2008 EFT Packet 8 by x8M625X


									2008 EFT: Trapping Bees in a Dyson Sphere
Packet by Jerry Vinokurov


1. In 1701, John Lawson visited the Catawba people while exploring the area that is now this state. Its colonial
delegates were the first to officially call for independence in a document called the Halifax Resolve, and battles on
the territory of this state include a clash between Nathaniel Green and Cornwallis at Guilford Courthouse. From
1711 to 1715, while it was still a colony, this state was racked by a war against the Tuscarora Indians, and the
excesses of its governor William Tryon led to an uprising led by Herman Husband known as the Regulator
Movement. For ten points, identify this state which has recently been represented by such senators as Jesse Helms
and Elizabeth Dole, and has its capital at Raleigh.
Answer: North Carolina

2. One method of doing this relies on coated aqueous beads suspended in oil and is known as the polony method.
One method of doing this uses dimethyl sulfate, hydrazine, and a series of other chemical additions and is named for
Maxim and Gilbert, while Fologea developed a method of doing this via a nanopore. Another method that relies on
ligation is called SOLiD, while Leroy Hood automated one method of doing this originally developed by Sanger, the
dye termination method. Another approach uses a combination of primer walking and alignment, the Shotgun
method. FTP, name this action done on a large scale by the Human Genome project, the elucidation of the order of
bases in DNA.
Answer: DNA sequencing (accept “Genome sequencing” or “gene sequencing”, but not “protein sequencing” or
“peptide sequencing”)

3. One author from this country wrote of a man who kills himself and his mistress in The Triumph of Death. This
nation was home to both the Hermeticist movement and “the twilight poets”. One author who lived in this country
wrote a novel about the Salina family, while A Cuban-born author who lived mostly in this country wrote a novella
about a nobleman who is cut in two, "The Cloven Viscount", as well as a novel about “the Reader” and “the Other
Reader”. Other notable authors from this nation include the authors of The Leopard, If On a Winter's Night a
Traveler, and Six Characters in Search of an Author. For ten points, identify this nation, home of such writers as
Giuseppe Lampedusa, Italo Calvino, and Luigi Pirandello.
Answer: Italy

4. This character's distinctive suit is the product of a design by Doctor Gina Cross, and he later obtains a Mark V
version of it from Isaac Kleiner. This character's body is an Easter egg in STALKER: Shadows of Chernobyl, and
his friends include Barney Calhoun, the protagonist of a spinoff of the first game in which this character appears. In
his second appearance, this character is sometimes assisted by the Vortigaunts, as well as by Alyx Vance and a
robotic dog, and he is frequently followed by the G-man, who plucks him from an exploding reactor in Episode One
of the second game in which he appears. A never-speaking fighter against the Xen aliens and the Combine, for ten
points, identify this crowbar-wielding scientist from the Black Mesa Research Facility, the protagonist of Valve's
Half Life games.
Answer: Gordon Freeman (accept either)

5. Along with Wicksell, the name of this economist is linked with a model which arose in response to the instable
Solow-Tobin models. The intersection of the aggregate demand curve and national income is known as the
namesake cross of this economist, who, along with “the Classics,” was the subject of a work by Hicks. He argued
against deflationist policies in his A Tract on Monetary Reform, while this author of The Economic Consequences of
the Peace also wrote about the multiplier and a consumption function in a work about macroeconomics. FTP, name
this British economist and author of The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.
ANSWER: John Maynard Keynes

6. The “repercussions” of this legislation are the subject of a 1934 book by Joseph Jones. The reaction to this
legislation directly contributed to the electoral victory of Robert Bennett over William Lyon MacKenzie King, and it
prompted Spain’s passage of the Wais Bill. The aim of this legislation was to increase the rates set by the Fordney-
McCumber act, and the policies it enacted were partially reversed by the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act. Signed
into law despite a petition signed by over 1,000 economists, FTP, identify this legislation passed in 1930 which
raised import taxes and exacerbated the Great Depression.
Answer: Smoot-Hawley tariff

7. A work which ushered in a certain type of positivism was written by H.L.A. Hart and was titled after the “concept
of” this idea. A collection of essays that advocates an empirical approach to a certain sphere of human activity is
titled Overcoming this concept, and was written by Richard Posner. A book in which Hercules is imagined in the
role of an arbiter was written by Ronald Dworkin about this concept's “empire.” The best known work by Hugo
Grotius is titled after the application of this titular concept to war and peace, and William Blackstone wrote
commentaries on the ones of England. FTP, identify this sphere of human activity which is personified by a
blindfolded female holding a sword and scales.
Answer: laws

8. This man wrote of a “heathen Chinee” named Ah Sin who cheats the narrator at euchre in a poem entitled “Plain
Language from Truthful James.” He related the conversation between two locomotives in a poem dedicated to the
opening of the Pacific Railroad, “What the Engines Said,” while the title character rants while dying about putting
Jinny in the cart in his short story, “Tennessee's Partner.” More famously, this author wrote of a child cared for by
Stumpy and Kentuck after the death of Cherokee Sal, and a group of people including Mother Shipton and Piney
Woods who perish before reaching the titular location. FTP, identify this author of such stories “The Luck of
Roaring Camp,” and “The Outcasts of Poker Flat.”
Answer: Francis Bret Harte

9. This artist painted an encounter between himself and his patron Alfred Bruyas entitled The Meeting, and two
women are entwined on a bed in his depiction of an erotic embrace entitled The Sleepers. A woman sits on a branch
in the center while holding her hand underneath a small waterfall in his painting The Source, and he aroused
controversy when he depicted female genitalia in Origin of the World. This artist exhibited his The Peasants at
Flagey along with two more famous works, and in 1855 completed a painting that depicted himself at an easel while
a nude woman stood behind him, The Artist's Studio. FTP, identify this foremost French realist of the 19 th century
who painted The Stonebreakers and Burial at Ornans.
Answer: Gustave Courbet

10. Paul Steinhardt is one of those who proposed a “slow-roll” variety of this process, which utilized a scalar field in
a potential energy well. A measurement of the B-modes would provide evidence of the gravitational radiation
produced as a result of this process. Andrei Linde's modified theory of this process proposes that it is ongoing, and
this process was proposed to resolve the flatness, horizon, and monopole problems. This process also helps explain
structure growth in the universe, and evidence for the occurrence of this process is provided by the anisotropy of the
cosmic microwave background. First formally proposed by Alan Guth, for ten points, identify this theory which
states that the early universe expanded very rapidly.
Answer: cosmic inflation

11. Gail Bederman analysis of race and gender from 1880 to 1917 is titled after “Manliness and” this concept. In a
work which contains a chapter on “The State as a Work of Art,” Jakob Burkhardt wrote about the one of “the
Renaissance in Italy.” A work which advocates moving “beyond the reality principle” has this as it second title
concept, and this concept was combined with “Madness” in a “history of insanity in the Age of Reason,” in the title
of a work by Michel Foucault. In addition to Marcuse’s work contrasting “Eros” and this, Freud's work about the
conflict between individualism and conformity is titled after this and “its discontents.” FTP, identify this concept,
many of which such as Western, Islamic, and Sinic “clash” in a thesis by Samuel Huntington.
Answer: civilization

12. This action indirectly led to the deaths of hundreds of Kenyans in supposed reprisal of Kenya's participation in it,
and its aftermath led to a speech in which an ambassador argued that “the dignity of man, human life, and human
freedom constitute the highest values.” Two of the people whose actions caused this event were members of the RZ
organization, and it was perhaps the best-known action of a unit called Sayeret Merkal. Resulting in the death of
three hostages, Lieutenant Colonel Yonatan Netanyahu, and all of the hijackers, for ten points, identify this rescue
operation by the Israeli Defense Force that took place in the namesake Ugandan airport.
Answer: Entebbe raid or Operation Entebbe or Operation Thunderbolt or Operation Yonathan

13. In physics, this term refers to an even-dimensional system of differential equations in which the generalized
momenta are proportional to the derivative of a certain function with respect to the generalized velocities, and vice
versa. This adjective describes a non-abelian group whose subgroups are self-conjugate. The Bondy-Chvatal
theorem and the Dirac theorem both give conditions necessary for a graph to be described by this word, while an
operator named by this word is the Legendre transform of the Lagrangian. For ten points, identify this word which in
physics describes an operator that is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies and in computer science a path on
a graph which visits every vertex exactly once.
Answer: Hamiltonian

14. This composer's Fourth Symphony in E Minor contained 30 variations on a theme from J.S. Bach's Cantata No.
150, while his acquaintance with Richard Muhlfeld inspired his Trio for Clarinet and Quintet for Clarinet and
Strings. He composed a cantata based on Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered entitled Rinaldo, and collaborated with
Dietrich and another composer on the F-A-E Sonata. In 1869, this man composed a series of Love Songs, and in the
same year released his two volumes of piano duets based on Gypsy folk tunes, Hungarian Dances. The partner to
his Tragic Overture was also composed for the University of Breslau. FTP, identify this composer whose works
include A German Requiem and the Academic Festival Overture.
Answer: Johannes Brahms

15. In the Homeric hymn to this goddess she is referred to as the “lady of the golden sword,” and at one point, after
being raped by Poseidon in the shape of a stallion, this goddess was known as Erinys. By a hunter named Iasion, this
goddess bore the child Ploutos. In gratitude to Celeus, this goddess attempted to make Demophon immortal and
instructed Triptolemus, and she was the only one to eat the meal served by Tantalos, resulting in Pelops requiring an
ivory shoulder. Helios informed this goddess of the worst offense perpetrated against her, which resulted in her
withholding the harvest. For ten points, identify this goddess of agriculture, a sister of Zeus and the mother of
Answer: Demeter

16. The Petasis reagent contains an atom of this element at the center, and it coordinates to the two cyclopentadiene
molecules in Tebbe's reagent. Another compound that contains this element and aluminum operates via the Cosee-
Arleman mechanism, and this metal can be extracted via the Kroll process from rutile or ilmentite. In addition to its
use in the Ziegler-Natta catalyst, this metal's tetrachloride is commonly used in organic reactions as a Lewis acid. Its
dioxide is commonly found in paint. FTP, name this metal which is used in aerospace applications due to its
durability, with atomic number 22 and symbol Ti.
Answer: Titanium or Ti

17. A building in this city contains a glass dome symbolizing the transparency of democracy designed by Norman
Foster, and a museum dedicated to the works of Kathe Kollwitz. This city also contains a Yevgeniy Vuchetich-
designed Soviet War Memorial in its Treptower Park, while other landmarks include a museum which contains the
Ishtar Gate and an altar excavated from the ruins of a Greek city, the Pergamon Museum. Also containing a field of
concrete slabs that serve as a memorial to the Jews of Europe, FTP, identify this city that is home to the
Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag House, and remains of a certain wall.
Answer: Berlin

18. The Kammhuber line provided notification and support to this organization's NJG division, and one of its
greatest successes came against a similar organization called the VVS. Among the opponents frequently encountered
by members of the organization was a group known as the “Night Witches,” and this organization, founded in part
on the theories of Giulio Duhet, sported a volunteer division known as the Condor Legion. This organization
launched one of its main offensive efforts on “Eagle Day,” August 13, 1940, and notable vehicles employed by it
included the Stuka and the Messerschmitt. Controlled by Hermann Goering, FTP, identify this division of the
Wehrmacht that was defeated at the Battle of Britain.
Answer: Luftwaffe or the German Air Force
19. In a poem by Lawrence Ferlinghetti, this titular being finds himself afraid of Coit Tower, but not of
Congressman Doyle. A play whose title refers to Sir Francis Crewe and which was written by W.H. Auden and
Christopher Isherwood is titled after the one “Beneath the Skin.” In The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Tomas
obtains one of these named Karenin for Tereza. One of these is the subject of an experiment by Professor
Preobrazhensky in a Mikhail Bulgakov novella about the heart of one, and nothing is said about one of them named
Montmorency in the title of a Jerome Jerome book about “Three Men in a Boat.” FTP, identify this animal, other
examples of which include Dorothy's companion in The Wizard of Oz, Toto.
Answer: dog

20. Michael Sattler authored this group's first declaration of faith, a collection of seven articles known as the
“Brotherly Union.” According to letters of Conrad Grebel, the Lord's Supper was a sign of love among believers, the
church was meant to be a suffering church, and Matthew 18:15 through 18 indicated the importance of witnessing to
this denomination, whose early history was told by Thieleman J. van Braght in the Martyrs Mirror. An offshoot of
this denomination developed in Moravia under Jakob Hutter, but their more famous leaders included John of Leiden
and Menno Simons, who gave his name to another branch of this denomination, the Mennonites. FTP, identify this
religious denomination which held that infants are not punishable for sin and thus emphasized adult baptism.
Answer: Anabaptists

21. A clock tower can be seen above the background clouds in this work, while a group of men on a small boat can
be seen on the right in front of a flotilla of ships. A cap with a red tuft lies on the ground in front of a pair of men
clasping their hands, one of whom is holding a green blanket. A man holding a blue-and-while flag stands over the
central scene. On the left an Indian squats in front of the title figure, who is being tended to by three men, two of
them in red coats and one in blue. Presumably depicting a scene at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, FTP, name
this painting of a military figure’s demise in Canada, by Benjamin West.
ANSWER: The Death of General Wolfe

1. Identify these things having to do with the mythology of war, for ten points each.
[10] This Celtic war goddess appears in a triple aspect with Badb and Macha and weakens Cuchulain, allowing him
to be killed in the Ulster Cycle.
Answer: Morrigan
[10] The war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas is the focal point of this Hindu epic, which also contains the
Bhagavad Gita or Song of the Lord in which Krishna advises Arjuna.
Answer: Mahabharata
[10] This Norse god of war sacrificed an arm in order to bind Fenrir with the chain Gleipnir. He is killed by Garm at
Answer: Tyr

2. This country's authors include one who wrote about the extermination of old people by the youth in the novel
Diary of the War of the Pig, as well as one who wrote of The Gaucho, Martin Fierro. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this country, whose authors include Adolfo Bioy Casares, Jose Hernandez, and Domingo Sarmiento.
Answer: Argentina
[10] This Argentine authored Heartbreak Tango and Eternal Curse on the Reader of These Pages, but is best known
for a novel about the revolutionary Valentine and the hairdresser Molina, The Kiss of the Spider Woman.
Answer: Manuel Puig
[10] This other Argentine spent much of his life in Paris, and his story “Blow-up” from the collection End of the
Game was adopted into a movie by Antonioni. He also wrote a work that comes with instructions for reading it,
Answer: Julio Cortazar

3. Cells are great fun to work with. Answer some questions about things you can do with them assuming your gloves
are clean, FTPE:
[10] One popular cell line comes Chinese hamsters; specifically, they come from this organ, which in humans lies
next to the fimbriae of the fallopian tube.
[10] Injecting anti-sense RNA into cell culture results in the knockdown of genes by this process, in which Dicer
cleaves duplexes.
ANSWER: RNA interference or RNAi
[10] Detaching cells from the plate often requires a mixture of EDTA and this enzyme. In humans, it is produced in
the pancreas and cuts proteins on the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine residues.
ANSWER: Trypsin (do not accept "chymotrypsin")

4. Initiated by Robert McFarlane, its aftermath saw the formation of the Tower Commission, which investigated the
extent of presidential involvement. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this scandal which rocked the Reagan administration in 1986.
Answer: Iran-Contra affair
[10] The Iran-Contra affair was an attempt to get around this piece of legislation, which prohibited direct military
assistance to the Nicaraguan Contras.
Answer: Boland Amendment
[10] This National Security Advisor authorized the Iran-Contra deal and later briefly served as head of DARPA
under George W. Bush. He was convicted in 1990 for his involvement but the conviction was overturned on appeal.
Answer: John Marlan Pointdexter

5. It lies along a boundary that separates the Eurasian and the North American plates. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this long north-south mountain chain located in a certain ocean.
Answer: Mid-Atlantic Ridge
[10] The Mid-Atlantic Ridge forms many islands along its path, including this archipelago belonging to Portugal
with its largest city at Porta Delgada.
Answer: Azores
[10] This nation is split in half by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which forms that nation's highest peak,
Answer: Iceland

6. The year 1848 was a fun time in Europe. Answer some questions about it for ten points each.
[10] In Germany, the political upheavals resulted in liberal parliament that offered the crown of a unified Germany
to Frederick William IV, and which convened in this city on the Main river.
Answer: Frankfurt
[10] This revolutionary, who would later write such thrilling tomes as Memories of My Exile, instigated a liberal
revolt in Hungary, but was undone when the Russians invaded and wrecked some shit there.
Answer: Lajos Kossuth
[10] In Austria, the revolutions led to the resignation of this increasingly unpopular conservative chancellor, who
called the Congress of Vienna and will be played by Bruce Arthur in an upcoming straight-to-DVD feature.
Answer: Klemens Wenzel von Metternich

7. Its Larmor variety refers to the motion of a magnetic moment about an applied magnetic field. For ten points
[10] Identify this phenomenon, easily observable in a spinning top under a gravitational torque.
Answer: precession
[10] The precession of a spin can be obtained from the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation, which makes use of this
theory to derive a complete description of the precession. This theory's other predictions include a phenomenon
called time dilation.
Answer: special relativity (prompt on partial answer)
[10] Another special-relativistic correction to the precession of a gyroscope was developed by this scientist, by
whose name it is known. Together with Fermi, he developed a model of the electron that was the precursor of
density functional theory.
Answer: Llewellyn Hilleth Thomas

8. This band's last studio album contained a song that noted “sometimes you're the windshield, sometimes you're the
bug,” as well as a tune about “Calling Elvis.” For ten points each:
[10] Identify this band that released such albums as Communique and Making Movies, and was led by Mark
Answer: Dire Straits
[10] Dire Straits reached the height of their popularity with this 1985 album, which contained the song “Money for
Nothing,” as well as the song about no longer yearning to be the titular people which shares its name with the album.
Answer: Brothers in Arms
[10] In his solo career, Mark Knopfler has collaborated with James Taylor on “Sailing to Philadelphia,” off the
album of the same name; that song is about these two men whose story is also told by Thomas Pynchon.
Answer: Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon

9. At the end of this novel, it is revealed that the titular object was stolen by Franklin Blake while sleepwalking, and
in the end, Godfrey Ablewhite is killed for it by three Indians. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this work which centers around the disappearance of a jewel bequeathed to his niece Rachel Verinder
by John Herncastle.
Answer: The Moonstone
[10] The Moonstone is one of the best-known works of this Victorian author, notable for such other works as No
Name, Armadale, and The Woman in White.
Answer: William Wilkie Collins
[10] This police detective argues about the proper way to grow roses and eventually solves the mystery of the
Moonstone. His narrative is the sixth in the book.
Answer: Sergeant Richard Cuff

10. Answer some questions about the philosophical work of Gottlob Frege, for ten points each.
[10] Frege explained the difference between the two titular concepts in On Sense and Reference, but before that, he
wrote a work exploring the foundations of this branch of mathematics.
Answer: Arithmetic
[10] In his Foundations of Arithmetic, Frege argued against a concept of number advanced by this philosopher,
better known for his political works such as The Subjection of Women and On Liberty.
Answer: John Stuart Mill
[10] This man also attempted a philosophical analysis of number in his Philosophy of Arithmetic; he is better known
for writing the Logical Investigations and founding phenomenology.
Answer: Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl

11. Its “structure” was explored in a work which combined influences from Durkheim, Weber, and others, into a
theory of it based on voluntaristic principles. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this concept, the subject of the most famous work of Talcott Parsons.
Answer: social action (accept “the structure of social action”)
[10] Parsons begins The Structure of Social Action with an introduction discussing the question of who killed this
sociologist, best known for such works Man Versus the State and Social Statics.
Answer: Herbert Spencer
[10] The Structure of Social Action also draws on the ideas of this Italian economist who described a theory of the
circulation of elites in Mind and Society and is famous for his namesake “optimality” condition.
Answer: Vilifredo Pareto

12. At the end of this film, the protagonist elects to stay and work with the title character, and in another scene, the
title character beats up some ruffians, after which he helps reset the bones he just broke. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this film whose title character is a provincial doctor with some colorful hair.
Answer: Red Beard or Akahige
[10] Red Beard was the last black and white film of this director, better known for adapting Macbeth into Throne of
Blood and directing a movie about the exploration of Siberia, Dersu Uzala. He also did Rashomon.
Answer: Kurosawa Akira
[10] This actor who played Dr. Niide in Red Beard was forced to keep his beard dyed red during filming and thus
was not able to shoot any other film. He is the star of such films as Sanjuro, Yojimbo, and Seven Samurai.
Answer: Mifune Toshiro

13. The idea for creating this nation was proposed by Muhammad Iqbal at a 1930 meeting. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this nation that in 1999 was one of the parties to the Kargil War. More recently, Pervez Musharraf
stepped down after 9 years in office as its head of state.
Answer: Pakistan
[10] This leader had earlier helped bring about the Lucknow Pact before negotiating Pakistan's independence and
becoming its first head of state.
Answer: Muhammad Ali Jinna
[10] Muhammad Iqbal's proposal for an independent Pakistan was presented to a meeting of this group, which Jinna
would later head. It was the primary organization that agitated for Pakistani independence and was one of the
signatories to the Lucknow Pact.
Answer: All India Muslim League

14. Donald Keene made an authoritative translation of many of this man's works, including one about the wars
waged by a Chinese general, The Battles of Coxinga. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this major Japanese playwright of the late 17 th and early 18th centuries who also penned the work The
Uprooted Pine.
Answer: Chikamatsu Monzaemon (or Sugimori Nobumori)
[10] Chikamatsu is perhaps best known for penning several plays about doomed lovers who commit these titular acts
“at Sonezaki” and “at Amijima” in two of his works.
Answer: love suicides
[10] Chikamatsu was the most prominent playwright to work in this medium, which uses large puppets as characters.
Answer: bunraku

15. Ones that are exposed over fewer than 100 square kilometers are typically known as stocks, and American
examples include the Idaho one, the Sierra Nevada one, and the Lower California one. For ten points each:
[10] Identify these regions of felsic intrusive rock, which are made up of masses called plutons.
Answer: batholiths
[10] As a batholith rises through country rock, the magma that constitutes it can leak into fractures, forming sheets
called sills, which exist parallel to the layering, and these structures which are sheets transverse to the layering.
Answer: dikes
[10] The eruption of basaltic magma under water can result in these lava structures, so named because of the shape
they assume during rapid cooling.
Answer: pillow lava

16. In one of his operas, the title character is saved by his father Bertram's refusal to deliver his soul to hell. For ten
points each:
[10] Identiy this composer whose opera Robert the Devil includes a scene with some undead dancing nuns.
Answer: Giacomo Meyerbeer
[10] 1836 saw the premier of this Meyerbeer opera about the 1571 St. Bartholomews Day Massacre which featured
such characters as the Comte de Nevers and Marguerite of Valois.
Answer: Les Huguenots
[10] The librettos for both Robert the Devil and Les Huguenots were written by Eugene Scribe, who also wrote
Adrienne Lecouvreur and the libretto to Meyerbeer's L'Africaine, an opera whose main character is this Portuguese
Answer: Vasco Da Gama

17. Originally referring to the path taken by camels going to the water, its two main divisions are ibadat, which
refers to religious obligations, and mu'amalat, which regulates conduct between individuals. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this Islamic law.
Answer: shari'ah
[10] This term, meaning roughly “understanding” or “knowledge” refers to the science of interpreting the shari'ah
Answer: fiqh
[10] In the 9th century, Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i argued for the supremacy of these sayings and deeds of the
prophet Muhammad over any interpretations by ancient schools, making him possibly the first Muslim originalist.
Answer: hadith

18. It replaced the earlier 1385 Union of Krewo, and came about partially due to Sigismund II's lack of children. For
ten points each:
[10] Identify this pact which united Poland with a country to its east, signed in 1569.
Answer: Union of Lublin
[10] The Lublin pact united Poland with this nation, whose notable rulers included Jagiello and which has its
present-day capital at Vilnius.
Answer: Lithuania
[10] Following the conclusion of the Union of Lublin, this future French king was elected king of Poland-Lithuania.
However, he totally jilted Poland after Charles IX died, leaving him to become king of France.
Answer: Henry III

19. It proposes that transition states resemble the state of the species closest to it in energy. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this postulate of chemistry which is sometimes also named after Leffler.
Answer: Hammond's postulate
[10] According to the Hammond postulate, any factor that stabilizes the intermediate carbocation should increase the
rate of this type of reaction. These types of reactions are first-order processes and contrary to a similar type of
reaction, the leaving group is lost before the approach of the nucleophile.
Answer: SN1 or unimolecular nucleophilic substitution (in any order)
[10] Water acts as a leaving group in reactions which prepare these types of molecules from tertiary alcohols by
reacting them with hydrobromic or hydrochloric acid.
Answer: alkyl halides

20. This man's death inspired a eulogy by Algernon Swinburne titled Ave atque vale. For ten points each:
[10] Identify this poet whose nonfiction includes the work Artificial Paradises: On Hashish and Wine as a Means of
Expanding Individuality.
Answer: Charles Baudelaire
[10] Baudelaire is best known for this collection of poetry which comprises such sections as “Spleen and Ideal,” and
“Parisian Scenes.”
Answer: Flowers of Evil or Les Fleurs du mal
[10] This poem from Les Fleurs du mal likens the poet to the titular “monarch of the clouds,” who “cannot walk
because of his great wings.” Its title also identifies a bird killed in another poem by a man who later tells of “slimy
things” that “crawl with legs upon the slimy sea.”
Answer: The Albatross

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