforcement officials are often confronted with the difficult task of
distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific practices. Just as behavioral scientists evaluate cognitive and behavioral interventions, psychological
claims, and new theories before sanctioning them for general use, so must police and law enforcement officials rely on rigorous scientific evidence to
evaluate the efficacy of their methods. In this presentation we review current psychological practices in law enforcement, discuss the role of the
entertainment media in accounting for the popularity of these techniques, and delineate user-friendly criteria for distinguishing scientific from
pseudoscientific law enforcement practices.
102. Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church: Offending Patterns and Risk Implications
4:45 to 5:45 pm
The presenters in this symposium will discuss four distinct sets of findings derived from a large-scale evaluation of sexual abuse in the Catholic Church. The
study, which found that 4,392 priests had allegations of abuse against 10,667 victims, used findings from three survey instruments (focusing on diocesan,
victim, and offender characteristics) sent to presiding bishops and major superiors in all Catholic dioceses, eparchies and religious communities in the United
States. Surveys were returned from 97% of the Catholic dioceses and eparchies (representing 99% of that population) and by 64% of the Catholic religious
institutes of men in the United States (representing 83% of that population). Using this dataset, the presenters in this symposium will summarize findings from
this national study and provide data from unique sets of research questions. The first presenter will discuss characteristics of serial offenders, while the second
presenter will use a risk perspective to discuss predictors of clergy offending patterns. The third presenter will use a situational crime prevention perspective to
examine clergy offenders, while the fourth (and final) presentation will examine the importance of cleric age in evaluating recidivism risk.
Chairs: Cynthia Calkins Mercado, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Anthony Perillo, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
Serial Clergy Abusers: Characteristics and Patterns of Priests with Multiple Allegations of Sexual Abuse. Cynthia Calkins Mercado,
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jennifer A. Tallon, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Karen J. Terry, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
This talk will compare and examine priests having only one allegation of sexual abuse with those having a moderate (2-3), high (4-9), or exceptionally
high (10+) number of allegations. Of the total (N = 3,674) clerics in this sample, findings revealed that the 3.7% (n =137) who had ten or more
victims accounted for a disproportionate 24.8% of the abuse. Those priests who abused the most victims began perpetrating offenses at an earlier age
and were more likely to have male victims than those who abused fewer victims. The heterogeneity of clergy offending patterns will be discussed.
Specific Risk Assessment in Catholic Church Sexual Abuse: A Comparison to General Sex Offender Research. Anthony Perillo,
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Cynthia Calkins Mercado, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
This study examines the validity of specific risk assessment literature with sexual abusers in the Catholic Church. Data were coded from 4,392 clergy
with documentation of child sex abuse. Specific risk models predicted having multiple victims (vs. a single victim) and victim gender (all-male or all-
female vs. cross-gender). Compared to community sex offender research, our models were stronger in predicting repeat offending and victim gender.
Significant predictors within our models, however, differed from those in community samples. Current risk assessment literature may help guide
clergy risk, but further research is necessary to account for differences in Catholic Church abusers.
Situational Crime Prevention Strategies and Child Sexual Abuse: Findings from the Catholic Church. Karen J. Terry, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Alissa Ackerman, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Though research on child sexual abuse is often offender specific, Smallbone and Wortley (2006) suggest that research should also focus on the
situation in which the abuse occurs. Here, their situational crime prevention (SCP) framework is used to assess abuse patterns by Catholic priests. The
results support the assertions by Smallbone and Wortley that a situational component to sexual abuse exists. The discussion outlines steps taken by the
Catholic Church, legal aspects of utilizing SCP, and use of this technique for offenders suffering from a psychological diagnosis and those who, for a
variety of reasons, regress to sexually abusing children.
Patterns of Age and Recidivism among Clergy Sexual Abusers. Anthony Perillo, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Cynthia
Calkins Mercado, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Because of unique circumstances within the Catholic Church, standard cutoff ages in risk assessment tools (such as Static-99) are of little value when
assessing clergy sexual abusers. The present study examines patterns of age and recidivism among sex abusers in the Catholic Church. Recidivists
(priests with reports of abuse after previous Church discipline) and non-recidivists will be compared in terms of age when the Church issued
discipline. Logistic regression will be used to examine both linear and nonlinear trends. It is expected that clergy will be at increased risk to recidivate
until at least age 50.
103. Specialty Guidelines on Forensic Psychologists Revision
4:45 to 5:45 pm
Members of the AP-LS/AAFP Committee to Revise the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists will discuss and highlight changes in the most recent
draft of the guidelines, which is to be released immediately prior to the AP-LS meeting in Jacksonville.
Chair: Randy Otto, University of South Florida
104. Children and Lying: Learning When to Believe
4:45 to 5:45 pm
Recent decades have seen renewed interest in children's lying due to increased numbers of cases involving child witnesses. The proposed symposium unites four
new studies on children's lying, focusing on two forensically-relevant issues: How do children perceive and distinguish lying versus honesty? How well do
children lie? The first presentation examines child perceptions of lie acceptability under different circumstances, while the second examines their ability to
distinguish children's naturalistic truths and lies. Findings indicate that children are sensitive to truth versus lie distinctions, as they perceive self-serving lies, by
children, to adults as least acceptable and older children detect other children's lies better than adults. The third and fourth presentations examine adult detection
of children's lies. Findings suggest that professional experience with children facilitates detection of children's lies, and that Machiavellian parents who are good
liars have children who are good liars. Together, these studies significantly increase understanding of how to assess children's honesty across forensic situations.
Chairs: Angela M Crossman, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Victoria Talwar, McGill University
Children's Perceptions of Lie-telling. Katrina Rufino, Sam Houston State University; Andrea Buonaugurio, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Cindy Arruda, McGill University; Megan Brunet, University of Toronto; Victoria Talwar, McGill University; Angela M
Crossman, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
All lies are not perceived as equally acceptable or unacceptable. The current study examines whether children's perceptions of lie acceptability vary as
a function of lie type (antisocial/prosocial), age of lie teller (child/adult), and age of lie target (child/adult). Child participants rated lie acceptability in
sixteen scenarios that varied across these variables. Children rated antisocial lies as less acceptable than prosocial lies, while rating lies told to adults
as worse than lies told to children, and lies told by children as worse than lies told by adults. Potential implications for child witness testimony are
Pants on Fire? Detecting Children's Lies. Sarah-Jane Renaud, McGill University; Jessica Gulmi, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Angela M Crossman, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Victoria Talwar, McGill University
While there has been much research on adults' abilities to detect deception, there have been very few studies examining both children and adult's
abilities to detect children's real spontaneous lies. The present study asked both children and adults to make judgments of children's true and false
reports. Participants (N = 156) were shown videotaped sessions of children who were either spontaneously lying or telling the truth. Results indicate
that both children's and adults' accuracy for detecting children's true statements was below chance. However, older children were significantly better
at detecting lies than both younger children and adults.
Detecting Children's Lies: Does Experience Help? Victoria Talwar, McGill University; Angela M Crossman, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY; Simone Muir, McGill University
Research has found that adults are poor at detecting adults' lies, although some are better than others. Other research suggests that children's lies may
be easier to detect. The current study examined adults with and without experience working with children and their ability to detect children's lies.
Overall, adults were more accurate at identifying children's dishonest statements than their true statements While adults without experience were poor
at detecting child lie-tellers and truth-tellers, adults with extensive child experience were better at distinguishing children's lies and truths. Adults were
also better at detecting children's other-oriented lies than their self-oriented lies.
Parents' and Children's Deception in a Deliberately Deceitful Task: How do They Compare? Mina Popliger, McGill University;
Victoria Talwar, McGill University; Sumin Na, McGill University
Children's ability to be effective deceivers depends on their abilities to regulate and maintain verbal and nonverbal communications. However, little is
known regarding the process by which children acquire and maintain these deceptive behaviors. In the present study, parents' and children's deception
in a deliberately deceitful task and their Machiavellian orientation were examined. Results from in-depth analyses and naïve raters' detection of
parent-child pairs suggest similarities among the parent-child dyads in their nonverbal behaviors. In addition, Machiavellian scores were positively
related to deception ability. Implications for legal systems are discussed.
105. Eyewitnesses Issues and Jurors
4:45 to 5:45 pm
Chair: Sean Lane, Louisiana State University
Boosting Eyewitnesses' Identification Confidence by Adding Dissimilar Fillers: Examining the Dud-alternative Effect in Lineups.
Steve Charman, Florida International University; Gary Wells, Iowa State University
Recent research has uncovered the dud alternative effect, whereby one's confidence that a plausible response option is the correct answer to a question
increases if non-plausible response options ("duds") are also included. This effect may apply to lineups. Study 1 (n = 108) tested this idea,
demonstrating that the addition of duds to a lineup increases witnesses' confidence in their identification of a non-dud. Study 2 (n = 203) demonstrated
that the presence of duds increases the perceived similarity between the non-duds and the criminal. Implications of these findings for lineup bias
estimates and for current police practices are discussed.
In Their Own Words and From Multiple Viewpoints: Eyewitness Confidence and Identification Accuracy. Eric S. Neal, California
State University, Northridge; Bradley D. McAuliff, California State University, Northridge; Brian L. Cutler, University of North
Carolina at Charlotte
We examined eyewitness confidence/accuracy using verbal expressions and quantitative measures of confidence for a lineup identification task. Fifty-
two adults witnessed a staged crime and viewed a sequential eight person lineup. Lineup composition (target absent versus present) varied across
witnesses. After making an identification, witnesses stated their confidence using their own words and a 10-point Likert-type scale. Three pairs of
individuals (lawyers, police officers, and students) served as independent raters and assessed the oral statements using the same confidence scale. A
significant positive relationship between self-rated confidence and accuracy emerged but the rater confidence and accuracy correlation failed to reach
Detecting Identification Accuracy: The Impact of Viewing the Identification Procedure on Belief of an Eyewitness. Jennifer
Beaudry, Queen's University; Rod C. L. Lindsay, Queen's University; Amy-May Leach, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Based on testimony alone people are unable to discriminate between accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses. The impact of presenting mock-jurors with
a videotape of the identification procedure has remained relatively unexplored. The present study explores mock-jurors' perceptions of, and decisions
about, eyewitness identifications after viewing the eyewitness completing the identification procedure and/or the eyewitness' testimony. Preliminary
results (n = 185) suggest that mock-jurors who view the identification procedure are more likely to correctly categorize an eyewitness identification as
accurate or inaccurate (64%) than mock-jurors who observe the testimony alone (48%).
What Judges Know about What Jurors Know: Consistency of Beliefs about Eyewitness Memory. Sean Lane, Louisiana State
University; Stephanie Groft, Louisiana State University; Jill Alonzo, American Airlines
Judges often decline to admit experts on eyewitness memory because such knowledge is thought to be commonsense to jurors. But how accurate are
such assessments? A survey (Kassin, et al., 2001) was used to assess the eyewitness memory knowledge of judges and jurors from the same
geographic area. A second group of judges was told about the juror sample and predicted the percentage of jurors who agreed with each statement.
Judges' beliefs about the commonsense nature of topics correlated only modestly with jurors' actual beliefs and they often over- and under-predicted
the amount of agreement on a given topic.
106. Psychopathy: Adolescents and Subtypes
4:45 to 5:45 pm
Chair: Randall T. Salekin, University of Alabama
Psychopathic Subtypes: An Examination in Offenders and Undergraduates. Chantal L. Vanreeuwyk, Sam Houston State University;
Holly A. Miller, Sam Houston State University; Craig Henderson, Sam Houston State University
This study examined psychopathic subtypes in samples of 272 male offenders and 310 undergraduate students. The factors of the Psychopathic
Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005) were analyzed using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA; Vermunt & Madigson, 2002).
Results indicated a three and two class solution for the offender and undergraduate samples respectively. Similarities between the undergraduate
classes and two of the offender classes can be interpreted as representing primary and secondary profiles that are relatively similar across populations.
This suggests that configurations and levels of psychopathic traits alone cannot account for engagement in criminal behaviors.
Psychopathic Personalities: Empirical Support for Subtyping Theories. Diana Falkenbach, John Jay College of Criminal Justice,
CUNY; Kristen Crawford, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The current study empirically tested the prototypical model of the subtypes of psychopathy proposed by Skeem et al. (2003). Variables assessing
different facets of psychopathy, anxiety, borderline and narcissistic personality traits were employed in a model-based cluster analysis to identify
prototypical psychopathic traits in primary and secondary psychopathy exhibited in a forensic sample. Measures of aggression, depression and
treatment amenability were used as validation indicators. Those participants in clusters resembling secondary psychopaths were hypothesized to have
significantly higher scores on all validation measures.
Juvenile Psychopathy and Judicial Decision Making. Shayne Jones, University of South Florida; Elizabeth Cauffman, University of
A key issue in the debate surrounding juvenile psychopathy is whether it might result in more restrictive placements. Currently, it is unclear precisely
what effects this label has. To provide more direction, this study assessed judicial perceptions and recommendations. Results indicate that
psychopathy influenced perceptions of amenability (η=.12) and dangerousness (η=.25), and recommendations for placement
(η=.11). The effect of psychopathy on placement recommendations, however, was not significant after controlling for perceptions of dangerous.
This suggests that the influence of psychopathy on judicial restrictiveness may operate through the perceived dangerousness of the youth.
The Relation between Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Psychopathy in Delinquent Adolescents. Ross Grimes, University of
Alabama; Randall T. Salekin, University of Alabama
This study explored the relationship between disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathy in a sample of delinquent adolescents. 125 juvenile
delinquents drawn from Tuscaloosa, AL and Miami, FL completed self report measures of CD, ODD, and ADHD, and were assessed for psychopathy
using the APSD and PCL:YV. CD was the strongest predictor of psychopathy, followed by ADHD. Limited support was also found for an interaction
between CD and ADHD. CD and ADHD also predicted emotional and affective aspects of psychopathy on the APSD, a finding not replicated on the
107. Poster Session - Saturday
6:00 to 8:00 pm
1. 1st Place 2007 Dissertation Award Winner: Static and Dynamic Predictors of Institutional Misconduct. Jeffrey Haun, The
Washington Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine
Dissertation completed at Pacific University, Adviser: Genevieve L. Y. Arnaut. Increased rates of incarceration coupled with growing rates of
institutional violence and major disturbances within U.S. correctional institutions have resulted in increased importance being placed on the
development of accurate and efficient correctional risk classification methods. In the current study, institutional infractions were tracked from
correctional intake for 17,054 male and female incarcerated offenders. In order to allow for examination of specific categories of problematic
behaviors, institutional infractions were categorized according to physically aggressive, verbally aggressive/defiant, and nonviolent infractions.
Following analysis of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) descriptive statistics that were obtained during correctional intake, the univariate
predictive utility of several static and dynamic variables in the prediction of institutional violence and misconduct was examined. Predictor variables
included historical, demographic, and self-report (i.e., PAI) information. Among individual variables, subject age, gang affiliation, gender, and PAI
Antisocial Features and Aggression scale scores were most predictive of institutional infractions after controlling for the number of days incarcerated.
The majority of examined PAI scales remained significant predictors after further controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and gang affiliation. Despite a
low base rate of occurrence, the largest effect sizes were demonstrated in the prediction of physically aggressive infractions. In the final stage of data
analysis, multiple regression analyses were undertaken in order to develop an institutional violence risk assessment scheme for potential use in inmate
triage/classification procedures and to allow for examination of incremental predictive accuracy of predictor types (e.g., static vs. dynamic). A
forward logistic regression resulted in a 9 variable model composed of historical, demographic, and self-report variables that was a robust predictor of
adjudication for physically aggressive infractions (AUC = .715, p < .001). A violence risk classification scheme was developed that allowed for
meaningful distinction between categories of relative risk based on the final model, and differences in accuracy between regression weight-based
scores and a simple score method were minimal. Although static and historical/demographic variables were most predictive of future acts of violence,
the addition of dynamic and self-report variables resulted in increased predictive accuracy, with each variable type adding unique variance to the
prediction of future violent behaviors.
2. 2nd Place 2007 Dissertation Award Winner: Underlying Processes of Antisocial Decisions: Adolescents Versus Adults. Kathryn
Modecki, Arizona State University
Dissertation completed at University of New Hampshire, Adviser: Victoria L. Banyard. The question of adolescent decision maturity holds significant
ramifications for today's youth. When adolescents are viewed as competent, rational decision makers, they may be considered mature enough to make
decisions in their best interest in criminal court (Grisso, 1997) and may be held fully culpable for their crimes. In contrast, when adolescents are
viewed as immature decision makers, they may be considered less competent to make criminal decisions, and thus may not be considered fully
blameworthy for their crimes (Woolard, Reppucci, & Redding, 1996). The present study is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes and measures
maturity of judgment (Scott, Reppucci, & Woolard, 1995; Steinberg & Cauffman, 1996) via standardized scales and qualitative analyses of open-
ended responses. This work investigates the relations between maturity of judgment, consequential thinking, and participation in delinquent behaviors
in adolescents (ages12-18), adults (ages 35-63), and delinquent youth (ages 14-17). Results suggest that adolescents and adults differ significantly on
the judgment factors that influence their decisions and their decision processes. However, adolescent within-group differences stemmed from the
outcome expectancy that sensation seeking was a reason TO engage in antisocial behavior, and from differences on consequential thinking variables.
In all, findings suggests that for adolescents, but not adults, the domains most central to the endorsement of antisocial decisions are outcome
expectancies related to peers, sensation seeking, negative emotion, short term benefits, lack of risk, and over-emphasis on said positive expectancies.
Further, exploratory analyses showed external validity for the study's qualitative coding. Taken together, the results of this study offer the potential to
inform adolescent-focused legal policies and interventions.
3. 3rd Place 2007 Dissertation Award Winner: "Evolving Standards of Decency": Public Opinion of Non-Capital Sentencing
Options for Juvenile Offenders. Tracy Fass, Drexel University/Villanova Law School
Dissertation completed at Drexel University and Villanova University School of Law, Adviser: Kirk Heilbrun. Recent judicial decisions and statutory
changes have resulted in an absolute ban on capital punishment for convicted juvenile offenders. This study examines public opinion of alternative
sentencing options: life without parole, life with parole, and blended sentencing. The current study is the first to assess public opinion of life without
parole outside the context of public opinion of capital punishment for juveniles. A total of 359 participants (189 undergraduate students and 170 law
students) were administered a vignette describing the commission and conviction of a serious crime. The participants were asked to rate how likely
they would be to sentence the defendant to each of the three sentence options. Results provided partial support for the hypotheses that defendant age,
culpability, and offense severity are positively related to sentence severity, and participants' level of education is negatively related to sentence
severity. Overall, results indicate that participants preferred a blended sentence most, life with parole second, and life without parole least. It appears
that both the general public and the legal community support the use of the juvenile justice system as a first step in punishing a defendant, and neither
group supports the trend toward more punitive treatment of juvenile offenders.
4. Child Maltreatment and Adult Criminal Behavior: Criminal Thinking as a Mediator. Lorraine E Cuadra, University of Nebraska-
Lincoln; Sarah DeGue, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; David DiLillo, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora,
University of Nebraska Lincoln
Experiencing maltreatment during childhood can increase the likelihood of engaging in criminal behavior during adulthood. Research suggests the
possibility that cognitive distortions (i.e., inaccurate attitudes, thoughts, or beliefs) may mediate this relationship. The current study considered this by
examining if criminal thinking styles mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and adult criminal behavior. Data from 338 incarcerated
males supported our hypothesis. Specifically, child maltreatment history was associated with more criminal thinking, which in turn was associated
with higher degrees of criminal behavior during adulthood. Criminal thinking accounted for the child maltreatment-adult criminal behavior
relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.
5. Examining the Effectiveness of Psychological Debriefing Following a Critical Incident: A Meta-Analysis. Alyssa Taylor, Carleton
University; Craig Bennell, Carleton University
Psychological debriefing (PD) is a commonly relied upon crisis intervention technique used to help individuals post-trauma. However, the acceptance
of PD has outpaced scientific research supporting its use. The current meta-analysis examined 24 studies on PD and represents the most
comprehensive empirical summary to date. Results indicate a slight effect supporting the use of PD, especially for reducing anger and improving
general health. Furthermore, PD is most effective when using Mitchell's CISD model, when targeting occupational personnel in group settings who
were exposed to occupationally-related traumas, and when sessions are mandatory. Study limitations and suggestions for future research are
6. Inpatient Aggression at the BC Forensic Psychiatric Hospital: A Profile of Dynamic Risk. Caroline Greaves, Simon Fraser
University; Tonia L. Nicholls, BC Mental Health & Addiction Services and University of British Columbia; Johann Brink, BC Mental
Health and Addiction Services / University of British Columbia; Patrick Lussier, Simon Fraser University; Simon Verdun-Jones, Simon
Inpatient perpetrated aggression at forensic psychiatric institutions detrimentally affects the environment for patient and staff, as well as detracts from
the therapeutic milieu; therefore, knowledge of clinical, psychosocial, behavioural, and situational precursors of such violence is of substantial import.
Clinical and situational information on all 214 aggressive incidents occurring in 2004 at a forensic psychiatric hospital were coded from files using the
Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression: Inpatient Version (DASA:IV) risk assessment instrument, as well as the Aggression and Violent
Incident Coding Protocol. This study informs domains affecting inpatient and staff safety through a dynamic short-term risk-for-violence appraisal
7. Offending Among High-risk Substance-using Veterans: General Patterns and Effectiveness of Standard Treatment. Campbell
Sullivan, PGSP-Stanford PsyD Consortium; Christopher M. Weaver, University of California, San Francisco; Jodie Trafton, Veteran
Affairs Menlo Park
Media anecdotes and public outcry call for a better understanding of violent offending among America's Veterans. We identified violence patterns and
criminal offending in 256 high-risk Veterans assessed with the ASI prior to Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT), and at 6 and 12 months post
baseline. At baseline, participants reported high prevalence of previous criminal (80%) and violent (30%) arrest. Despite a declining trend in non-
violent crime over this very short follow up, self-reported violent behavior remained stable throughout the study. While MMT reduces general
offending it may not adequately target violent behavior among veterans.
8. Psychologists' Practices and Attitudes toward Third Party Presence in Criminal Forensic Evaluations. Clayton Shealy, Taylor
Hardin Secure Medical Facility; Robert Cramer, University of Alabama; Gianni Pirelli, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
This study investigated forensic clinicians' (N=160) perspectives on the third party presence in criminal forensic evaluations. Forensic practitioners
(41% response rate) provided information on their attitudes and practices pertaining to third parties in an evaluation. Most clinicians believed third
party presence can negatively impact an evaluation; however, most have conducted examinations under such conditions. The nature of the relation
between psychologists' attitudes and practices were examined in more detail. We present the potential impact of third party presence in forensic
evaluations, a call for research and professional standards, and specific guidelines for forensic practitioners.
9. Sexual Homicide Offenders Who Penetrate Their Victims: A Comparative Study. J. Leigh Noblin, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Katrina Rufino, Sam Houston State University; Sharyn Salansky, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Latifa
Fletcher, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Louis Schlesinger, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Offenders that commit sexual homicides cannot be considered a homogeneous group and must be distinguished based on their sexual motivations,
personal histories, and their crime scene characteristics. The present study examines sixty of the FBI's sexual homicide case files separating the
offenders into two groups: those that penetrate their victims and those that do not. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between the
penetrating and non-penetrating offenders in order to contribute to the development of an offender profile that would lend useful in the investigation
of these crimes by police agencies worldwide.
10. Predicting Disciplinary Infractions Among Mentally Disordered Offenders. Robert Morgan, Texas Tech University; Rebecca
Bauer; William H Fisher, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Naihua Duan, Columbia University; Jon T Mandracchia, Texas
Tech University; Danielle Murray, Texas Tech University; Gaines V Michelle, Texas Tech University; Femina Varghese, Texas Tech
Institutional misconduct among prisoners is costly and burdensome to the correctional system. Treatment interventions aimed to reduce prison
misconduct, may also lead to reductions in recidivism (Gendreau & French, 2006), as well as provide a safer prison environment (Gendreau & Keyes,
2001). Although researchers have identified variables (i.e., age, antisocial attitudes and behavior, and criminal history) that predict poor institutional
behavior among incarcerated offenders (Gendreau, Goggin, & Law, 1997), institutional behavior of mentally disordered offenders has not been
examined. This study will examine whether criminal thinking and attitudes predict disciplinary infractions among mentally disordered offenders.
11. Predicting Sexual Victimization Among Female Inmates: Relative Contributions of Prior Institutional Victimization and
Emotion Dysregulation. Kate Walsh, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Valerie M Gonsalves, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Michelle
Giresi-Ficarra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Jason A. Cantone, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of
In response to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, research on the identification and prevention of prison sexual assault has burgeoned.
However, little is known about risk for prison sexual victimization among female inmates. As such, the current study examined a predictive model of
risk for prison sexual victimization among women. Approximately 168 female prisoners completed questionnaires assessing prison sexual
victimization, emotion dysregulation, sexual assertiveness, and rape-related cognitive distortions. Results indicated that only sexual victimization
during a prior incarceration and emotion dysregulation significantly predicted current sexual victimization. Implications for prison sexual assault
prevention programs will be discussed.
12. Assessing Cognitive Distortions Associated with Sexual Offending: Reliability of the Adolescent Bumby Scales. Gregory L. Page,
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford; Warren Fass, University of Pittsburgh at Bradford; Stephanie T. Pascarella, University of
Pittsburgh at Bradford
Increased rates in sexual offenses committed by juveniles and concerns in society regarding treatment, punishment, and management of individuals
who commit sexual offenses necessitate improvements in assessing risk and recidivism potential. Historically, research with juvenile sexual offenders
has focused on offense characteristics rather than offender characteristics. Cognitive Distortions have been identified as possible offender
characteristics associated with risk and recidivism. This study examined the test-retest and internal reliabilities of two scales designed to assess
adolescent offender cognitive distortions associated with sexual offending behaviors (rape and molestation). Preliminary analyses indicate that the
scales are reliable through 4-weeks and internally reliable.
13. Development of a Spanish-language Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC-S). Claudia Ornelas, University of Texas at El
Paso; Matthew Scullin, University of Texas at El Paso
The aim of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish-language version of the Video Suggestibility Scale (VSSC-S), which was
developed in an English-speaking culture (USA). A cross-cultural validation with a sample of 120 3- to 5-year old children is being performed to
assess the properties of the VSSC-S with Hispanic populations. The new version has been created using the translation-backtranslation process to
increase the instrument's equivalence. It is expected that the VSSC-S will have similar psychometric properties to the VSSC.
14. Do Juvenile Drug Courts Improve Functioning? Preliminary Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Erin N Haseley,
Central Michigan University; Larissa N Niec, Central Michigan University; Tara Dobbs, Central Michigan University; Lloysa Colon,
Central Michigan University; Melissa Kliemman, Central Michigan University
This study investigated initial outcomes of youth participating in an ongoing, randomized controlled trial of a juvenile drug court. Participants were
randomized into drug court or comprehensive probation. Results will be presented on a range of standardized measures of youth and family
functioning at intake and three months into each program. It is hypothesized that adolescents in drug court will show significantly fewer behavior
problems, psychological symptoms, positive drug screens and parental stress, as well as significantly higher motivation to change substance abuse,
and school involvement, compared to the control group at three months. Trends and implications will be discussed.
15. Judges' Knowledge of Developmental Differences Between Youth and Adults. Sarah Lindsay Mordell, Simon Fraser University;
Jodi Viljoen, Simon Fraser University; Twila Wingrove, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Research suggests that differences in the psychosocial maturity of youth and adults impact legal abilities such as competence. Judges' developmental
knowledge and how this knowledge affects judges' decisions are unknown. One hundred and four judges were surveyed on their perceptions of
developmental differences and whether they supported finding an adolescent incompetent based on developmental immaturity. Judges had
comparable levels of developmental knowledge to prior findings for psychologists. However, judges' knowledge did not predict their support of
finding an adolescent incompetent due to developmental immaturity. More communication of the importance of developmental immaturity in legal
contexts may be necessary.
16. Personality Traits in Juvenile Prostitution: Aren't All Delinquents the Same? Nina Simone Brathwaite, University of Nevada, Las
Vegas; Cortney S Warren, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Prostitution receives clinical and research interest not only because of the inherent risks to the individual, but the effect on society as a whole. Existing
research focuses on demographic variables associated with prostitutes, with personality variables being largely ignored. To differentiate individuals
engaging in prostitution from those with similar demographic features that don't, we postulate that personality traits serve a predictive function. This
study aims to understand the role personality plays on juveniles engaging in prostitution from those who don't. To determine group membership,
juvenile prostitutes and juvenile delinquent non-prostitutes will be compared on personality variables from the Jesness Inventory-Revised.
17. Police Perceptions of Juvenile Offenders: Beliefs about Rights' Comprehension and Decisions. Kaitlyn McLachlan, Simon Fraser
University; Jodi Viljoen, Simon Fraser University; Ronald Roesch, Simon Fraser University; Randall Kropp, Simon Fraser University
Police officers play an essential role in identifying youth who may not adequately understand their arrest rights. Importantly, their perceptions of
suspects who assert their rights, and young offenders generally may impact the way in which they interrogate, charge, and recommend sanctions for
juvenile suspects. Using a vignette design, the present study further investigated police perceptions around these factors. Results indicated that while
police recognized important developmental differences in juvenile suspects' rights comprehension, they recommended different pretrial sanctions for
younger suspects and held somewhat inaccurate beliefs regarding rates of false confessions amongst youth. The implications of these findings are
18. Risk and Resilience Factors for Suicide with Adjudicated Adolescent Substance Users. Elizabeth Ann Tyner, West Virginia
University; William Fremouw, West Virginia University; Edward D Baker, Federal Bureau of Prisons; Neil L. Mogge, West Virginia
University School of Medicine
Suicide is the third leading cause of death of adolescents in the U.S. (CDC, 2004) with one suicide occurring every two hours (AAS, 2006).
Adolescent substance users are at high risk for suicide. This study examined suicide risk and resilience factors in adjudicated adolescent substance
abusers. Attempters (n = 24) had more risk factors and fewer resilience factors compared to nonattempters (n = 48) including family suicide
attempt(s)/completions, depression, fewer reasons for living, and less suicide resilience. Recent losses, number/type of legal charges, sexual
orientation, and child abuse did not differ between groups. Implications for suicide risk assessment are discussed.
19. Risk, Need, and Recidivism in Adolescent Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Intrafamilial and Extrafamilial Offenders. Natasha
Elkovitch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Shannon Bader, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Jodi Viljoen, Simon Fraser University;
Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Daniel Ullman, Lincoln Regional Center
The present study examined risk, treatment needs, and recidivism in two groups of adolescents admitted to a residential sex offender treatment
program: those offending against a family member (n = 118), and those offending against someone outside the family (n = 48). Trained raters
completed the YLS/CMI, and youth were followed an average of 7.16 years after release from the facility. Largely, the two groups of adolescents
presented with similar levels of risk and treatment need. In contrast to the adult literature, there was no relationship between the perpetrator's
relationship to the victim and rates of sexual and nonsexual recidivism.
20. School and Peer Influences on Delinquent Related Behavior among African American, Caucasian, and Latino Adolescents.
Roslyn M. M. Caldwell, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; Brianna Lauren Penna, California Polytechnic State
University: San Luis Obispo; Stacie Ohara, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
This study examined and compared school and peer influences to delinquent related behavior among 626 African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic
adjudicated juvenile offenders. Caucasian and Hispanic exhibited increased problems influenced by the school environment that were related to
delinquent behavior, particularly Hispanic males. Peer influences were not significant across racial and ethnic groups. Implications related to future
research and clinical prevention and intervention are discussed.
21. Specialization and Generality of Criminal Behavior in Juvenile Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders. Therese Skubic Kemper,
Florida State University; Stephanie Dunkel, Florida State University; Megan O'Leary, Florida State University; Janet Kistner, Florida
Two hypotheses, specialization and generality, have been proposed to describe the criminal behavior of adult sex offenders. Research indicates that
rapists exhibit variety and generalization in their offending patterns but child molesters are more specialized in sexual offending. This study examines
the specialization and generality hypotheses in 761 juvenile delinquents and 249 juvenile sex offenders, categorized by victim age. Within and
between group comparisons will be conducted for the frequency and variety of adjudicated sexual, violent, property, and drug crimes. Specialization
(50% or more of crimes committed are in a single category) will also be compared within and between groups.
22. The Derivation of a Set of Risk Factors for a Sample of Juvenile Offenders. Allison Magnotti, Roger Williams University; Frank
DiCataldo, Roger Williams University
The development of risk factors for adult offenders has progressed steadily over the past twenty years. But similar developments for juveniles have
not kept pace. This study examines the development of an eight factor risk scheme from a large sample of juvenile offenders. The inter-rater reliability
and preliminary validity of the factors are examined. Future research with the resulting factors are discussed.
23. The Therapist Training Program for the Juvenile Justice Anger Management Program for Girls. Anna M. Heilbrun, Drexel
University; Amanda D. Zelechoski, Drexel University/Villanova Law School; Jennifer Serico, Drexel University; Christina Riggs
Romaine, Drexel University; Kathleen Kemp, Drexel University; Rachel Freeland, Drexel University; Naomi E. Goldstein, Drexel
This poster will present the components of the therapist training program for the Juvenile Justice Anger Management (JJAM) Program for female
juvenile offenders. Lochman's "Coping Power" program was adapted for use with female juvenile offenders and therapist training procedures were
developed. Therapist training materials address the gender-specific, cultural, developmental, and cognitive needs of the targeted population. The
therapist training program was developed as a systematic procedure for teaching therapists to quickly gain competence in delivering the treatment and
to promote quality and consistency across treatment groups. Adherence and competency ratings of therapists' treatment administration were also
incorporated as fidelity measures.
24. The Validity of the CDISC-IV with Youth Committed to Residential Facilities. Catherine Hardee Drew, Florida State University;
Janet Kistner, Florida State University; Bryan Loney, Florida State University
The validity of the CDISC-IV as a screener for mental health needs of juvenile offenders was assessed by comparison to diagnoses based on
interviews conducted by experienced clinicians. Diagnostic agreement was low for both externalizing and internalizing disorders although rates of
false negatives (i.e., failure of the CDISC to detect diagnoses made by clinicians) for anxiety and mood disorders were acceptably low. Results
suggest the CDISC may be useful for screening for the latter disorders but raise concerns about its use as a screener for the full range of potential
mental health problems of juvenile offenders.
25. The Value of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in Predicting Juvenile Recidivism. Veronica
Chavez, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Douglas Owen Cacialli, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of
Nebraska Lincoln; William Reay, OMNI Behavioral Health
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the CAFAS as a decision-making tool in regard to recidivism posed by juvenile delinquents and
at-risk youth. The study is a secondary analysis of data obtained from a demonstration project, consisting of 347 rural Midwestern youth aged 11-17
receiving services between 2002-2004. Results indicate that while there is a relationship between the CAFAS and criminal activity, overall the
CAFAS is not predictive of future recidivism. Criminal history was shown to be the best predictor of future re-offending. Implications of using the
CAFAS as a risk assessment tool are explored.
26. Does the CTS Really Measure the Worst Conflict? Evidence From College Students Suggests Not. Daphne Ha, John Jay College
of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Jessica Faye Williams, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Chitra Raghavan, John Jay College of
Criminal Justice, CUNY; Abbie Tuller, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Cody Schraft, Roselyn Franklin University
Is the Conflicts Tactics Scale a proper measure of intimate partner conflict? Our research shows that the presence of violence does not always indicate
the worst conflict in a relationship. This study investigated gender differences in emotional consequences after a perceived "worst" conflict among
intimate partners. Most participants' self-identified worst fight did not include violence. Of those who used violence, 54.2% indicated a worst fight
during which they perpetrated violence and 51.5% during which they were victimized. Results also show that following a worst conflict men and
women are experiencing emotional consequences differently depending on whether the conflict involved violence.
27. Effects of Sexual Orientation on Perceptions of Domestic Abuse. Sirena Enright, Chatham College; Sheila M Seelau, Chatham
University; Eric Seelau, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Previous research on domestic abuse perceptions has surveyed only heterosexuals. We compared 30 lesbian/bisexual and 32 heterosexual women's
perceptions of two domestic disputes: Female abusing male, and female abusing female. With a female victim, participants judged the situation more
serious, more violent, and the victim more seriously injured. The lesbian couple's relationship was seen as closer than the heterosexual couple's, and
the lesbians were thought to be more in love. Heterosexual participants were more likely to believe the couple should break up, and to say they would
call the police, press charges, and leave the relationship.
28. Evaluating Claims of Domestic Violence within Gay and Lesbian Relationships. Brett Holfeld, University of North Dakota; Cheryl
Terrance, University of North Dakota
Within the context of either a gay or lesbian relationship, participants (N = 213) read a police interview involving either a male or female victim of
domestic abuse. Within gender conditions, the victim was portrayed as either passive (i.e., never fought back) or active (i.e., fought back). Overall, the
passively responding victim was perceived in a more sympathetic light than the actively responding victim. Interaction effects showed that men, but
not women, perceived the passively responding victim as more trapped within the relationship than the victim who responded actively to the abuse.
Implications within the courtroom are discussed.
29. School-Associated Violent Deaths: A Faceted Model of Homicide in Schools. Tamara Melnyk, Carleton University; Craig Bennell,
Fritzon and Brun (2005) applied the action systems framework (ASF) to school-associated violent deaths (SAVDs) perpetrated by children in
elementary and high-schools to better understand the psychology of SAVD. This study will be a replication and extension of their work examining an
additional eight years of data. Incidents of SAVD will be content analyzed, and the data submitted to multidimensional scaling in order to test the
ASF hypothesis. The results will be compared to those of Fritzon and Brun. This study may have implications for better understanding SAVD, and for
developing strategies to prevent such extreme acts of violence.
30. Serial and Single-Victim Rapists:Differences in Crime-Scene Violence, Interpersonal Involvement, and Criminal Sophistication.
Jisun Park, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Louis Schlesinger, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Anthony
Pinizzotto, FBI BSU; Edward Davis, FBI BSU
The present study aimed to differentiate serial rapists from single-victim rapists by exploring their offending behaviors. Three categories of offending
behaviors, Violence, Interpersonal Involvement, and Criminal Sophistication, were compared among 22 serial and 22 single-victim rapists. Findings
indicate that serial rapists were more likely to display criminally sophisticated behaviors to avoid detection, whereas single-victim rapists were more
likely to behave violently and engage in interpersonal involvement with their victims. The findings suggest that the results obtained in previous
studies using samples consisting of a mixture of single-victim and serial rapists should not be generalized to all types of rapists.
31. Attribution of Blame as a Moderator of Perceptions of Hate Crimes. Joseph F Chandler, University of Alabama; Robert Cramer,
University of Alabama; Emily E. Wakeman, University of Alabama
Blame attribution is a valuable mechanism explaining jury decision making. However, present literature mainly employs blame attribution as a
dependent variable. We designed two studies to investigate blame attribution as a moderator of sentencing decisions. Study one showed that mock
jurors punish perpetrators of hate crimes more severely. Also, degree of victim blame enhanced punitive decision making. In Study two, mock jurors
extended findings that perpetrators of hate crimes are more harshly punished. Victim and perpetrator blame failed to moderate decision making in this
more complex scenario. Results are discussed in relation to hate crimes definitions and factors influencing juries.
32. Attitudes Toward Confessions: Psychometric Properties of New and Existing Measures. John Clark, Troy University; Marcus
Boccaccini, Sam Houston State University; Darrel Turner, Sam Houston State University
We conducted a series of three studies to examine the extent to which jurors vary in their willingness to question the validity of confession evidence
and whether these attitudes are associated with how they view confessions from real cases. In Study 1, we examined the internal consistency and
factor structure of the Confession Attitude Scale (CAS: Wrightsman & Engelbrecht, 2004) in 438 jury pool members. In Studies 2 and 3 we
developed and examined the psychometric properties of a new Attitudes Toward Coerced Confessions scale designed to address shortcomings of the
33. Change in Suspect's Memory as a Result of Deception. Lasha Corbett, Southern Connecticut State University; Elizabeth J. Uerz,
Southern Connecticut State University; Kevin Colwell, Southern Connecticut State University; Cheryl Anisman, Daemen College;
Amina Memon, University of Aberdeen; Joan Miller, Southern Connecticut State University
One hundred and eight participants either stole or replaced a stolen exam, and lied or reported honestly about this. Participants were blind to honesty
of reporting condition at the event. Afterwards, they were instructed to lie or respond honestly, and return for an interview one week later. Upon
return, participants completed a Likert-type questionnaire. Deceivers reported significantly more anxiety during the event. This is significant because
participants did not know they were going to lie when they were in the office. This represents a change in their memory of the event as a result of
34. Effectiveness of Content Analysis in Assessing Suspect Credibility. Grace Chang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora,
University of Nebraska Lincoln; Katherine A Schoeneman-Morris, University of Nebraska - Lincoln; Julia McLawsen, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Charles Darrow, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Larry Barksdale, Lincoln Police Department; Gary Plank,
Nebraska State Patrol
Law enforcement agencies frequently augment their investigative approaches (e.g., credibility assessment) to enhance their operational activity
efforts. Investigators' ability to gather accurate information related to the criminal activities is pertinent to identify the perpetrator. Content analysis, a
credibility assessment method, has been used to determine veracity of written statements. Review on prior research (e.g., Vrij, 2000) reveals lack of
standardization on content analysis approaches. The results of this preliminary study found a significant relationship between selected content criteria
and the type of written statement (truthful vs. deceptive). The details regarding this study are described below.
35. Shhhh! Miranda (Mis)Comprehension in the General Populace. Virginia G. Cooper, South Carolina Department of Mental Health
and University of South Carolina; Patricia Zapf, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
While most research on Miranda waiver has focused on offenders' understanding of these rights, scant attention has been paid to the general
populace's understanding of their Constitutional rights. As part of a statewide omnibus survey, 478 adult residents of Alabama were interviewed by
telephone. General sociodemographic, political, and criminal justice experience data were collected. In addition, participants were asked to imagine
that they had committed a crime, and were queried about their understanding of their Miranda rights. Results revealed that many people do not fully
understand their right to silence. Educational and public policy implications and remediation are discussed.
36. Strategic Use of Evidence: Deception Detection as a Function of Interview Style. Maria Hartwig, John Jay College of Criminal
Justice, CUNY; Pär Anders Granhag, Göteborg University; Leif A. Strömwall, Göteborg University; Aldert Vrij, University of
Portsmouth; Emma Roos af Hjemsäter, Göteborg University
Research on innocent and guilty suspects shows that strategic use of the evidence against suspects in interviews can improve deception detection. This
study examines the two components of the technique as it has been defined in previous research. College students (n = 96) either guilty or innocent of
a mock theft were interviewed, in a 2(Veracity: Liar vs. Truth teller) x 3(Questioning style: Free recall vs. Specific questions vs. Free recall and
Specific questions) between-group design. There was a verbal cue to deception: Liars were more inconsistent with the evidence, particularly when
they were asked specific questions.
37. An Examination of Extra-Legal Factors Involving a Sexual Orientation Motivated Hate Crime. Bridget L Hanson, University of
North Dakota; Karyn Marie Plumm, University of North Dakota; Cheryl Terrance, University of North Dakota
This study investigated extra-legal factors in a case depicting sexual orientation bias-motivated assault. Participants (N =240) read a trial transcript
depicting an assault on a man during a gay pride parade. The victim's sexual orientation was varied (i.e., he either stated he was or was not gay) as
was the victim's involvement in the parade (i.e., he was either a spectator, marching in it quietly, or marching in it and shouting a pro-gay slogan).
Results indicated that beliefs about whether or not the defendant should be convicted, victim blame and perceptions of the victim differed
significantly among all conditions.
38. Award Punitive Damages: Does Knowing Where the Money Will Go Affect Juror Decisions? Sarah Thimsen, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln; Brian H. Bornstein, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Timothy R. Robicheaux, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Edith
Greene, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs; Becky Hergert, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
One common criticism of punitive damage awards is that they provide additional recompense to plaintiffs who have already received compensation
through compensatory damages. In response, some states have enacted split-recovery statutes, which split punitive awards between the plaintiff and
some other source, such as a state treasury. The current study examined the effects of these statutes on mock jurors' damage awards. Contrary to our
hypotheses, we found that learning the punitive damage award would go to either a state fund or a charity did not significantly affect either punitive or
compensatory damage awards.
39. Coercion and Confessions: When do Jurors Believe Potentially Unreliable Confessions? Netta Shaked, Claremont Graduate
This study examined the influence of interrogation techniques (coercive or non-coercive) and certainty of guilt (known or ambiguous) on mock jurors'
verdicts and ratings of the interrogations' coerciveness. Participants read attorney arguments, watched a videotaped interrogation and confession, and
responded to a series of questions regarding the verdict, ratings of the interrogation, and the influence of evidence. Results demonstrated that the
manner in which the interrogation was conducted was rated as more fair when guilt was known than when guilt was ambiguous. Additionally,
participants rendered more not guilty verdicts when the interrogation was coercive than when it was not coercive.
40. Cross Cultural Differences in the Perceptions of Police Testimony in Urban Amarica. Tracy D. Tomlinson, University of
Maryland, College Park; Michael R Dougherty, University of Maryland, College Park
Police officers are often called as witnesses for court cases and in some jurisdictions police are required to take the stand as part of the normal
proceedings. However, despite this prevalence little is known about how jurors perceive the truthfulness of police testimony. We assessed the
relationship between mock juror's race and household income on perceptions of police testimony and subsequent judgments of guilt or innocence.
Relative to Caucasians, African Americans rated police officers to be less honest and were less likely to convict when police officers presented
testimony than when business managers provided testimony.
41. Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Mental Illness and the Insanity Defense. Meredith Peters,
University of North Carolina Wilmington; Len B Lecci, University of North Carolina Wilmington
To assess attitudes toward mental illness, items were drawn from previous scales and were supplemented with newly generated items using an act-
frequency approach. The newly generated items combined with items from the PJAQ, the CAMI, and the IDA-R and grouped using factor analysis.
The emergent factors parallel some previously identified constructs and revealed new constructs relevant to the assessment of mental illness attitudes.
The newly generated scale was then used to make predictions about verdicts in a case involving the insanity defense and its predictive utility was
compared to that of broader measures of bias.
42. Effects of Trial Venue and Juror Bias on the Evaluation of Juvenile Defendants. Connie Tang, Richard Stockton College of New
Jersey; Narina Nunez, University of Wyoming; Martin Bourgeois, Florida Gulf Coast University
The current research examined how potential jurors evaluate juvenile defendants tried in different venues and whether jurors with different pre-trial
dispositions evaluate juvenile defendants differently. In study one, 144 undergraduate mock jurors judged juveniles tried as adults more harshly than
adult defendants or juveniles who were tried in the juvenile court. Prosecution-biased jurors judged all defendants more harshly than defense-biased
jurors. In study two, 123 community residents were recruited. Findings of study one were largely replicated. In addition, defense-biased jurors were
more likely than prosecution-biased jurors to endorse the "wayward youth" stereotype instead of the "superpredator" stereotype of juvenile
43. Generalization of Helping the Underdog: Effects of Prior Pro-social Advocacy on Trial Judgments. Michael R. Leippe, John Jay
College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Donna Eisenstadt, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Before reading a criminal trial transcript, participants engaged or did not engage in a counterattitudinal advocacy in which they were induced to
endorse a costly policy that benefited Black students. Advocates (vs. non-advocates) judged the evidence against the defendant (whether Black or
White) weaker and viewed him as more believable and less culpable. This concurs with findings that advocacy for a disadvantaged group activates
humanitarian values and the motive to behave in accord with them. Because the defendant could be viewed as disadvantaged, the activated values
biased evaluation of the defendant and evidence in a positive - helpful -- direction.
44. How Do Jurors Reason About Science? Jessica Salerno, University of Illinois at Chicago; Jennifer C. Veilleux, University of Illinois
at Chicago; Bette L. Bottoms, University of Illinois at Chicago
Prior research has demonstrated that jurors are insensitive to flaws in scientific testimony that should discredit an expert witness. Undergraduates were
surveyed with questions testing their understanding of scientific concepts encountered during a scientific expert's testimony (e.g., importance of
control groups) and their attitudes toward science. College students performed better than did community members surveyed regularly by NSF,
suggesting studies using students may overestimate actual jurors' understanding of scientific testimony. The higher students' ACT scores, the better
they performed; science education did not predict performance. The more skeptical students' attitudes were about science, the better their
45. Lost in Translation, or Simply Mistranslated? The Influence of Mistranslations on Bilingual and Monolingual Jurors. Stephen
W. Joy, Florida International University; Ryan Winter, Florida International University
As the number of immigrants grows in the United States, the courts have been forced to adapt to the increasing prevalence of Spanish speaking
witnesses, trial parties, and even jurors. One response to the increasing rise of foreign languages in the courtroom involves reliance on court
translators to help communicate testimony. Unfortunately, testimony is not always translated correctly. The purpose of the present study is to
determine whether monolingual jurors (who speak only English) differ from bilingual jurors (who speak both English and Spanish) in picking up
mistranslations in trial testimony to determine what effect mistranslations have on jury decisions.
46. Media Portrayals of the CSI Effect: Does Media Reflect Reality? Steven M Smith, Saint Mary's University; Veronica Stinson, Saint
Mary's University; Marc Patry, Saint Mary's University
CSI and its spin-offs are among the most popular shows today. Because research has shown that our social environment provides a powerful source of
information it is possible that news reports may be shaping how people perceive the CSI effect. Thus we conducted a study to assess how the news
media describes the CSI effect. In 250 articles coded, the CSI effect tended to be described as having one of four impacts: 1) peaking student interest
in forensically relevant courses; 2) educating criminals how avoid capture; 3) its impact on jurors; and 4) influencing how legal professionals behave.
47. Mock Jurors' Evaluations of Victim Fault across Different Crimes and Intoxication Levels. Jacqueline Evans, Florida
International University; Nadja Schreiber Compo, Florida International University; Kevin O'Neil, Florida International University
There is evidence that victims and witnesses of crime are often intoxicated. Thus, it is important to know how such victims are evaluated, as there is
evidence that intoxicated victims are attributed negative characteristics and blamed for their victimization. We examined mock jurors' evaluations of
either rape or assault victims when sober, moderately intoxicated, or extremely intoxicated. Mock jurors were sensitive to the level of intoxication of a
victim and the type of crime committed when determining the victim's level of blame, but did not use these perceptions of blame in their verdict
48. Motivating Instruction's Effect on Coerced and Voluntary Confessions in Judicial Decision-Making. Jessica Swanner, University
of Arkansas; Deah Lawson, Iowa State University; Denise Beike, University of Arkansas; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz, University of Alabama
The present research investigates the use of motivating instructions to mitigate the biasing effects of coerced confessions. Participants read one of
seven different versions of trial. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire, which contained verdict decisions and confidence and voluntariness
scores. The introduction of a coerced confession yielded more guilty verdicts than the control condition. Motivating instructions reduced the number
of guilty verdicts relative to the no instructions conditions.
49. Perceptions of Self-Defense as a Function of Expert Testimony, Sexual Orientation, and Gender. Brenda L Russell, Penn State
Berks; Laurie Lynn Ragatz, West Virginia University; Shane Kraus, Castleton State College
This study examined whether defendant guilt varied as a function of gender, sexual orientation, and presence of expert testimony regarding the
"battered partner syndrome". Participants read a homicide case where self-defense was alleged. Participant gender was also examined. Results found a
significant four-way interaction revealing female participants found heterosexual female defendants significantly less guilty than homosexual female
defendants but only when provided with expert testimony on the battered person's syndrome. Study findings have implications for legal defenses
where homosexual women use the battered partner syndrome.
50. Predictors of Verdict Change: The Role of Need for Cognition and Authoritarianism in Jury Deliberations. Molly S Jacobs, John
Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Amanda J. Monier, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Michael J Brown, Brooklyn
College; Jennifer Groscup, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
Previous studies have examined how characteristics of individual jurors affect jury deliberations and jury verdicts. The role of Need for Cognition
(NC) and scores on the Revised Legal Attitude Questionnaire (RLAQ) will be examined in the context of mock jury deliberations. Using path
analysis, a model of the process by which NC and RLAQ scores affect mock jurors' perceptions of group dynamics, the deliberation process, and the
magnitude of change in jurors' individual verdicts before and after deliberations will be tested. Preliminary analyses indicate that NC indirectly affects
the verdict change score, though the RLAQ does not.
51. The CSI Effect: Mock Jurors' Sensitivity to the Reliability of Forensic Evidence. Gwen Jenkins, York University; Cindy Do, York
University; Karin Movshovich, York University; Regina Schuller, York University
Anecdotal evidence suggests that crime dramas influence people's expectations of forensic evidence. It is unknown, however, whether the expectation
of forensic evidence supercedes jurors' sensitivity to its reliability. The present study examined the relationship between viewing habits and people's
sensitivity to the reliability of a drug test by varying the timing and outcome of the test. The results of a moderated regression suggest that, when the
outcome of the forensic test was negative, those who reported higher viewing frequencies rated a complainant's claim to be more credible and were
therefore more sensitive to the reliability of the evidence.
52. The Effect of Modified Judicial Instructions and Expert Testimony on Jury Perception of Secondary Confessions. Miranda
Wilkinson, University of Alabama in Huntsville; Deah Lawson, Iowa State University; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz, University of Alabama in
Huntsville; Jennifer Howard, University of Alabama in Huntsville; Jessica Swanner, University of Arkansas; Andy Cling, University of
Alabama in Huntsville
The present study investigated the effects of incentivised second hand confessions on mock jurors and examined whether these effects could be
mitigated using expert witness testimony and modified judicial instructions. To this end, we devised a two experiment study in which participants
rendered verdicts after reading a trial transcript that either contained a second hand confession from an accomplice witness or a jailhouse informant. In
Experiment 1, some participants also read testimony from an expert witness and in Experiment 2 some participants read modified judicial instructions.
The results and implications are discussed.
53. The Mediating Effect of Mate Status on the Attractiveness Bias in Jury Verdicts. Ian Tingen, Arizona State University; N. J.
Schweitzer, Arizona State University; Brittany Cole, Arizona State University
The defendant attractiveness bias—the notion that attractive defendants are treated with more leniency than are unattractive defendants—has been
widely established. However, several exceptions to this bias exist, particularly when the defendant used his/her attractiveness to perpetrate the crime,
or when the criminal case is very strong. This study takes an evolutionary perspective and explores whether, under certain conditions, attractive
defendants will be seen as potential competitors for mates or resources, and thus will be treated more harshly than non-attractive defendants.
54. The Role of Race and Crime on Implicit Biases in the Courtroom. Jonathan Matthew Lytle, Temple University
Defendant race and the stereotypic nature of the crime committed are potential variables influencing courtroom verdicts. The current study
investigated the role of these variables on implicit juror biases using a Single Category IAT (SC-IAT). Participants showed significant implicit guilt
associations with Black defendants whether the crime was stereotypical or not. For White defendants, participants showed significant implicit guilt
associations when the crime was stereotypical, but neutral associations when the crime was counter-stereotypical. Participants explicitly reported no
bias against Black defendants, but significant bias against White defendants for stereotypical crimes only.
55. The Role of Race in Perceptions of Child Credibility. Jesse Elterman, Simon Fraser University; Deborah A. Connolly, Simon Fraser
With the increased number of children providing testimony in Court and the growth of visible minorities in North America, it is important to
understand the role of race in perceptions of child credibility. Children from three racial backgrounds participated in a play session and were
interviewed about their experience on videotape. Adults watched the videotaped interview and rated children's credibility along a number of
dimensions. Results show that Caucasian adults judged Caucasian children to be more honest than Asian children, and more cognitively competent
than both Asian and First Nations children, whereas Asian adults rated all children as equally credible.
56. Victim Impact Statements in Capital Trials: Examining the Influence of Negative Emotions on Jury Sentencing Decisions.
Andre Kehn, University of Wyoming; Michael Johns, University of Wyoming; Lisa Wempen, University of Wyoming; Narina Nunez,
University of Wyoming; Bryan Myers, University of North Carolina Wilmington
We will examine the influence of negative emotions conveyed through victim impact statements (VIS) on jurors' sentencing decisions in actual capital
cases. We will collect and content analyze a random sample of 100 trial transcripts from the penalty phase of capital cases containing VIS. Analyses
will test several hypotheses about the influence of negative emotions expressed in VIS on jury sentencing decisions. The primary focus is whether or
not specific negative emotions conveyed through VIS systematically increase of decrease the number of death sentences.
57. Victim Impact Statements: The Role of Expectations in Juror Judgments. Emalee Weidemann, University of North Carolina
Wilmington; Heather Hart, University of North Carolina Wilmington; Maria Tar, University of North Carolina Wilmington; David
Zimmerman, University of North Carolina Wilmington; Bryan Myers, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Researchers investigating the effects of Victim Impact Statements (VIS) have found inconsistent effects on mock juror sentencing judgments. Jurors
may be less impacted by VIS where suffering of relatives is expected. Participants read a summary of a capital trial. Family characteristics were
varied in the guilt phase so they appeared either likely to suffer greatly (i.e., vulnerable) or well-equipped to cope with the death of the father (i.e.,
resilient). We crossed these expectations with three levels of VIS (mild harm, severe harm, no VIS control) in the penalty phase. Sentencing
judgments and ratings of family suffering were assessed.
58. Content Analysis of Adaptive Functioning Testimony in Texas Death Penalty Trials. Lisa Kan, Sam Houston State University;
Marcus Boccaccini, Sam Houston State University; Kristy Lawson, Sam Houston State University; Amanda McGorty, Sam Houston
Since Atkins v. Virginia (2002), states and lower courts have struggled to formulate legal definitions of mental retardation (MR), particularly for the
criterion of impaired adaptive functioning (AF). We examined 19 transcripts of Texas capital cases in which the defendant's MR was raised as a
mitigator to examine how such evidence was being presented to jurors. Findings suggested that testimony about the defendants' AF was a central
focus of testimony regarding MR and that such testimony was mostly provided by lay witnesses. AF was rarely assessed with standardized measures
and criminal behaviors were often offered as evidence of AF.
59. Supreme Court Justices' Ideology and Decision Making in Mental Health Law Cases. Evan Harrington, Chicago School of
Professional Psychology; Kristine Kozlowski, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Supreme Court decisions were analyzed using justices' ideology scores and whether or not each justice voted in a manner consistent with APA amicus
briefs. Results indicated that overall, liberal justices were more likely to vote in accord with the APA's position. However, in some areas of mental
health law, conservatives were more likely to be consistent with the position advocated by the APA. Results are discussed as they relate to mental
60. The Effects of Mental Health Mitigation in Capital Trials. David Lewis Shapiro, Nova Southeastern University; Ronald Dahl, Nova
This paper will explore a number of reasons that jurors may react negatively to mental health testimony in capital cases. Jurors may misunderstand
important psychological issues, the testimony may be presented in an inadequate and inappropriate manner, lawyers may not be fully versed in mental
health issues, or the defendant himself or herself may resist such testimony. Input regarding these areas will be based on an ongoing research project
that is examining the role of mental health testimony in capital trials. Transcripts of expert testimony as well as the outcome of the trials will be
61. Forensic Psychology Program Rankings. Jeffrey L. Helms, Kennesaw State University
Other than anecdotal information, little research exists on available training programs in forensic psychology. Given this limited information, people
actively involved in the field of forensic psychology were surveyed about available training opportunities at the graduate school, internship, and
postdoctoral levels. Participants were asked to list the top three programs in each of these categories: clinically-oriented graduate programs, research-
oriented graduate programs, predoctoral internship programs, clinically-oriented postdoctoral programs, and research-oriented postdoctoral programs.
With the exception of research-oriented postdoctoral programs, results revealed consistency in programs ranked at or near the top.
62. Public Awareness and Prior Beliefs Regarding Child Maltreatment. Jennifer Maria Gray, University of Wyoming; Narina Nunez,
University of Wyoming; Monica L. McCoy, Converse College; Andre Kehn, University of Wyoming
While researchers have studied public perceptions of child maltreatment, they have not examined what may be influencing these perceptions. This
study examined the influence of the availability heuristic on participants' estimates of base rates of child maltreatment. It also examined how the
participant's prior beliefs about child maltreatment influenced their judgments of expert statements that were discordant with their prior beliefs.
63. The Human Concept of Evil. Auburn Parkinson, Utah Valley State College; Anton Tolman, Utah Valley State College
Although the literature is replete with religious references and discussions of how human beings engage in "evil" acts, there is relatively little
empirical study of the nature of evil. Yet, it is not unusual to hear professionals and jurors refer to a criminal defendant, or a particular crime, as "evil"
or to use phrases such as "vile", suggesting that the concept of evil might significantly influence legal decision-making. This preliminary study
evaluated the dimensionality of the concept of evil using a college sample. Implications for research, forensic practice, and legal decision making will
64. Do Psychopathic Individuals Really Have Empathy Deficits?: Preliminary Results From an Objective Measure of Empathy.
Laura Kirsch, University of Arizona; Judith V. Becker, University of Arizona; John J.B. Allen, University of Arizona
Current measures of empathy are exclusively self-report in nature, which is problematic for use with psychopaths, given their propensity towards
dishonesty and socially desirable responding. This study sought to develop an objective measure of empathic responding to better assess the construct
of empathy in psychopathic individuals. Undergraduate males who scored above the 90th percentile on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-
Revised were compared to undergraduate males who scored in the bottom 50 percent on the measure. Preliminary results suggest differences in self-
report and psychophysiologic empathic responses for individuals with psychopathic traits compared to individuals without such traits.
65. Juvenile Psychopathy and Mock Juror Sentencing: Do Diagnostic Labels Impact Juvenile Offenders Transferred to Adult
Court? Casey Lynn Williams, University of South Florida; Shayne Jones, University of South Florida
Controversy surrounds the notion of applying the label of psychopathy to juvenile offenders. A concern is that juveniles labeled as psychopathic will
be subjected to more severe sanction in the justice system, yet few empirical assessments have been conducted to examine it. No research to date has
examined the influence of psychopathic labels on juror decision making outside of the context of capital crimes. While juveniles can no longer recieve
capital punishment, juveniles continue to be transferred to adult court. To the extent psychopathic juveniles have delinquent history, the influence of
diagnostic label and/or traits might have a negative impact.
66. Psychopathy and Stalking: What's Love Got To Do With It? Jennifer Elizabeth Storey, Simon Fraser University; Stephen D Hart,
Simon Fraser University; Reid Meloy, University of California, San Diego; James A Reavis, Relationship Training Institute
The association between psychopathy and stalking was analyzed in 61 males convicted of criminal harassment. The presence of psychopathy was low.
A number of risk factors for stalking, like persistence of stalking behaviour had significant bivariate correlations with psychopathy. Multivariate
analyses indicated that affective symptoms of psychopathy were most strongly correlated with risk factors for stalking. The data suggest that, while
uncommon in stalkers, psychopathy is an important variable in the management of risk in stalking cases.
67. Taxometric Analysis of Psychopathy in a Female Incarcerated Population. Siji Lizza John, Sam Houston State University; Craig
Henderson, Sam Houston State University; Holly A. Miller, Sam Houston State University; David Marcus, University of Southern
Psychopathy is one of the most controversial constructs in the field of psychology today. One such controversy examines whether individuals high in
psychopathy form a separate class of people, or whether they are extremes on the same underlying personality spectrum. Additionally, although the
construct of psychopathy has been widely investigated, few studies have utilized female populations in their research. Taxometrics will be used to
determine if women high in psychopathy form a taxon. The current study will use the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R).
68. Violence and Psychopathy: Examination of the PPI and Past Violence in a Female Correctional Sample. Valerie M Gonsalves,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kate Walsh, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Mario J. Scalora, University of Nebraska Lincoln; Jason
A. Cantone, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Michelle Giresi-Ficarra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The present study examined the relationship between the Psychopathy Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilenfeld and Andrews, 1996) and a history of
violence in a sample of female inmates incarcerated in two Midwestern prisons. Results of logistic regressions indicate that the PPI total score did not
significantly predict violence at a rate better than chance, but several of the subscales, Impulsive Nonconformity, Carefree Nonplanfulness, and Stress
Immunity, were negatively related to the criterion variable. Results suggest that there may be factors other than psychopathic traits contributing to
violence in women.
69. An Exploratory Investigation into Community Standards of Obscenity. Alicia Summers, University of Nevada, Reno; Monica K.
Miller, University of Nevada, Reno
The current study is an exploratory study of community standards of obscenity. The variability surrounding obscenity definitions and examples
indicates a clear lack of consensus. Significant demographic differences support the notion that a community standard may not exist. Further, results
indicate that individuals demonstrate the cognitive bias pluralistic ignorance, as individual ratings of obscenity are significantly different than their
perceptions of community standards, which may mean jurors are incapable of accurately determining community standards. Legal actors can utilize
this information in terms of jury selection and framing of issues to the jury.
70. Assuming Elder Care Responsibility: Am I a Caregiver? Lindsey E. Wylie, University of Florida; Orli Zaprir, University of
Florida; Eve M. Brank, University of Florida
An aging population has made elder care giving a public policy concern. Although previous literature has focused on caregiver burdens, motivation
for care giving, and elder abuse by caregivers, the legal definition of caregiver may be unclear to potential caregivers. Based on a recent case and
related state statute that defines a caregiver as anyone who "assumes responsibility" for an elder adult, the current study explores the common
understanding of care giving for adults. Employing self-referencing vignettes and controlling for participant's filial responsibility attitudes, the current
study explores potential caregiver's knowledge and definitions of care giving relationships
71. Ironic Effects of Racial Profiling: Increased Transgressions by the Non-Profiled Group. Amy Hackney-Hansen, Georgia Southern
University; Jack Glaser, University of California, Berkeley
Racial profiling is the use of race, ethnicity, or national origin by police to make judgments of criminal suspicion. The fairness and efficacy of this
practice has been questioned by many (e.g., Glaser, 2006). This study is the first to experimentally investigate the effects of racial profiling on the
behavior of others. Sixty-two white participants were randomly assigned to witness either black or white confederates being profiled for cheating
during a complex cognitive task, or witnessed no profiling. Results showed that participants cheated significantly more under the black profiling
condition than in either the white profiling or no-profiling control group.
72. Reactions to Perceived Bias in Restorative Justice Conferencing. Stephanie Clark, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY;
Diane Sivasubramaniam, Barnard College, Columbia University; Mark Fondacaro, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
The present study focused on procedural justice in the context of restorative justice conferencing, where disputants themselves, rather than judges or
juries, make outcome decisions. In a laboratory study, participants (n=131) allocated a resource and judged procedural fairness, following an
encounter with either a biased or neutral experimenter. Results indicated that participants judged a procedure to be unfair when the participant had not
corrected for perceived bias through their outcome choices. These findings suggest that, in procedural contexts where disputants decide outcomes,
procedural justice judgments function differently from those decision making contexts in which third parties (judges/juries) decide outcomes.
73. Sex Offender Perceptions of Community Notification and Residency Restrictions: An Analysis of Narrative Responses. Shea
Laina Alvarez, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Cynthia Calkins Mercado, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY
While community notification and residency restriction policies may appear to be reasonable mechanisms to protect children and deter sex crimes, it
is important to evaluate the utility and functioning of such legislation. The current study aims to further explore unintended consequences of sex
offender legislation and implications for offender reintegration. Utilizing narrative responses from surveys distributed to registered sex offenders
(N=137), preliminary analyses have identified significant themes such as employment difficulties, stigmatization, and negative effects on family.
Further analyses will classify themes into categories including risk management and community reintegration, and will examine characteristics of
participants coinciding with particular themes.
74. Accuracy of and Confidence in Earwitness Memory for a Perpetrator's Account of a Crime. Carroll Anne Boydell, Simon Fraser
University; J. Don Read, Simon Fraser University
While most earwitness research has focused on speaker identification, little has explored earwitness memory for other legally-relevant information.
Participants watched a video of a perpetrator describing and admitting to a crime. One half of participants were interviewed immediately about the
video, and all were tested for accuracy of and confidence in their recall via interview after one day or one week. Results indicated significant effects
of repeated interviewing and delay on overall recall accuracy and accuracy-confidence correlations for individual key details, despite nonsignificant
effects on the AC correlation for overall recall. Implications and future research directions will be discussed.
75. Adaptation to Other-race Faces: Implications for Examining the Contact Hypothesis of Cross Racial Identifications. Ben Stone,
University of Northern Iowa; Dwight Peterson, University of Northern Iowa; Osman Chowdhry, University of Northern Iowa; Landon
Small, University of Northern Iowa; M. Kimberly MacLin, University of Northern Iowa; Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa
MacLin and Webster (1998) demonstrated that higher-order cognitive processing such as the perception of faces could be examined using
psychophysical methods. They demonstrated that simply looking at a face for up to 3 minutes, literally changed the perception of subsequently viewed
faces. MacLin and MacLin recently proposed the existence of a cognitive gating mechanism (CGM) that regulates the processing of same- and other-
race faces. We examined how adaptation affects the CGM and found that the process of adaptation reliably shifts the face space away from the
adapting stimulus and heightens the delineation of racial thresholds.
76. Children's Eyewitness Descriptions and Identification Accuracy For Two Culprit Crimes. Julie Dempsey, Carleton University;
Joanna Pozzulo, Carleton University
Children's eyewitness identification accuracy in a two-culprit crime was examined using a simultaneous and elimination lineup procedure where the
target (thief vs. accomplice) was present or absent. When the thief was present there was no difference in accuracy rates as a function of lineup
procedure. When the thief was absent there was a trend for higher correct rejections with the elimination lineup. Conversely, when the accomplice
was present, children were less likely to correctly identify the target using the elimination procedure. Accuracy rates did not differ when the
accomplice was absent. Descriptions were analyzed for nature and accuracy of descriptors.
77. Do Interviewers "Know What Isn't So" about Appropriate Child Sexual Abuse Interview Techniques? Anna Henley, University
of Tennessee at Chattanooga; Amye R. Warren, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga; Julie A Buck, Weber State University; Patricia
D Hartman, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
We investigated whether 42 family court psychologists, 31 forensic child sexual abuse interviewers and 25 college students possessed research-based
knowledge about proper child sexual abuse interviewing techniques. Psychologists were more knowledgeable than interviewers and students, who
were equally knowledgeable. Neither interviewers nor students knew about the potential problems with selectively reinforcing abuse details, using
anatomical dolls, or relying on interviewers' notes to accurately record interview questions. Interviewers with more training, but not more experience,
had more accurate knowledge.
78. Effects of Distinctiveness on Simultaneous and Sequential Lineup Performance. Curt A. Carlson, University of Oklahoma; Scott
Gronlund, University of Oklahoma
There are several factors involved in simultaneous versus sequential lineup decision-making. Two potentially important factors are the distinctiveness
of the target and the extent to which the target (or replacement) stands out from the foils. Three experiments manipulated these two factors using
highly-controllable computer-generated faces. Results indicate that when the target replacement stands out from the foils in a simultaneous lineup,
false alarm rate increases relative to sequential presentation. However, if the target face contained a distinctive feature that is then removed for the
replacement, this sequential lineup advantage is eliminated.
79. Effects of Human Figure Drawings on the Clarity of Alleged Victims' Descriptive Accounts of Touches. Pei-Jung Yang,
University of Cambridge; Yee-San Teoh, University of Cambridge; Michael E. Lamb, University of Cambridge
We examined the effects of age and human figure drawings (HFDs) on the clarity or ambiguity of the touches reported by alleged victims of sexual
abuse. Eighty-eight 4- to 13-year-old alleged victims were interviewed using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
(NICHD) Investigative Interview Protocol, following which HFDs were introduced alongside a series of carefully formulated questions. Details about
the victims' body parts reported after introduction of the HFDs were clearer than before, regardless of age, suggesting that HFDs might be useful
because they help child victims provide clearer reports about touches they have experienced.
80. Optimizing Children's Memory for an Event: Does Metacognitive Ability Matter? Kristina Fritz, University of Sydney; Pauline
Howie, University of Sydney
Research suggests that children's level of suggestibility may be associated with metacognitive ability. Specifically, children with greater awareness of
task demands may be less susceptible to incorrectly respond to misleading questions. Additionally, children who are better able to monitor their
cognitions may be less prone to shift to repeated questions. The present study examines the relationship between suggestibility and both declarative
and procedural metacognitive knowledge. Children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children, 10
metacognitive tasks, and the PPVT-4. Preliminary results will be presented.
81. Police Comments and Identification Decisions. Rod C. L. Lindsay, Queen's University; Neil Brewer, Flinders University; Marilyn R.
Lindsay, Queen's University; Jamal K. Mansour, Queen's University; Nathan Weber, Flinders University; Caroline Semmler, Flinders
University; Jennifer Beaudry, Queen's University
As researchers establish the importance of factors indicative of identification accuracy and credibility, judges and expert witnesses are likely to
comment of such factors in jury instructions and testimony. Police officers conducting lineups will always be in a position to influence witness
responses either intentionally or inadvertently. What would happen if a police officer, concerned that the identification in a case be credible in court,
commented to a witness that identifications made with a low level of confidence will not be useful as evidence? We are testing the impact of such a
statement on both identification decisions and post-decision confidence.
82. Social Understanding and Children's Recall for a Witnessed Event During a Suggestive Interview. Catherine Rieman Camilletti,
University of Texas at El Paso; Elizabeth R. Uhl, University of Texas at El Paso; Matthew Scullin, University of Texas at El Paso;
James M. Wood, University of Texas at El Paso
Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between kindergarten and first grade students' Shift suggestibility (suggestibility under social
pressure) and social understanding. Children's classrooms were visited by "Paco Perez," who read them a story and passed out stickers. Later, children
were suggestively interviewed about "Paco's" visit. Children also completed two interviews designed to asses their level of social understanding. It
was hypothesized that children with high social understanding scores will be more suggestible than children with low social understanding.
Knowledge about the development of social influences on children's suggestibility is beneficial for the legal system and Children and Family
83. The Impact of Interpreters on the Forensic Interview. Nicole Pruss, University of Texas at El Paso; James M. Wood, University of
Texas at El Paso
In a growing multicultural society, it will be difficult to conduct sound interviews when the investigator does not speak the same language as the
community members. Interpreters must be used as mediators. Most research on interpreters has been qualitative. In contrast, this study used a
quantitative approach to look at the amount of information exchanged among interviewers, interpreters and witnesses. There were no differences
between groups on the quantitative measure, but differences emerged between groups with a qualitative analysis. It is hoped that results of this study
can be used to inform training for interviewers and interpreters in forensic settings.
84. The Impact of Tattoo Treatment on Identification Decisions. Natalie Kalmet, Queen's University; Jennifer Beaudry, Queen's
University; Jamal K. Mansour, Queen's University; Rod C. L. Lindsay, Queen's University; Michelle Bertrand, Queen's University
This study examined whether different methods of dealing with tattoos in photo lineups would increase identifications of innocent suspects. One
hundred participants viewed eight videos, which featured a tattooed target, and attempted identifications from photo arrays. Of the five different
manipulations of tattoos, the two biased manipulations (leave target tattoo as-is, cover the suspect tattoo only) resulted in a greater number of falsely-
identified innocent suspects than two of the unbiased manipulations (edit tattoo onto all lineup members and edit tattoo off of suspect). No significant
differences were found with the third unbiased manipulation (cover tattoo area on all lineup members).
85. The Use of Paraphrasing in Investigative Interviews. Angela Dawn Evans, University of Toronto; Kim P. Roberts, Wilfrid Laurier
University; Heather L. Price, University of Regina; Candyce Stefek, Wilfrid Laurier University
'Paraphrasing', or repeating information children disclose, is one technique sometimes recommended to improve children's reports in forensic
interviews. Although, previous studies have found systematic effects of paraphrasing on the length and quality of children's reports (Evans, Roberts,
& Beaupre, 2007) we currently do not know how paraphrasing is used in the field. Thus, the use of paraphrasing in 131 investigative interviews of
children was assessed. Results indicated that paraphrasing paired with an open-ended prompt was used significantly more often and elicited
significantly more details compared to other paraphrasing styles.
86. Use of Morphed Faces in Criminal Investigations. Dannette De Leon, University of Texas at El Paso; Anna Munoz, University of
Texas at El Paso; Roy S. Malpass, University of Texas at El Paso; Lisa D. Topp, University of Texas at El Paso; Stephen James Ross,
University of Texas at El Paso
We tested a procedure that may assist police investigators with selecting high quality fillers for eyewitness lineups, using a morphing procedure.
Morphing two faces together at various levels created new faces containing differing amounts of characteristics from a target face and highly
dissimilar proto-fillers. Participants were given 1 of 14 lineups containing morphed faces with either a description or no description of the target and
were asked to select a target in a mockwitness evaluation. An eyewitness identification task was also performed using target present (TP) and target
absent (TA) lineups
108. John Jay College of Criminal Justice Reception hosted by President Jeremy Travis
8:00 to 11:00 pm
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