Technology and Terrorism by B7BONZL

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 19

									Technology and Knowledge
     in Relation with
     War and Terror




             Michal Okaj
          Philosophy Department
       University of Aarhus, Denmark




                                       1
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 3
Definitions .................................................................................................................................... 3
   Terror ........................................................................................................................................ 3
   Terrorism .................................................................................................................................. 4
   State-sponsored terrorism (SST) .............................................................................................. 4
   Cyber-terrorism ........................................................................................................................ 4
   Propaganda ............................................................................................................................... 5
   Manipulation ............................................................................................................................ 5
   Technology ............................................................................................................................... 6
   Procedural knowledge or know-how........................................................................................ 6
Historical overview on terrorism
and developed technologies, knowledge, inventions, main ideas ................................................ 6
   Birth of modern terrorism ........................................................................................................ 6
     Proto-terrorism ..................................................................................................................... 7
   The four waves of modern terrorism ........................................................................................ 7
     1878-1914: Anarchist Wave -The First Wave ..................................................................... 7
     1920s-1960s: The National Liberation Wave – The Second Wave ..................................... 8
     1968-1980s: The New Left Wave – The Third Wave .......................................................... 9
     1979 – now: The Religious Wave – The Fourth Wave ........................................................ 9
   Technology’s role in terrorism – a short conclusion .............................................................. 10
The present and the future
Cyber-terrorism - terrorism in cyber-space and terrorism as a media event .............................. 11
   TV news - propaganda and manipulation .............................................................................. 11
   Cyber-space ............................................................................................................................ 13
   A little survey about some of the latest biggest terrorist attack ............................................. 14
   Where is the place of technology? ......................................................................................... 14
     Madrid, 11th March of the 2004 ......................................................................................... 14
     London, 7th July of the 2005 .............................................................................................. 16
   The Internet and other media – not only propaganda............................................................. 17
Conclusions ................................................................................................................................ 18




                                                                                                                                                  2
Introduction

       “The only aspect of modern age, that is interesting for terrorists – is technology.
    They see in it a weapon, which they can use against the developers of that technology.”

                                                                                         Salman Rushdi1
                                                                     for Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung2

        The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between technology
and terrorism. The main assumption is that terrorism is inseparably linked with technology. I
aim to validate this assumption by analyzing examples found in history and the present. Based
on these findings, I aim to derive a theoretical prediction of the future of technology and
terrorism.
        From the above, I will attempt to answer the following research questions:
            1. What is the role of technology in military fights – war, terrorism?
            2. Are They actually using the technology?
            3. What is the role of democracy in the access level to the technology and
                knowledge?
To address the research questions, first I will present definitions of the key words operating in
this research paper. Then in a short historical overview, I will try to find technology’s place
and the role in terrorism. Next, I will consider the present and the future in the detailed case
studies of the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings as well as examining the roles of
media and cyberspace in terrorism. The aim of all this is to prove the existence of technology
and knowledge in war-terror machine and my conclusion will answer the research questions.

Definitions

       The following definitions are necessary to understand the functions of new kinds of
inventions, technologies and the fields of activity in which they can be used . This foundation
will make it possible to identify the presence of technology in terrorism in the short historical
overview and further presented examples.
        Terror3 is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. It
is often characterized by a lack of knowing what to do next.



1
   Salman Rushdi – British prosaic with Iranian roots, author of “The Satanic Verses”
2
  http://www.rmf.pl/fakty/?id=31455 ,
3
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terror


                                                                                                      3
        Terrorism4 is a term used to describe certain violent or otherwise harmful acts or
threats of such acts. Most definitions of terrorism include only those acts which are: intended
to create fear or "terror", are perpetrated for a political goals (as opposed to a hate crime or
"madman" attack), deliberately target "non-combatants", and are not conducted by a
"legitimate" government. However, some definitions include state terrorism, and in many cases
the determination of "legitimate" targets and the definition of "combatant" is disputed
(especially by partisans to the conflict in question).
        As a form of unconventional warfare, terrorism is sometimes used in attempting to
force political change by: convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid
future harm or fear of harm, destabilization of an existing government, motivating a
disgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopes of disrupting the
status quo, expressing the severity of a grievance, or drawing attention to a neglected cause.
        Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political organizations in furthering their
objectives; both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic, and religious groups,
revolutionaries and ruling governments
        Because of development of terrorism, there are several definitions of it.. In 2004
Weinberg has proposed a definition now termed the “new academic consensus definition”. I
will accept it as the best available definition for the purposes of this research.
“Terrorism is a politically motivated tactic involving the threat or use of force or violence
in which the pursuit of publicity plays a significant role.”5
        State-sponsored terrorism (SST)6 is a political term used to refer to
finance/bounties, equipment and intelligence material given across international boundaries to
terrorist organizations and the families of deceased militants for the purpose of conducting or
rewarding attacks on civilians. States that sponsor terrorism may also provide a "safe-haven"
for persons accused of terrorism and refuse to extradite them. As any form of terrorism, SST is
used because it is believed to produce strategic results where the use of conventional armed
forces is not practical or effective.
        Cyber-terrorism7 is the leveraging of a target's computers and information
technology, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe
disruption with the aim of advancing the attacker's own political or religious goals.
        As the Internet becomes more pervasive in all areas of human endeavor. Individuals or
groups can use the anonymity afforded by cyberspace to threaten citizens, certain specific
groups (i.e. members of an ethnic group or belief), communities and entire countries, without



4
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism
5
  Mats Fridlund, State of Fear – Aarhus Seminar in the History of Ideas
6
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State-sponsored_terrorism
7
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorism


                                                                                                4
inherent chance of being captured, injured, or killed to the attacker that being physically
present at a terrorist event presents.
        As the Internet continues to expand, and computer systems continue to be assigned
more responsibility while becoming more and more complex and interdependent, sabotage or
terrorism via cyberspace may become a more serious threat.
           Propaganda8 is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of
people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda is often deliberately
misleading, using logical fallacies, that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.
Propaganda techniques include: patriotic flag-waving, glittering generalities, intentional
vagueness, oversimplification of complex issues, rationalization, introducing unrelated red
herring issues, using appealing, simple slogans, stereotyping, testimonials from authority
figures or celebrities, unstated assumptions, and encouraging readers or viewers to "jump on
the bandwagon" of a particular point of view.
        Propaganda was often used to appeal influence opinion and beliefs on religious issues,
particularly during the split between the Catholic Church and the Reformers. Propaganda has
become more common in political contexts, in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by
governments, political groups, but also often covert interests. In the early 20th century the term
propaganda was also used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to describe
their activities. This usage died out around the time of World War II, as the industry started to
avoid the word, given the pejorative connotation it had acquired.
           Manipulation9 in a psychological context, means to influence a person or a group of
people in such a way that the manipulator tries to get what he or she wants or makes a person
believe something in a calculating, indirect and somewhat dishonest way. Like indoctrination,
it is a form of psychological abuse.
For example, a manipulator will
      use arguments that the manipulator does not believe in himself
      use of false reasoning as with fallacies and paralogisms
      withhold or distort relevant information,
      provide false information (disinformation)
      "play" on the emotions (fear, hope, love...) of the person.
      physically move the person, like a puppet




8
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda
9
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manipulation


                                                                                                    5
        Technology10 is a broad term dealing with the use and knowledge of humanity's tools
and crafts.
       Technology is the consequence of:
               - Science (formal process of investigating natural phenomena. It produces
       information and knowledge about the world),
               - Engineering (the goal-oriented process of designing and building tools and
       systems to exploit natural phenomena for a practical human means. Engineers work
       within the constraints of natural laws and societal needs to create technology),
               - Societal requests.
       Most commonly, the term technology is used as the name of all products of
       engineering.
        Procedural knowledge or know-how11 is the knowledge of how to perform
some tasks.
        Know-how differentiates from other kinds of knowledge such as propositional
knowledge in that it can be directly applied to a task. Procedural knowledge about solving
problems differs from propositional knowledge about problem solving. For example, in some
legal systems, this knowledge or know-how has been considered the intellectual property of a
company, and can be transferred when that company is purchased. One limitation of procedural
knowledge is its job-dependence; thus it tends to be less general than propositional knowledge.

Historical overview on terrorism
and developed technologies, knowledge, inventions, main ideas12

        In this part I aim to provide a background on the development and usage of “terrorist”
technology in the last two centuries. I will relate inventions to events and conclude with
identifying technology’s place and role in terrorism.

Birth of modern terrorism

1793-95: French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (state-sponsored terrorism)
The Guillotine was the main symbol and tool of the policy.




10
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology
11
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Know-how
12
   based on: Mats Fridlund, State of Fear – Aarhus Seminar in the History of Ideas – Tools of Terror: A History of
Technology of Terrorism from the Guillotine to the Qassam


                                                                                                                6
Proto-terrorism
        In this time, bombing has been discovered as a tool for pressure generating.
        In 1800 Time-bomb was used for the first time, against Napoleon – there were more
than 20 people dead. Some time after, in 1858, Orsini’s bombs was against Napoleon III - 8
person were killed. There was developed “a state of fear” by “Red Specter” – network of secret
societies. And in 1867 – Fenian bomb at Clerkenwell prison - more than 15 people has been
killed.


The four waves of modern terrorism13:

1878-1914: Anarchist Wave -The First Wave
The main innovates was at this time was:
   - individual terrorism – killing individuals as a tool to topple governments .The first
      individual terrorist was Vera Zasulich – used a revolver to try to kill a Russian police
      commander.
   - propaganda of the dead – used to spread ideology through acts,
   - the Dynamite bomb – as a technological breakthrough.
      In 1881 an International Revolutionary Congress in London took place. During this
Congress an announcement and resolution was made:
“Whereas the technical and chemical sciences has rendered services to the revolutionary
cause and are bound to render still greater services in the future, the congress suggests
that organizations and individual affiliated with the International Workingmen’s
Association devote themselves to the study of these science.”
        In 1885 Johann Most (German-born emigrant to the United States) published a book
“Revolutionäre Kriegswissenschaft” - it was very special. The full title clarifies everything:
“Revolutionary War Science: A Little Handbook of Instruction Regarding the Use and
Manufacture of Nitroglycerine, Dynamite, Gun-cotton, Fulminating Mercury, Bombs, Arson,
Poison, etc., etc.”
        For the first time the knowledge about “war technologies” became a public knowledge.
From my point of view, it could be called as the birthday of open “know-how” knowledge.
        We have noted this, that today , the importance of explosives as an instrument for
carrying out revolutions oriented to social justice is obvious. We can see that these materials
will be a decisive factor in the next period of world history. Therefore, it makes sense for
revolutionaries in all over the world to acquire explosives, and knowledge how to produce and
use them in real life.



13
     formulated by David Rapoport (historian of terrorism)


                                                                                                 7
       Of course, there were books on chemistry and physics in which everyone could find
knowledge of this topics – but they were theoretical, and comprehensible only to experts.
Moreover, they failed to provide practical knowledge. So there was need for one step further –
arranged for popularized versions of technical papers on the production of explosives to be
published. They, avoided scientific and technical jargon as well as specialized expressions that
impede understanding by the layman. Besides, they did not discussed items of equipment
which would be beyond the capability of the non-expert to use them in most cases. They
recommend a technique that uses equipment that can be found only in any household. And they
confirmed that the techniques were successfully tested.

        Period between 1892-1901 was The Golden Age of Assassination. There were less than
50 people died in the Western World. First letter bomb has been developed by Swedish left-
wing engineer in 1904. In time between 1906-1909 an electrical engineer Leonid Krasin,
bomb-maker and gun smuggler was charging Bolshevik terror groups. And in 1914, in The
shot in Sarajevo, terrorist used an new invention - early version of semi-automatic pistol.

1920s-1960s: The National Liberation Wave – The Second Wave


This was the time of Anti-Colonial terrorism.

Irish resistance made independent goal for terrorism.
Terrorism was crucial in establishing new states (Ireland, Israel, Cyprus, Algeria).
New less discriminate forms of terrorism:
             - Selective terrorism – state representatives of occupying government
             - Communal terrorism – Revolutionary Red and Fascist Brown Terror
Terrorist redefine themselves as “freedom fighters”:
             - Irgun “freedom fighters” struggling against “government terror”
           -   Israeli group Stern last self-defined terrorist group
           -   Governments started to describing all rebels as ‘terrorists’

        During second world war there were, of course some “war technology” inventions:
In 1940 a Molotov cocktail has been used by Finnish soldiers for the first time. German
engineering developed an assault rifle in 1941. 1942 was the year of developing of Plastic
explosives and usage of Biological Weapons (used by Polish resistance)
After IIWW, in 1946 Zionist terrorists used a Car-bomb weapons.




                                                                                              8
1968-1980s: The New Left Wave – The Third Wave


         1970s was the Decade of ‘air terrorism’. The goal was to bring attention to Palestinian
cause. It was the time of developing Airplane hijacking as a tool of terror.
         In 1973 a Heat-seeking anti-aircraft rockets has been developed and in 1978 – SAM-7
rocket was used against passenger jet. Rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) (1975) and Barometric
pressure bomb (PLO) (1988), military inventions, has been next adopted by a terrorists.
In this time television was appropriated by terrorists. Every “terrorist event” was cause of
breakthrough of direct-transmitted news TV.
                   Period between 1978-95was the time of activity ecoterrorist – first of them
Unabomber. Ecoterrorism was a product of the 1960s Counterculture, it was a rebellion against
technological society.
         It was a time of leftist terrorism. Also in this time, terrorism gained an international
aspect. Moreover, a development of new tactic took place – hostage taking. Also, terrorists
learned the value of appropriating communication systems.

1979 – now: The Religious Wave – The Fourth Wave


        At some level there is a degree of conflict between all the world’s leading religions –
Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism.
        Car bombing has become the “number one” tactic after the attack on US barracks in
Beirut in 1983 where 241 marines died. It was also the first-time of use of the – “Suicide
bomber”.
        The “Suicide bomber” is now a symbol of modern terrorism – especially among Islamic
radicals and extremists. Many inventions, such as the “suicide belt” has been linked to this
terrorist tactic.
         This method of terrorism reached its climax in 9/11 (11th of September 2001) where for
the first time, a suicide attack against civilian targets utilizing a hijacked civilian airplane was
used to great effect.
          It seems that the inventiveness of terrorists allows them to use any kind of technology,
adopt it as a part of weapon, and use it. The best example of this is the use of vibrating
mechanism found in cellular phones as an explosive fuse.
         The main inventions, that had change the terrorists tactic was:
              - Simultaneous attacks – coordinated multi attacks in different parts of city, for
               example, are generating chaos in public and rescue divisions. It is very hard to
               manage so complex crisis situation.
           -   Biological weapons has been used use – anthrax terror in USA.




                                                                                                   9
           -   The era of the Internet and World Wide Web gives new possibilities for the
               terrorists. Internet is a place for propaganda, recruitment, training.

         To conclude, it is blatantly obvious in this short overview that terrorism is inseparably
linked with technology. However, it is noted that most of the technologies employed were
initially created for military purposes.

Technology’s role in terrorism – a short conclusion

        There are several methods of dichotomizing the use of technology in terrorism. First,
the division into ‘Trival use’ and ‘Critical use’:
    1. Trivial – ‘normal’ use like for example: communication, transport, planning etc.
    2. Critical – ‘enabling’ use: as a weapon, propaganda. Enable previous impossible or
        unlikely deeds
    Alternatively, it can be divided according to access to technology in terms of tools and
expertise:
    1. The Hardware transfer - is related with machines, weapons, communication
        technologies.
    2. Software transfer - is a knowledge transfer – manuals, trainings, tactics, “know-how”
        knowledge.
    A third dichotomy about terrorist use of technology should also be considered:
    1. Innovation of improvised technologies – improvised explosive devices (IEDs) – from
        the pipe bomb to the human bombs, and reconfigured devices: hijackings, airliner
        missiles.
    2. Appropriation of manufactured technologies – civilian and military: guns, RPGs,
        Camcorders, Internet.
       Therefore, while various dichotomies can be made from differing angles, and the use of
technology in terrorism appears of varying importance, it is clear that terrorism cannot function
without technology. A point I will further elaborate in this paper.




                                                                                                 10
The present and the future
Cyber-terrorism - terrorism in cyber-space and terrorism as a media
event
         In this part I will attempt to highlight the different ways of using technology in the war-
terrorism machine with the specific examples. With knowledge gained from previous sections
it will be easy to define the specific role of the technology, knowledge and inventions. We will
discover that many inventions normally used in everyday life can be used as a tool in this
machine.

TV news - propaganda and manipulation
       This chapter is based on the account given by journalists, politicians and army leaders
during Iraqi War in 2003 as presented in documentary movie “Control Room”. A chronicle
based in CentCom which provides a unique look at the international perception of the Iraq
War, as told by Al-Jazeera.
       CentCom or Central Command is the United States military headquarters (and coalition
media center) in the Middle East, located on the outskirts of Doha, Qatar. It is the United
States’ main outlet for media information about the war in Iraq. All major news network have
offices in Central Command including Al-Jazeera.
        The Al-Jazeera Satellite Channel was launched in 1996. It has become the most
controversial and popular news channel in Arab world. Several Arab governments have banned
the channel for criticizing their regimes. The Bush administration has named it the
“mouthpiece of Osama bin Laden”.
        Donald Rumsfeld, US Secretary of Defense on Al-Jazeera:
“We know that Al Jazeera has pattern of playing propaganda over and over and over again.
What they do is – when a bomb goes down, they grab some children and women and pretend
that the bomb hit the women and the children. (…) we have to recognize that we have to deal
with people that are perfectly willing to lie to the world.”
        Lt. Josh Rushing, Press Officer –Central Command:
“When they cut away to commercial they have 30-60 second to montage the video – American
tanks, American warplanes, American trucks crossing the desert and then an Arab child with
bandage on the head, crying. And they never show Iraqi troops – taking families hostage or
forcing people to fight using “human shields”.(…) Saddam probably killed more Muslims then
American soldiers so Al Jazeera should be reporting him rather then protecting him.”
        Americans were accusing Al-Jazeera journalists for their lack of objectivity. But on the
other hand, Americans were equally biased as indicated in the following short dialogue
between American and Iraqi journalists:




                                                                                                 11
American journalist: Your journalists have a position on this war, are they capable of being
objective?
Iraqi journalist: I’m answering the question by asking another question – is any American
journalist objective about this war? In this world, objectivity is a mirage…
        Let’s see the other side.
Abdul Jabbar Al-Kubeishi, Iraqi dissident:
“The United States military gives information to the news agencies – and you and I treat it as
unbiased reporting when in fact it is military propaganda.”
        When American troops entered Baghdad there was total information blockade in
CentCom. Tom Minter, CNN correspondent, commented that: “…seems like there is an effort
to manage the news in an unmanageable situation. They tried it in the first Gulf War, and this
time it was supposed to be different.”
 But certainly, the last thing you want to do is broadcast to the world (including your enemies)
exactly where your troops are, what they are doing and what they are planning to do. It is a
challenge to provide a strategic overview of the situation, but without specific details. There is
a danger of giving away so much information that you are handing a superb intelligence report
to the enemy.
        The Americans also know how to play the media card. On the 9th of April – American
troops entered the main square in Baghdad. It was a media show. They showed happy people
waving to the American troops, presumably Iraqis. However, according to Samir Khader –
senior producer of Al Jazeera, himself an Iraqi, those people were brought in by the American
media and were not native to Iraq. “I was born and raised in Iraq, I know the Iraqi accent, those
people… were not Iraqis,” said Khader.
        One female interviewee observed that there were no women amongst the people who
brought down the statue of Saddam Hussein. She also noted that one of the men bringing down
the statue was waving an Iraqi flag that hasn’t existed since 1991. Where did he get it?
However, this scene broadcast by every TV station worldwide has become an icon of the
American victory in Iraq. This great media show was precisely directed.
        I think that Khader provides the best conclusion to this section:
“You cannot manage and win a war without rumors, without media, without propaganda. Any
military planner who fails to place media and propaganda on the top of his agenda, is a bad
military planner.”
        History shows that human beings have short memories. Who in the United States
remembers what happened in Somalia in 1993? Who in Europe thinks about what happened in
Bosnia and Herzegovina? History is redefined by the victors.
       Only by accessing a large quantity of varied news sources presenting alternative points
of view can one obtained a relatively balanced view of presented problems. But who has the
time and energy for this? So, from the news in TV or Internet we just get processed and
prepared portion of information.


                                                                                                12
        Propaganda mechanics is based on the mechanics of human perception, which can be
manipulated. People easily accept and incorporate external statements on a subject – making it
their own and unconsciously altering their personal opinions. This is why propaganda is one of
the most important tools of conflict, and technology has provided an ideal medium for the
spread of propaganda – cyber-space.


Cyber-space14
         Here we will take a look at how terrorists have adopted the Internet and World Wide
Web. According to the distinctions made above, the Internet can be utilized both as trivial and
critical technology. It could also be used as a Software transfer but could also be a tool
(weapon) or arena of attack and in this way became as a Hardware transfer.
         When American forces landed in the Afghanistan, soon after the 9/11 attack, the Al-
Qaeda fought with an AK-47 in one hand and a laptop in the other. They built a new base for
themselves located in cyberspace.
         In April, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi made his first online announcement. Seventeen days
later, he broadcast for the first time a video of kidnapped American businessman, Nicolas
Berg’s execution. The video’s impact brought into the equation the use of the Internet by the
terrorists. Until then, the Western World regarded the only danger of terrorist attack via the
Internet were cyber-crimes (hacking). Now they realize that the Internet is also a very effective
propaganda tool.
        On the summer of 2004 Al-Qaeda developed an innovative propaganda movie – a
series. First reason was that it was just to big to publish it in the Internet, so they cut it on the
pieces and make a series. On the other hand, they used every advantage of the series. They
create a suspending show next part every week. The first part was only a propaganda. The main
thread shows specific of the suicide bomber attack. The main character is an Iraqi Abu Harif
al-Tazari. His triumphal goodbye was very carefully planned, the same as all attack. It was a
way of building a pressure before of the scenes of attack – on this pictures we can see that
peoples are blowing up themselves and they are happy with that – they are waving goodbye.
For al-Tazari and for the other suicide bombers this is the trip to paradise. He showed a bomb
and the trigger which he had used to detonate the explosives in his truck when he would be
close to the target. The target is American convoy on Iraqi’s bridge. When American soldiers
sighted the truck they starting to shot – but it was too late. Mission accomplished – two
American soldiers were died. In Internet there is a lot of movie like this now. Their aim is to
feed the state of fear and to glorify suicide bombers.
        The movies with suicide bombers are more and more theatrical – using very symbolic
and iconic visions. In the background there is a picture of paradise. Attacks are recorded from
14
  based on: “Reign of Terror – Suicide Web”, National Geographic
http://www.terrorism.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=12110
http://cybercrimes.net/Terrorism/overview/page1.html


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many perspectives using a few camcorders – now every attack became a medial event. After
attack a pictures of suicide bombers are showed on the lighted stairs – the symbol of the way to
paradise. Material is edited very fast and it is published during few hours in the Internet.
        Ajman Al-Zawahiri attacks Western World on the ground and in the Internet by
announcement like this:
“Peoples of the Crusader Alliance: Blair isn’t only taking lightly the blood of the Muslims in
Iraq, Palestine, Chechnya and Afghanistan. He’s also taking lightly your blood because he’s
taking you to the crematorium in Iraq and exposing you to death and killing in your own
homeland because of his Crusade against Islam.“
The aim is to support the state of fear.
        Web sites developed by terrorists are very well prepared – they are prepared for every
kind of computer, operating system, transfer range of potential user. There are even version for
cellular phones – including cellular version of the movies. Every day several announcement
from Al-Qaeda are published in the Internet. It is not possible to track the source, because the
some information appears at the different sites forums at the same time and even if someone
will try to shut them down – there will be more other ones .



A little survey about some of the latest biggest terrorist attack
Where is the place of technology?

Madrid, 11th March of the 2004 – three days before public election’s for parliament.15
        On the East side of Madrid four man with cellular phones and bags got into the four
different trains. According to route plan of the trains they will meet on the Atocha Station.
Everyone of them had a with SIM cards from Moroccan owner of the shop with mobile
phones in Madrid. The cellular phones was used to detonate ten kilograms of miner explosives
surrounded by nails in each bag. They adjusted an alarm for the same hour. They left the trains
– leaving the bags with bombs under the benches in trains. At 7.39 vibra-mechanism start the
ignition in the first train – it exploded in the station. To the station now were coming next three
bombed trains. Due to traffic and wrong time adjustment in cellular phones – bombs in second
train exploded 500m before it achieved a station, third one explode on El Poso station. The last
one exploded at 7.42 in Santa Euchenia. During three minutes – ten bombs in four trains killed
191 peoples and another 2000 was wounded, center of the Madrid was completely paralyzed
and mobile phones network has been overloaded. If simultaneous attack would be succeeded

15
   based on:
“Reign of Terror – Al-Qaeda Calling”, National Geographic
Machnikowski Ryszard, Zamach w Madrycie 11 marca 2004 – wnioski dla Polski po zamachach w Londynie 7
lipca 2005




                                                                                                   14
and lead to the all detonation at the same time – in Atocha Station – probably it would be so
destructive that the building could be collapsed and the number of casualties would goes in to
thousands . At 9:30 police has found in wracks two unexploded bombs. They could be used on
the investigation, but during the disarming they’ve explode. ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna), a
Basque paramilitary, nationalist organization was the first suspect. But cruelty and scale of
attack is characteristic for Al-Qaeda. But one day after day find another bomb – that one has
been disarmed. The mobile has not been damaged. So the police now have a SIM card -
prepaid. Using technology and logs of the GSM provider company they find out where and
when SIM card has been activated. A unique SIM card number has been used to identify the
seller. He has been arrested and in his apartment police has found radicals movies. Twelve
hours before the elections – on the entrance of the main mosque in Madrid video-tape has been
found – Al-Qaeda declared that the attack was their work. There was also declaration that if the
Spanish army do not leave the anti-terror coalition in Iraq – the attacks will be resumed.
        The scoring of the government and prime minister José María Aznar Lópezis was going
down – election’s has been won by the socialists because of their declaration of leaving Iraq.
Day after election the announcement of new elected prime minister - José Luis Rodríguez
Zapatero - says: “I am giving the order to do what is necessary to bring back the Spanish troops
from Iraq. With the possible security they will be brought home as soon as possible.”
       Finally, police found out where card had been activated – 40 km on the south-east from
Madrid. Then police got anonymous information about a detonators buyer – 30 years old Jamal
Amidan. They started to phone tapping of his calls. Tapping of mobile phones is source for
making a digital image – there are information about where have we been, about every one we
have spoke and every text that we exchange by SMS. Thanks to that, a former Spanish miner
has been arrested – seller of the explosives material. Madrid terrorist give’s away their hiding
place during a regular phone call and they have been traced by the police. On the 3rd of the
March - special police units was searching block by block for hidden terrorist. They discover
some Moroccan that was trying to warn somebody in one of the building. During the storm
terrorist detonated a bomb and died. In the ruins video tape with announcement has been
found: “ Do Your blood is more worth than ours? We show ours. We will attack. You will
never stay in peace.”
        Seven of the terrorist had been killed, fifteen had been arrested – but there is a lot of
them somewhere – free.
        Attack was effective – Spanish government left the anti-terror coalition and Spanish
troops has been withdraw from Iraq.




                                                                                                    15
London, 7th July of the 2005 – day after election London for the Olympic Games 2012.16
        In King’s Cross direction goes four men’s – the terrorists. 650 km on the north there
was an G-8 summit. Those four men’s had bags with home-made explosives – (made from
high oxidize amine, citric acid – materials easy accessible in most hypermarkets, surrounded
by metal pieces and nails for more deadly and destructive explosion effect). Bombs has been
made according to prescription that can be find very easily in the Internet. Because of some
train malfunction station was very crowded. Three of them get into the three different trains the
fourth had a bad luck his train was delayed. At 8.50 am three explosions in short period has
been reported in the metro. In next few minutes all trains was stopped. During next 15 minutes
in Internet appears first photos from inside metro – made by a camera build in cellular phone –
now it was clear that they had to deal with a terrorist attack. Thanks to cellular phone MMS
technology and the Internet in next minutes discussion forums was starting to boil. About 9.47
- the fourth suicide bomber detonate his explosive bag near the British Medical Association. 14
passengers of the bus died - rest was wounded. In this time all public transport has been
stopped in London- the city has been paralyzed. Thanks to mounted cameras in public places
police identified the assassins very fast.
        The realty was shocking – three of the assassins had a Pakistan roots but they were born
and educated in the Great Britain. Lindsay was born in Jamaica and he was a converted. After
the identification Police find out that all of them was living in Leeds. Information left by one of
the terrorists in his laptop guide the police to the near house, where probably bombs were
manufactured. The oldest one Mohammad Sadiq Khan the leader of the group was a teacher in
school - his double life shocked everyone. Eight weeks after the attack there was published a
movie in which Khan explains everything. It was recorded before the attack and displayed by
As-Saha television. Caption says: “The Martyr Mohammed Sadiq: One of the knights of the
blessed raids on London“ – he said – “Your democratic elected governments committing
crimes against my people in all over the world. You are supporting them so You are directly
responsible. Yes, I’m directly responsible for defense and vengeance of my Muslim brothers
and sisters….”




16
   based on:
7/7 – Attack on London, National Geographic
Machnikowski Ryszard, Zamach w Madrycie 11 marca 2004 – wnioski dla Polski po zamachach w Londynie 7
lipca 2005
Machnikowski Ryszard, Zamachy w Londynie 7 i 21 lipca 2005 r.




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The Internet and other media – not only propaganda

        The Internet was developed by US Army. It was made because of need of fast
communication – and this advantage is now used by terrorists against the developers.
        But Internet is not only a place for propaganda – it is a storehouse of knowledge.
Knowledge of tactics, recruitment and “know-how”. For example - there are tutorial movies
showing step-by-step how to make suicide belt bomb, what materials has to be used, how the
belt should be mounted – and even shows on the model in what conditions should be detonated
to make more damages. These movies includes schema, examples, pictures instructions in
very simple way and words. After an Afghan War and Iraq War there still remain a lot of
explosives from unexploded bombs - this movies show how to disposal these bombs and how
to use their elements to make own bombs.
        The most terrifying is that this knowledge can be used by anyone. The same sites are
used for example by Al Aqsa Brigade in Palestine. Zakariya Zbeide – the leader – says:
“prescriptions are on the Internet everyone who wants can find it and make a bomb”.
        Al-Qaeda was learning from others and now it makes this knowledge public. For
example manual training called “Declaration of Jihad (Holly War), Against the country’s
tyrants, Military series” has been found in Great Brittan. The Fifth lesson - “Means of
communication” describing they way of using weapon, managing the cells of organization and
invigilation technique. It includes specific clues about using cellular phones – phone numbers
can not be write in the phones memory. “Communication is double-edged sword: It can be the
advantage if we will use it well and it can be a knife dug into our back If we do not take
necessary security” - the terrorist from Madrid did not follow the instructions and they has
been traced by the police.
        In America die to free information distribution – military handbooks are accessible on
the Internet, they are used by a terrorists. The problem is that even after elimination of all
leaders this knowledge will survive in the Internet and still be easy to get – and the trainings
may be continued and the war can goes on .
        More than 70% of the Al-Qaeda fighters is from Saudi Arabia 15% from Syria –
Internet deliver information and contacts for them.
        In every war, the control of the media is very important – because of support of the
public. Because of technology – the terrorists are using an Internet to fight. On the Middle East
Al-Qaeda is broadcasting thru their own on-line television – The Voice of Khalifat. They have
their own medial industry, they are making their own movies, they have Internet.
        The terrorists know the power of medial propaganda - they allow to journalists to be
with them an document everything they are doing. Presented images of the great, heroic
battles, smiling suicide bomber recruits are very danger manipulation.
        Now terrorist can recruit their supporters in every place on the world.


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        The suicide bomber attack are very effective terrorist tactics – no matter who and where
they will be committed. In October of the 1983 suicide bomber run with truck into the
American headquarters in Beirut. 241 American marines has been killed. The highest number
of causalities in one attack from the second world war. Three months later American forces are
leaving Liban. From the 80s of the XX century, there was above 9.000 people killed in suicide
bombers attack in around 20 countries.
        The August 2003 suicide bomber truck explodes near the offices of the United Nations
in the Baghdad – 22 official were killed. Soon after the representatives of the United Nations
have left Iraq.
        In the 90s Al-Qaeda developing their own “factory” of “human bombs” – the training
camps in Afghanistan. Bin Laden success because he convinced the people that they will
became saints martyrs and they will achieved a paradise. Bin Laden says “without the highest
sacrifice the life in this world is worthless, sacrifice this life to have next, better one”.

Conclusions
        In the 21st-century, technology allows terrorists to forward their ideology, tactics and
state of fear worldwide. Today, Human bombs – suicide bombers – are recruited in cyberspace,
and the global network provides an important political stage for terrorists. Among us, there are
terrorists using everyday technologies against us to spread fear and destruction.
        This new kind of terrorism uses all available tools and knowledge – not only a weapons
and specific explosives. They use the Internet, television, computers, networks, cellular
phones, and even easily accessible chemicals used in household cleaning products.
        The commonly used mobile phone has proved to be one of terrorism’s most useful
tools. The latest models have the computing power of a processor and more storage-memory
then the deck-computer of a F-15 fighter jet. Mobile phones with cameras can be used for the
marking and identification targets in the real time.
        The profile of a terrorist is also changing thanks to technology. Potential terrorists are
recruited now from Western countries – from the peoples born in the West, with western
education. These terrorists are so deeply rooted in Western society that they are above
suspicion, and their attacks are completely unpredictable.
        The independent and self-sufficient cells of the Al-Qaeda organization can contact, plan
and coordinated their attacks thanks to technology. They do not need to rely on leaders like Bin
Laden (who function primarily as figureheads) to provide instruction and direction, so no
noticeable link can be traced back.
        From this we can deduce that the next logical step is cyber-terrorism – cyber-attacks on
logical network infrastructures. Imagine what could happen if terrorists took control of, for
example, the airport control-system. In this age, computers are everywhere they manage
everything from traffic to the pricing of goods at the local department store. And they are all



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linked via networks – so attacks can be conducted from any location and on any computer that
is connected. It is only matter of time, resources and knowledge.
        At the beginning I quoted Salman Rushdi. His claim is interesting due to the “identity-
involvement-dilemma” pointed out by several Western observers. The dilemma is presented as
follows: Islamist terrorists criticize the West for its ‘decadent’ and imperialist life style,
reigned by capitalism and technology. Technology is viewed as part of the materialism of
Western culture, and interaction with technology—so goes the Islamist criticism—will per se
involve one into Western materialism. The consistent reaction of Islamists should thus be to
stay away from technology and retain the pre-industrial, pre-technological culture of Islamic
societies in their pure fashion. The more Islamists involve themselves with Western
technology, the more they endanger the identity of the Islam. Terrorists have become members
of Western culture, one could argue, in so far as they use Western propaganda tools and
techniques…
        I am not sure where this distinction between faith, claims and the behavior derives from
– does the end justify the means? Rushdie said that terrorism could be defeated only when the
Islamic world will accept laic and humanistic values as their own fundamental thinking about
modern world. This possibility though seems to be idealistic and impossible – at least in the
near future.
        The above conclusions lead to the question: Should access to technology and
knowledge be controlled and limited? Free access to knowledge and information is one of the
fundamental requirements of democracy. Technology is part and parcel of a culture that
believes in free public access to knowledge. Thus, the employment of methods to safeguard
technology against terrorist abuse would alter its democratic identity.
But ideal, utopian democracy does not and has never existed. To act as if perfect democracy
existed worldwide would be foolish and idealistic, something all politicians are aware of –
hence the existence laws and governments. So, why be foolish and idealistic in this one aspect?
Access to some technologies have to be restricted because to not do so would be to leave the
door wide-open for terrorism to take advantage of.




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