2nd lecture 2nd semester 2008 by B7BONZL

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									                University of Palestine
  College of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning
Department of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning




LIGHTING DESIGN IN
   ARCHITECTURE
           “DAYLIGHT”
                       Instructor:
             M Sc. Eng. Nagham Ali Hasan


               2nd lecture- 2nd semester                 2008/2009
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     DAYLIGHT:
                     Importance Of The Daylight
                     Daylight Sources
                     Daylight Components
                     Daylight Strategies
                     Daylight Calculations



Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
    Three Components of Daylighting
    Design
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    ���� Aesthetics (light and shadow, color, view…)
    ���� Human performance (psychology and biology
     benefits)
    ���� Energy (sustainable design)




     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
    Daylight for the beauty !
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       How much daylight
        (footcandles- lux)
       Quality of light (glare
        and luminance ratios)




    Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
        Sky conditions:
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    Clear sky : Sky that is less than 30% cloud cover.
    Overcast sky: Sky completely covered by clouds,
    no sun visible




                                               Cloudy sky: Sky having more than 70% cloud
                                                   cover.

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                               Typical illuminances E and luminances
                                      under daylight and electric light.




    Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
        Components of the Natural Light :
        There are three separate components of the natural light that reaches any
         point inside a building:

   Sky Component (SC) - Directly
    from the sky, through an opening such
    as a window.
   Sky Component (SC) depends on:
    1.    Width of the window
    2.    Distance between the point and
          window
        SC varies from 0.01 to 15%                     Fig: Components of the Natural Light
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    2.     Externally Reflected Component
           (ERC) - Reflected off the ground, trees or
           other buildings.
         Externally Reflected Component (ERC) is small.
          The luminance of obstrction is taken as 10-20% that
             of the sky

    3.     Internally Reflected Component
           (IRC) - The inter-reflection of 1 and 2 off
           surfaces within the room.
         Internally Reflected Component (IRC): is a half of
              SC and is therefore significant




         Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
        Daylight Component…
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            Daylight factor defined as:
         The ratio of daylighting illumination
           on a horizontal point indoors to the
                                                                    For cloudy sky
           horizontal illumination outdoors,
           expressed as a percentage.




                                                                      For clear sky




    Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
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     Key Architectural Issues
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     The daylight factor in a particular building space depends upon a
     number of design factors including
        1.    • size of daylight apertures (windows, skylights, etc.);
        2.    • location of daylight apertures (sidelighting, toplighting, etc.);
        3.    • access to daylight (considering the site, building, and room
        4.    contexts);
        5.    • room geometry (height, width, and depth);
        6.    • location of the point of interest relative to apertures;
        7.    • visible transmittance (VT) of glazing;
        8.    • reflectances of room surfaces and contents;
        9.    • reflectances of exterior surfaces affecting daylight entering the
              aperture;
        10.   • the effects of daylighting enhancements (such as light shelves).
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         The daylight illuminance at any given point in a building depends
           upon the factors noted above and:
              • the building’s global location and prevailing climate;
              • the time of day/month/year;
              • the current sky conditions.

     Daylight factor versus illuminance as a measure of
     daylighting. The illuminance values will change throughout
     the day, while the daylight factors will be reasonably constant
     throughout the day (under similar sky conditions).




             Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Daylight systems:
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        How redirect the daylight into spaces??
               1.    Windows
               2.    Saw-tooth
               3.    Monitors
               4.    Skylight
               5.    Atrium



         Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
      Vertical windows:
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     •Useful daylighting will only reach a
     distance of 2.5 times the height of
     the top of the window above the
     work plane (usually taken at a desk
     height of 60 cm
     • In a standard office building with
     a window height of 2.5 m, this
     means a maximum of about 5-7
     metres .




                                                         Cross section showing lighting distribution
                                                            from a single-sided window installation

      Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Windows…
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              The Effect of Windows on Two Sides of a Room on DF

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      In overcast sky condition:
     Long thin horizontal windows will not prvide as much light per
       unit area as taller more vertical windows




                                     The Effect of Window Height on DF

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     •       Fig. shows how the DF
            varies across a room using
            two types of windows,
            both having the some total
            area:
           (a) is for three tall
            windows, and
           (b) is for one long, high-
            level window.
           Window (a) will give a
            good open view, but (b)
            will provide more even
            daylight illumination.
                                                                  The Effect of Window Shape on DF
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      Cross section showing how
     illumination vectors become
     more horizontal as sidelight
     travels deeper into a space




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     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Light shelf & ceiling reflectors




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                                                                     Typical lightshelf.




                                        Minimum Reflectance Values

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       Skylight :
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     Double-glazed units and a range of
     louvered systems should be used
     wherever possible to reduce
     conducted heat losses. Appropriate
     no. of units is 5% of ceiling area




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                                                                        
                                                                         




                                                                               
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
                                                                             
                                                                               
                                                                           
                                                                            



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     English court
          
         
         
         




           
          
         
         

                
                 
                 
                 




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                         Roof Monitor




                           •   Saw-tooth skylight

     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
         Saw-tooth
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       Saw-tooth inclination




        Saw-tooth orientation


     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
                                                                      Saw-tooth reflectors
     Saw-tooth
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      Saw-tooth preferred dimension




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     Rooflights at Crookham Church
     School. (Architects: Edward Cullinan Architects.)




                                                                            Mt. Airy Public Library

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     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
                Kimbel Art Museum - Louis
                           Kahn


                        Use light reflectors under the light system to defuse the light
                                          through the internal space
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     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Atrium
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                                              •


     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
                  Mashroom column.
                    Frank loyd Write

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                    Celestins Square (The Car Bark) Central Shaft -Germany



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     Artificial light & Daylight factor
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                                                              Daylight factor   Artificial light
         The required quantity of
                                                                                     (lux)
          artificial light input is to achieve
          an illumance at the rear of the                           %0.5              250
          room comparable to, but
          slightly less than, the daylight                          %1.0              500
          illuminance near the window.
          For example:                                              %1.5              750

                                                                    %2.0            1,000




         Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Innovated Daylighting Systems
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      •Light Pipes:
      •The system consists of:
      1.COLLECTOR /CONCENTRATOR
      2.TRANSPORT SYSTEM
      3.EMITTER




                                                                 The Light Pipe Principle
      Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Light Pipes…
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     Representative
     measured light levels
     in tall shafts at De
     Montfort University’s
     Queens Building.




         Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
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                            ‫فراغ معيشة قبل وبعد استخدام أنابيب اإلضاءة‬


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                                  London Art museum

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                       Polla museum in Japan                         

     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
          ‫‪The Heliostat System‬‬
             ‫الهيليوستات نظام لالستفادة القصوى من الضوء الطبيعي قد يكون سلبي أو إيجابي فهو يتكون من‬
                                           ‫مرايا وعدسات تركز الضوء الطبيعي إلى داخل فتحة جهاز النقل.‬




                                                 ‫‪The Heliostat System‬‬
‫94‬   ‫‪Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture‬‬
                                              The Heliostat System




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     Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
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     ‫استخدم ثالث أجهزة هيليوستات 22‪ x‬متر مواجهة للشمس مع استخدام مرايا بدرجة انعكاسية أعلى‬
      ‫السقف الزجاجي فوق الفناء الداخلي كوسيلة إلضاءة الفراغ وذلك بنقل الضوء الطبيعي إلى قاعة‬
                                             ‫االستقبال.‬
                                    ‫مركز تجاري - برلين المانيا‬
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                                                                     -5




                           )movable-orientable Glass Louvres(



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        The Glass Louvers may be installed as a movable or fix system




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       Daylighting calculations
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     Where,
     T is the diffuse light transmittance of the
     glazing including the effects of dirt, blinds,
     obstructions and coverings;
     Aw is the window area (m2);
     θ: is the vertical angle subtended at the centre
     of the window by unobstructed sky;
      A is the total area of indoor surfaces (ceiling,
     walls and floor, including glazing);
     R is the area-weighted average reflectance of
     ceilings, walls and windows.




          Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     Example:Daylighting calculations
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        An office room with 4*3m , height 2.5m assume that T = 0.75 and
        Reflectance of the ceiling= 0.7
        Reflectance of the wall= 0.5
        Reflectance of the window= 0.1
        Reflectance of the floor= 0.3




         Environmental Systems in Architecture - Daylight- 2nd lecture
     The total area of the room is 59 m . The average reflectance is area weighted in the following way:
                                          2




     (R side wall) × (Area side wall) = (0.5)(3)(2.5) = 3.75
     (R side wall) × (Area side wall) = (0.5)(3)(2.5) = 3.75
     (R back wall) × (Area back wall) = (0.5)(4)(2.5) = 5.00
     (R front wall) × (Area front wall) = (0.5)(10  2.25) = 3.88
     (R window) × (Area window) = (0.1)(2.25) = 0.23
     (R ceiling) × (Area ceiling) = (0.7)(4)(3) = 8.4
     (R floor) × (Area floor) = (0.3)(4)(3) = 3.6
                                                    ——————
                                                        Total = 28.61




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         Indicative daylight factors
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     .




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        (a) Sidelighting average
                DF= 20(Ag/Af)%
      (in the area adjacent to the window to
                 about 2Hwin away).



        (b) Horizontal skylight:
              DF = 50(Ag/Af)%,
     where DF is the daylight factor as a
        percentage, Ag is the area of
        glazing (m2), Af is the area of floor
        to be lighted (m2),

     and Hwin is the window head height (m).

								
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