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TUDRIDEP Strategic Plan1

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TUDRIDEP Strategic Plan1 Powered By Docstoc
					          TUMU DEANERY RURAL INTEGRATED
             DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

                            (TUDRIDEP)

                   *        *       *         *     *

                        STRATEGIC PLAN

                                2011 – 2015




Theme: Empowering Rural People through Sustainable Skill
Development
Kofi Adade Debrah, Development Consultant, P. O. Box AF943, Adenta, Ghana.
Tel. +233 (0)20 839 0326, (0)26 300 9519. E-mail: kdebrah@gmail.com.
Skype: kofi.adade.debrah
                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content                                                                   Page

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………….3
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………...5
HEAD OFFICE ADDRESS……………………………………………………………..5
LIST OF ACRONYMS………………………………………………………………….6
FOREWORD……………………………………………………………………………..7
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………...8

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION OF TUDRIDEP………………………………9
1.1 Vision, Mission and Strategic Objectives…...………..…………………………...9
1.2 Operational Area…………………………………………………………………..9
1.3 Staffing Situation………………………………………………………………...10
1.4 Fixed Assets……………………………………………………………………...10
1.5 Collaborating Partners and Financial Sources…………………………………...11
1.6 Programme Success and Challenges……………………………………………..12

CHAPTER TWO: ORGANIZATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSES…17
2.1   Organizational Assessment...…………………………………………………….17
2.1.1 Strengths………………………………………………...……………………….17
2.1.2 Weaknesses………………………………………………………...…………….17
2.2   Environmental Analysis………………………………………………………….18
2.2.1 Opportunities…………………………………………………..…………………18
2.2.2 Threats……………………………………………………………………………18
2.3   Possible Risks and Mitigation Strategies………………………………………...18

CHAPTER THREE: SITUATIONAL ANALYSES………………………..……….20
3.1 Agro-Ecological and Economic Characteristics…………………………………20
3.2 Governance Institutions………………………………………………………….22
3.3 Literacy, Access to Information and Gender…...………………………………..22
3.4 Water and Sanitation……………………………………………………………..25
3.5 Nutrition, Health and HIV/AIDS…………………………..…………………….26
3.6 Social Exclusion………………………………………………………………….31

CHAPTER FOUR: PROGRAMME IMPLIMENTATION………………...………32
4.1     Programme Goal…………………………………………………………………32
4.2     Objectives and Activities………………………………………………………...32
4.2.1 Food and Nutrition Security…………..………………………………………….32
4.2.1.1 Crop Production………………………………………………………………….33
4.2.1.2 Livestock Production…………………………………………………………….33
4.2.1.3 Agricultural Processing, Storage and Nutritional Campaign…………..………...33
4.2.1.4 Agricultural Marketing……………………………..……...……………..……...33
4.2.1.5 Agricultural Policy Advocacy and Networking…………………………………34



                                      1
4.2.2 Microfinance and Micro Enterprise Development………………………………34
4.2.2.1 Village Savings and Loans Associations……………………………...................34
4.2.2.2 Credit and Savings with Education……………..……………………………….35
4.2.2.3 Training in Business Skills Development………………………………………..35
4.2.2.4 Enterprise Development Policy Advocacy and Networking…………………….35
4.2.3 Quality Basic Education and Youth Development………………………………35
4.2.3.1 School Management Improvement……………………………………………....36
4.2.3.2 School Retention Campaign……………………………………………………..36
4.2.3.3 School Infrastructure and Materials Improvement..……………………………..36
4.2.3.4 Youth Skill Training……………………………………………………………..36
4.2.3.5 Education Policy Advocacy and Networking..…………………………………..37
4.2.4 Preventive and Curative Health…..……………………………………………...37
4.2.4.1 Anti-Malarial Campaign…………………………………………………………37
4.2.4.2 Maternal and Infant Mortality Reduction Campaign…………………………….38
4.2.4.3 Anti-HIV Transmission Campaign………………………………………………38
4.2.4.4 Health Policy Advocacy and Networking………………………………………..38
4.2.5 Water and Sanitation……………………………………………………………..38
4.2.5.1 Rain Water Harvesting…………………………………………………………...39
4.2.5.2 Bore Hole Provision and Utilization……………………………………………..39
4.2.5.3 Introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation……...………………………..39
4.2.5.4 Water and Sanitation Policy Advocacy and Networking………………………..40
4.2.6 Environmental Conservation…………………………………………………….40
4.2.6.1 Anti-Bushfire Campaign…………………………………………………………40
4.2.6.2 Tree Planting and Nurturing……………………………………………………..41
4.2.6.3 Integrated Pest Management……………………………………………………..41
4.2.6.4 Bee-Keeping……………………………………………………………………..41
4.2.6.5 Alternative Energy Sources……………………………………………………...41
4.2.6.6 Climate Change Adaptation……………………………………………………...42
4.2.6.7 Environmental Conservation Policy and Networking…………………………...42

CHAPTER FIVE: RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS………..………………………..43
5.1   Human Resource Requirements………………………………………………….43
5.1.1 Management and Staff…………………………………………………………...43
5.1.2 Staff Monitoring and Development……………………………………………...45
5.2   Fixed Assets Acquisition and Management……...………………………………45
5.3   Information, Communication and Technology…………………………………..45
5.4   Financial Mobilization…………………………………………………………...45

CHAPTER SIX: MONITORING, EVALUATION AND DOCUMENTATION.....47
6.1 Monitoring……………………………………………………………………….47
6.2 Evaluation, Research and Documentation………………………………...…..…48
6.3 Audit Procedures…………………………………………………………………48

REFERENCES…..……………………..………………………………………………49

APPENDIX: METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………..50

                                      2
                                  LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                              Page

1.1     TUDRIDEP’s fixed assets and their condition as at July, 2011…………….…...14

1.2     Programmes implemented and their positive effects.……………..……………..15

2.1     Possible risks and their mitigation measures…………………………..………...19

3.1     Population distribution by district, sex and rural occurrence in the UWR....……21

3.2     Per capita income and expenditure and population percentage (7 years and
        older) in agriculture and forestry in UWR as compared to national and GAR
        averages………...………..……………………………………………….………21

3.3     Household wealth by quintile in UWR as compared to national and GAR
        averages….………..……………..……………………………………….………22

3.4     Illiteracy level (people aged 6 years and above) and education gender gap
        in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages……...………….………....23

3.5     Percentage of children of primary school age attending school and secondary
        school gender parity in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages..…....23

3.6     Percentage of students in previous school year who are not attending school
        (drop out rates for de facto household population aged 5 to 24 years) in
        UWR as compared to national and GAR averages………...………….………....24

3.7     Percentage of people aged 15 to 49 years who are exposed to specific media
        on weekly basis by sex in the UWR as compared to national and GAR
        averages…………………………………………………………………………..24

3.8     Distribution of people aged 15 to 49 years employed in the last 12 months
        preceding the survey by occupation in UWR as compared to national and
        GAR occurrences……………………………………...…...………….………....24

3.9     2008 parliamentary results by sex in UWR as compared to national and
        GAR averages……...…………………………………………………………….25

3.10    Type of toilet facility used by households in UWR as compared national
        and GAR situation…………..…………………………………………………...25

3.11    Cholera outbreak in Ghana from September 2010 to 24th April, 2011…………..26




                                           3
3.12   Malnutrition rates for children 0 to 59 months and mothers (critical body
       mass index (BMI)) in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages ...…....26

3.13   Prevalence and prompt treatment of fever in UWR as compared to
       national and GAR averages……………………………………………………...27

3.14   Population of medical doctors and nurses and patient ratios in UWR as
       compared to national and GAR occurrences………………….…..……………..27

3.15   Children under 5 mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio of the UWR
       as compared to national and GAR averages……………………………………..27

3.16   Percentage of teenage females (aged 15 – 19 years) who were mothers
       and/or pregnant in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages……..……28

3.17   Condom use among youth aged 15 – 24 years at their last higher risk sex
       in the past 12 months in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages….…28

3.18   Proportion of people aged 15 to 49 years who know the main ways of
       preventing HIV transmission in UWR as compared to national and GAR
       averages…………………………………………………………………………..29

3.19   Proportion of people (15 to 49 years) who have comprehensive knowledge
       of HIV/AIDS in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages……...……..30

3.20   People’s (aged 15 to 49 years) attitude towards those living with HIV/AIDS
       in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages…………….…..………….31

3.21   The poor who felt socially excluded in 2004 and social exclusion index
       for 2005/2006 in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages……..……..31

5.1    Budget……………...…………………………………………………………….46

6.1    Programme, financial and audit reporting lines..……………………………...…47




                                         4
                               LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                                   Page

1        Map of Ghana showing the Position of the Upper West Region………………...10

2        Initial TUDRIDEP Organogram………………………………………………....13

3        Organizational Structure of Reconstituted TUDRIDEP..……………….……….44




                            HEAD OFFICE ADDRESS


    TUMU DEANERY RURAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
                          (TUDRIDEP)

                                   P. O. Box 65

                                  TUMU, UWR

                                     GHANA


                      Tel. + 233 (0)24 3172780, (0)20 8266545


                        E-mail: tudrideptumu@yahoo.com


                          Website: www.tudridepgh.org




                                        5
                           LIST OF ACRONYMS

ACDEP      Association of Church Development Programmes
AIDS       Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
BEd        Bachelor of Education
BMI        Body Mass Index
CHPS       Community-based Health Planning System
CLTS       Community-Led Total Sanitation
CONIWAS    Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation
CSwE       Credit and Savings with Education
FOODSPAN   Food Security Policy Analysis Network
Fr         Father
GAC        Ghana AIDS Commission
GAR        Greater Accra Region
GH¢        Ghana Cedi (Ghanaian currency)
GIMPA      Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
GSS        Ghana Statistical Service
GTLC       Ghana Trade and Livelihood Coalition
HDI        Human Development Index
HIV        Human Immunodeficiency Virus
MDG        Millennium Development Goal
MOFA       Ministry of Food and Agriculture
NGO        Non-Governmental Organization
NHIS       National Health Insurance Scheme
PHC        Population and Housing Census
PLWHA      People Living with HIV/AIDS
PTA        Parent-Teacher Association
Rev        Reverend
SFMC       Savannah Farmers Marketing Company
SMC        School Management Committee
Ss         Saints
St         Saint
TUDRIDEP   Tumu Deanery Rural Integrated Development Programme
US$        United States of America dollar (Currency of United States of America)
UNDP       United Nations Development Programme
UWR        Upper West Region
VSLA       Village Savings and Loans Association
WATSAN     Water and Sanitation
WHDR       World Human Development Report




                                       6
                                     FOREWORD

Though Ghana has recently been described as a middle income country, the 2010 World
Human Development Report (WHDR), has rated her in the low human development
category, perhaps due to high inequalities, placing it at 130th among 169 countries. For
the past 3 years, despite the fact that Ghana has enjoyed a relatively peaceful and stable
political environment, the 2010 WHDR has shown a retrogression in Ghana’s Human
Development Index (HDI) of 0.467 as compared to the 2007/2008 WHDR figure of
0.553 (over a scale of 0 being the lowest and 1 as the highest). This was underpinned by
a life expectancy at birth of 57.1 years, mean years of schooling of 7.1 years (with
expected years of schooling of 9.7 years) and a gross national income per capita (2008
US$ purchasing power parity) of US$1,385. The 2010 HDI performed better than the
Sub-Saharan African average of 0.389 but rather lower than a world value of 0.624.

The inequality that the Ghana HDI seems to predict has been validated by inter-regional
significant differences in the welfare indicators in Ghana with the Upper West Region
(UWR) almost always falling below the national average and the Greater Accra Region
(GAR) being on top. This therefore called for analyzing the UWR situation in
comparison with the national averages so that programme interventions will aim at
achieving the national average in the short term, while the GAR situation is targeted in
the long term. The national and GAR situation shows that once these feats have been
achieved in Ghana before, it is also possible for the UWR to reach there. With the UWR
having the lowest incomes, expenditure and savings, being the highest region depending
on agriculture and forestry coupled with high illiteracy rates and highest deforestation
rate – all these have resulted in a north-south migration thereby robbing the region of the
needed human resource to help develop the area.

With over 35 years of existence, TUDRIDEP has gained experience in agricultural
development and extension among the people of the UWR of Ghana. For example,
having been credited as the pioneers of animal traction especially in the Sissala East
District, the next five years will concentrate on the consolidation of gains made over the
years and scaling up of best practices. Programme strategy will mainstream gender
equality by ensuring that no particular gender is disadvantaged while at the same time
applying affirmative action to correct gender inequality over time. TUDRIDEP will also
entrench egalitarian principles to minimize inequality to engender peace for all.

Situated within the context of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs), the programme will employ a two-pronged approach of combining a needs-
based approach with a rights based one towards its central theme of Empowering Rural
People through Sustainable Skill Development. While the needs based approach seeks to
accelerate the filling of a development gap perpetuated over the years by inadequate
resource allocation, the rights-based approach hopes to inculcate a sustainable way of the
populace getting what is due them while honouring their responsibility concurrently.

Kofi Adade Debrah,
September, 2011.

                                            7
                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Commencing over 35 years ago, TUDRIDEP has a mission of empowering rural resource
poor people to claim their rightful place in the socio-economic and political environment
that they find themselves, tailored towards a vision of an egalitarian and self reliant
society. The strategic objectives of the organization are targeted at ensuring food
security, access to financial services, enterprise development, quality education, youth
development, preventive health and environmental conservation. With a 5-member
Board of Trustees in place, the organization has a total staff of 24 operating in 3 districts
of Sissala East, Sissala West and Wa East districts of the UWR. Over the years, the
organization has gained resilience in the delivery of its agricultural subject matter and
other areas to the people of the 3 districts, however, it has had a weakness in adequate
resource mobilization to carry out its intended projects. With opportunities abounding in
vast agricultural potential of its target area, it is still battling with the threat of richer
organizations poaching her staff. This it hopes to overcome by strengthening its financial
campaigns to attract enough funds to execute her projects and retain her staff.

A situational analysis conducted at the UWR level indicated that the target area is far
behind the other regions of Ghana and in most cases falling below the national average.
The agro-ecological situation portrayed poor soil conditions, erratic rainfall and poor
ambience conditions which makes agricultural development in the region quite difficult.
Despite the fact that the strong democratic governance in place offers a conducive
environment for development, illiteracy is high with minimum access to information and
serious gender disparities. Water facilities in the region are good but under a threat of
breaking down as the people’s willingness to pay to maintain the facilities are in doubt.
Sanitation is a serious problem that needs to be given attention to save the communities
of possible epidemic outbreak. Maternal and infant nutrition situation is still not the best
with the rate of HIV infection increasing in the past 2 years. Social exclusion is high as a
result of increasing inequalities which does not augur well for peaceful co-existence.

Programme response to the problems elucidated above has identified the reduction of
infant and maternal mortality by 20% as its overall goal. This is hoped to be achieved by
implementing projects in Food and Nutrition Security, Microfinance and Micro
Enterprise Development, Quality Basic Education and Youth Development, Preventive
and Curative Health, Water and Sanitation and Environmental Conservation. Each
programme will engage in advocacy and networking with other NGOs to ensure that
duty-bearers deliver on their responsibilities to the people.

In pursuance of these, TUDRIDEP will mobilize human and financial resources by re-
training existing staff, re-assigning them to new strategic positions and filling up vacant
ones to consolidate the programme and scaling up to 2 more districts in depth, but
operating at a general UWR level. This will need re-tooling with the state-of-the-art
information, communication and technology and other fixed assets, together with a total
financial need of US$35,456,956 after a minimal contribution of US$383,400 from its
microfinance programme. A strong monitoring, evaluation, research and documentation
process supported by a good audit arrangement will ensure donors’ value for money.

                                              8
                                     CHAPTER ONE

                           INTRODUCTION OF TUDRIDEP

Founded as the Tumu Agricultural Project in 1975 by the Fraternal Immaculate
Conception Brothers of the Roman Catholic Church with the basic objective of making
agricultural inputs supply and introduction of animal traction services to the people of the
then Sissala District of the Upper West Region (UWR) of Ghana, the organization
embarked on a larger geographical and programme expansion to be transformed and
known as the Tumu Deanery Rural Integrated Development Programme (TUDRIDEP) in
1987. Currently TUDRIDEP operates in the Sissala East, Sissala West and Wa East
Districts of the UWR. Programmes now pursued are in micro finance, enterprise and
market linkages, environmental conservation, gender analysis, HIV/AIDS education,
cooperative development, market access and small ruminant production

1.1     Vision, Mission and Strategic Objectives
The vision of TUDRIDEP is an egalitarian, conscious and self-reliant society with
sustainable sources of livelihood.

TUDRIDEP's mission is to empower rural resource poor people to claim their rightful
place in the socio-economic and political environment they find themselves and to
develop skills and attitude that lead to economic, social and cultural development as a
way towards greater human dignity.

The strategic objectives of the organization are to:
    Assist rural people to be food secured by taking advantage of viable aspects of the
       agricultural value chain;
    Facilitate the access to finance to help develop rural micro enterprises;
    Promote quality basic education by facilitating enrolment, pupil retention and
       effective teaching and learning;
    Develop the capacity of the youth for them to be engaged in viable enterprises;
    Raise the consciousness of rural people about preventive health towards healthy
       behavioural change;
    Raise environmental consciousness of society for a healthy earth for posterity.

1.2      Operational Area
Ghana, an English speaking country bordered by 3 Francophone countries of Cote
d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso and Togo to the west, north and east respectively, is located
between latitudes 4°44'N and 11°11'N and longitudes 1°11'E and 3°11'W with a land
area of 238,539 sq. km. At the south is the Atlantic Ocean with a coastline of 550 km.
Administratively, as shown in figure 1, the country is divided into 10 regions, which are
further divided into 212 districts. TUDRIDEP operates in 3 out of the 11 districts of the
UWR namely the Sissala East, Sissala West and Wa East. With the implementation of
this strategic plan in the next 5 years, the organization’s activities shall be extended to the
whole region which has a land mass of 18,480 sq. km. with a geographical boundary of
latitudes 9°35'N and 11°11'N and longitudes 1°25'W and 2°55'W.

                                              9
Figure 1: Map of Ghana showing the Position of the Upper West Region.




                                        10
1.3     Staffing Situation
The highest decision-making body in TUDRIDEP is a 12-member General Assembly.
They are responsible for policy formulation and auditing as well as receiving of annual
reports to ensure that the organization is being run according to laid down procedures.
Strategic and higher commitment decisions rests with the Board of Directors, a 5-member
group of experienced people of diverse relevant backgrounds to the organization’s
operations. The curriculum vitae of the Board members are as follows:

Williams Wuonang Tengviel, a retired educationist, is the Chairman of the Board of
Directors. He has extensive experience in the education sector as an Assistant Director
(Administration and Finance) at the Sissala District Education Office, Tumu (2003 to
2006), Assistant Headmaster, Tumu Technical Senior High School (2000 to 2003),
Circuit Supervisor (1990 to 1991), Tutor, Tumu Training College (1984 to 1990) and
Headmaster and Teacher, Primary, Middle/Continuation and Junior High Schools at
Tumu (1962 to 1984). Williams has also been a member of various professional bodies
such as the Ghana National Association of Teachers since 1962 of which he became the
Sissala District Secretary (1976 to 1982), Ghana Association of Visual Arts (1991) and
National Commission for Civic Education (1995 to 1999). In addition, he has served on
various social bodies as Chairman of the Supervisory Committee of the Tumu Credit
Union (1978 to 1984), Member, Interim Management Committee of the Sissala District
Assembly (1978 to 1984), Assemblyman, Buo Electoral Area in Sissala District (1989 to
1994), Chairman, Board of Directors, Tumu Credit Union (2000 to 2008) and from 2009
to date been a member of the Upper West Regional Lands Commission, Sissala West
District Assembly as Government Appointee and a volunteer teacher of Kanton Senior
High School, Tumu. He has carried out research work on the Importance of Skins in the
UWR of Ghana (1993), Handwriting in Schools (1999) and Chieftaincy of the Tumu
Paramountcy (2000). Mr. Tengviel holds a Bachelor of Education (BEd) degree (1999)
from the University of Education, Winneba.

Reverend (Rev.) Father (Fr.) Darius Tengan-Der, a priest with the Catholic Diocese of
Wa, is a member of the Board. He was an Assistant Priest with the Tumu Catholic
Church, a Bible Knowledge Teacher and Chaplain of the Kanton Senior High School
(1988 to 1991), a member of the Commission for Christian-Muslim Dialogue (1988 to
1993) and also taught at the Saints (Ss.) Peter and Paul Pastoral and Social Institute, Wa
(1991 to 1995). He also lectured at Saint (St.) Victor’s Major Seminary, Tamale (1999 to
2004) while also serving as the institutional representative on the West African
Association of Theological Institutions and a member of the Tamale Archdiocesan
Catechetical Commission. Since 2004 to date, he has been the Parish Priest of Gwollu
Catholic Church, the Dean of the Tumu Deanery of the Church and a member of the
Ghana Association of Biblical Exegetes. Within the same period, he has been a guest
lecturer in Biblical Studies at the Ss. Peter and Paul Pastoral and Social Institute, Wa and
serves as a resource person in various capacities at the parish, deanery, diocesan and
arch-diocesan levels. Academically, Fr. Tengan-Der has a Diploma in Philosophy and
Theology from the St. Victor’s Major Seminary, Tamale (1987), a Bachelor of Theology
degree from the Urbaniana University, Rome, Italy (1996) and a Masters Degree in
Biblical Studies from the Federal University of Calabar, Nigeria (1999).

                                            11
James Baduon Duma, an Agricultural Extension Practitioner and TUDRIDEP’s
Programme Coordinator, is the secretary to the Board. He taught at the Kundugu Middle
School (1967 to 1969) and Jakpa Primary School, Damongo (1970 to 1972). He was an
agricultural science tutor and head of agricultural science department for Gbewa Training
College, Pusiga (1974 to 1976) and Bagabaga Training College, Tamale (1979 to 1987).
He is the Manager of the Funsi Station and Coordinator of TUDRIDEP (1987 to date). In
addition, he has held other public offices as member of the Wa District Election
Committee (1990 to 1991), Chairman of the South Sissala Union (1993 to 2005),
government appointed Assembly Member, member of the Executive Committee and
Secretary to the Administrative and Management Sub-Committee of the Wa District
Assembly and the Chairman of the Funsi Area Council (1996 to 2000). Academically,
Mr. Duma holds a teacher’s certificate ‘A’ from the Bagabaga Training College (1970),
National Diploma in General Agriculture from the University of Ghana (1978) and
Master of Science in Agricultural Development from Crainfield University, Bedford,
United Kingdom. He also has professional certificates in community interactive planning
from the Institute of Local Government, Accra (2000), theology and human formation
from St. Victor’s Seminary, Tamale (1997), farm enterprise management from the
Management Development and Productivity Institute (1992) and Project Planning and
Implementation from the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
(GIMPA), Accra (1990).

Rev. Fr. Bennette Tang Bacheyie, a Catholic Priest with the Wa Catholic Diocese is a
member of the Board. He was an associate priest with Lassia-Tuolu parish (1991 to
1996), Wa Diocesan Chaplain of the Young Christian Students Movement and Chaplain
of the St. Francis Girls Senior High School, Jirapa (1996 to 2004). He was the Parish
Priest of St. Peter’s Parish, Lawra (2004 to 2006) and Project Coordinator/Secretary of
the Diocesan Development Office, Wa (2006 to date). He has also served on various
Boards and Committees at the following places: Jirapa District Education Disciplinary
Committee, District Education Planning Team, District Education Oversight Committee
and Jirapa Senior High School (1998 to 2004). The rest are Diocesan Health Services
Committee, St. Clare’s Vocational Institute, Nandom Agricultural Station and Lassia-
Tuolu Agricultural Station (2006 to date). He is also a member of the UWR Disaster
Management Committee (2007 to date). Academically, he holds a Diploma in Theology
from St. Victor’s Major Seminary, Tamale (1991) and a Certificate in Administration and
Management from GIMPA, Accra (2008).

Cyril Baakingwie, a Farmer and a Catechist with the Wallembelle parish of the Catholic
Church is a member of the Board. He holds a Senior High School Certificate (1993)
from the Pina Senior High School.

The Coordinator who reports to the Board of Directors is in-charge of the overall
development and administration of TUDRIDEP with total staff strength of 24. Operating
from 2 main stations, there are 2 station managers with the Tumu Station Manager
overseeing the Sissala East and West Districts and the Funsi Station Manager working in
the Wa East District with the rest of the staff reporting to them as illustrated in figure 2.



                                             12
Figure 2: Initial TUDRIDEP Organogram


                                   General Assembly


                                   Board of Directors


                                       Coordinator



     Manager – Tumu Station                                 Manager - Funsi Station



                     Accountant                            Accountant


                Office Support Staff                  Office Support Staff


  Market Access /Head of Extension                    Market Access /Head of Extension


   Project Staff/Extension Agents                       Project Staff/Extension Agents



Source: TUDRIDEP, 2011.


1.4     Fixed Assets
According to table 1.1, while 62.8% of TUDRIDEP’s assets are in good condition, 25.6%
are performing fairly with the remaining 11.6% not being good. Of the assets which are
in good condition, 33.3% of them have outlived their estimated life span and provision
needs to be made for their replacement in the near future. Though the Tata diesel car and
the refrigerator are within their lifespan, their conditions have been fair meaning that they
should also be provided for as well by 2013. On the whole, 5 motor-bikes need
immediate replacement whereas the others which are fair and the good ones that have
outlived their time should be replaced by the end of this strategic plan.




                                             13
Table 1.1: TUDRIDEP’s fixed assets and their condition as at July, 2011
Asset                      Quantity       Year of        Estimated Life       Present
                                          Purchase       Span (Years)         condition
Nissan diesel car               1             2002                5               Fair
                                1             2004
Tata diesel Car                 1             2008
Yamaha AG 100 motor-bike        5             2005                4              Good
Yamaha AG 100 motor-bike        5             2002                              Not good
Royal motorbike 100             5             2010                5              Good
Dell desktop computer           6             2006                3               Fair
Dell laptop computer            4             2007                               Good
Printers                        4             2009                5
Scanner                         1
Photocopier                     1
Refrigerator                    1             2007                                Fair
Furniture                       1             2005
Staff accommodation             5             1992               50               Good
Office space                    2
Source: TUDRIDEP, 2011.

1.5     Collaborating Partners and Financial Sources
Over the years, TUDRIDEP has been receiving funding from and collaborating with a
host of NGOs to implement its projects. Prominent among them are Tree Aid UK,
Action Aid Ghana, IFDC, SNV and ICCO. To ensure that the organization’s programme
is in line with government’s plans as well as avoiding duplication of efforts, there has
been collaboration in planning and implementation with the Ministry of Food and
Agriculture (MOFA), Department of Cooperatives, Environmental Protection Agency,
the Forestry Commission, Sissala East, Sissala West and Wa East District Assemblies.
The organization also collaborates with the Sissala Rural Bank and the Tumu
Cooperative Credit Union in its rural finance programs.

TUDRIDEP is a member of various networks to aid in its advocacy work and also take
advantage of such platforms for information sharing. Such groups include Association of
Church Development Programs (ACDEP), Ghana Trade and Livelihood Coalition
(GTLC) and the Food Security Policy and Advocacy Network (FOODSPAN).

1.6     Programme Success and Challenges
Since the inception of the organization the major challenge has been inadequate funding.
This has resulted in high staff attrition, inadequate qualified personnel, low emoluments
and inadequate working tools for staff to perform to their best. The bad nature of roads is
also a challenge as it leads to higher cost of maintenance.

Despite the challenges enumerated above, interventions implemented over the years in
targeted communities have resulted in some positive changes as depicted in table 1.2.



                                            14
Table 1.2: Programmes implemented and their positive effects
Programme Intervention                      Positive Changes
160 men trained in bullock traction and     Cost of land preparation reduced from
300 women trained in donkey traction.       GH¢40.00 to GH¢25.00. Participating
                                            farmer’s income improved by 20%.
                                            Workload on women reduced.
145 artisans from11 communities trained     Bullock implements tools and spare parts
in animal traction implements fabrication   available at cheaper price
1,600 farmers trained in sustainable land   Participating farmers have adopted
and water management practices.             sustainable land and water management
                                            system of farming and crop yields have
                                            increased by 8% with real income per
                                            farmer increasing by 15%
40 communities sensitized on post-harvest Good quality seed in the market for
losses and appropriate storage methods      cropping, food security improved and
through radio programmes and extension      family incomes increased
education
240 women trained in soya and moringa       Nutritional status of households improved as
processing for value addition               a result of improved cooking practices
114 primary groups of 1,627 members         Groups were able to absorb extension
(974 men and 653 women) were formed         message easier and their yields and income
and trained in crop productivity methods.   levels have increased
114 farmer groups formed and linked to      Bargaining power of farmers has become
Savannah Farmers Marketing Company          stronger. There is assured market and better
(SFMC)                                      farm gate price of agricultural commodities
24 groups trained and registered with       Farmer groups are recognized by
Department of Cooperatives and 54 more government and NGOs and have the legal
ready for registration                      backing to lobby and advocate for their
                                            rights
642.5mt of produce (maize and soyabean) Productivity increased by 17% and income
were mobilized for sale to SFMC for         level increased by 15%. General living
onward delivery to Upper West Agro-         conditions, health, education and nutrition
Industries Company, Wa and Golden           improved
Web, Kumasi, both processing industries
68 groups with 1,044 members linked to      Production and productivity increased and
microfinance institutions to have access to family incomes increased by 17%
credit for their farming business
36 groups trained in Village Savings and    5 women established chop bars which are
Loans Associations (VSLA) in 10             doing very well. The rest doing petty trading
communities                                 are generating income for their house hold
                                            needs. Individual businesses are growing
60 farmers from 5 communities have been Interest in small ruminant production
sensitized into 5 livestock farmers         increased. Income sources diversified with
associations                                nutritional status improved.



                                           15
10 groups from 2 communities trained in    Ecosystem and biodiversity enhanced.
forest products enterprise development     Incomes source of participating farmers
                                           diversified and income levels increased by
                                           10%
A 50,000 seedling nursery established      7,000 various tree varieties, 1,500 cashew,
                                           300 grafted mango, 1,200 teak and other
                                           seedlings have been produced for farmers
                                           to plant. Interest in tree planting increased
22 school environmental clubs formed       Awareness creation on minimization of
                                           environmental degradation enhanced
20 community environmental clubs formed    Education on environmental degradation
and trained to enforce bye-laws on bush    increased and attitudes changing
fires/environmental degradation
Sponsorship programme in 20 communities Children basic school needs and support
for 100 selected children in basic schools satisfied with parents relieved
Source: TUDRIDEP, 2011.




                                          16
                                   CHAPTER TWO

           ORGANIZATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSES

The internal dynamics and the external factors that affect the performance of an
organization are important for its efficient performance and its sustainability as well.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analyses is therefore necessary for the
organization to continue doing more in areas where it is strong, work on its weaknesses,
take advantage of opportunities available and combat and/or manage threats that are
within its surroundings in order for the organization to grow.

2.1     Organizational Assessment
Internal strengths and weaknesses of the organization are discussed as follows:

2.1.1 Strengths
     A committed and dedicated programme staff of 15 who form the nucleus for
      future programme expansion;
     Well entrenched in the area and well respected by participating communities;
     Strong collaboration with government departments, agencies and NGOs for
      implementation of activities;
     A strong 5- member Board of Directors who have diverse professional
      background in place to give strategic direction for the success of the organization;
     A strong budgeting, financial forecasting and cost controlling ability for effective
      programme planning and implementation;
     Good accountability processes in place to ensure prudent use of donor money;
     A good sense of urgency for quality project implementation thereby building trust
      with funding organizations;
     Project risk management ability leading to the development of contingency plans
      to forestall unforeseen occurrences that may derail programme implementation;
     Good linkages with prominent international organizations for successful
      partnerships in programme implementation;
     The services of the organization are relevant to local conditions and highly
      demanded by the rural people.

2.1.2 Weaknesses
     Inadequate logistical support e.g. cars and motor-bikes, limiting the needed
      frequency of field monitoring visits and programme implementation scope;
     Limited funding affecting the organization’s ability to recruit the requisite
      qualified staff and acquisition of sufficient assets for effective programme
      implementation;
     Inadequate number of qualified staff for programme planning and
      implementation;
     Lower remuneration package making TUDRIDEP vulnerable to staff poaching by
      other stronger organizations.



                                           17
2.2    Environmental Analysis
Friendly and inimical factors impinging on the organization are enumerated as follows:

2.2.1   Opportunities
       Friendly, peaceful and receptive communities for programme implementation;
       Presence of international NGOs which are ready for partnerships;
       Presence of radio stations in target areas that facilitate extension programs;
       Availability and accessibility to arable lands to promote agricultural programs;
       Presence of electricity to promote micro enterprises development and other
        cottage industries;
       Presence of financial institutions at district capitals to offer financial
        intermediation for microfinance linkage programs and other financial services;
       Presence of buoyant markets to support agricultural, micro finance and micro
        enterprise development activities;
       Good road and telecommunication network to facilitate networking and advocacy;
       Availability of qualified government staff in district capitals who could be used as
        resource persons to facilitate some training sessions;
       Favourable government policy environment for the smooth implementation of
        TUDRIDEP’s programs.

2.2.2 Threats
     Reduced donor funding as a result of international credit crunch;
     High depreciation of the Ghanaian currency sometimes throws the organization’s
      budget out of gear;
     Dependency on a single source of funding sometimes generates anxiety among
      management;
     Bad nature of roads in some rural areas impedes the movement of staff to such
      localities to implement programs;
     The free market economy policy of government threatens local agricultural
      produce marketing thereby affecting the agricultural enterprise development;
     Unpredictable weather conditions making farming a risky business, which is a
      threat to farming as a business;
     High illiteracy among farmers makes adoption rate of new technologies slow;
     Annual bushfires are a threat to investment in perennial tree crops and other
      agricultural investments making extension delivery sometimes difficult;
     Some unpleasant interference from politicians especially during election years
      makes community work difficult;
     Pockets of land and chieftaincy disputes in some communities sometimes affect
      project implementation;
     Staff trained by TUDRIDEP over the years have become targets of poaching by
      stronger organizations who offer better remunerative packages.

2.3     Possible Risks and Mitigation Strategies
The threats and risks that are likely to affect the organization in its effective performance
will be mitigated by taking actions as listed in table 2.1.

                                             18
Table 2.1: Possible risks and mitigation measures
Risk                                         Mitigation Measure
Reduced donor funding. This is seen as a TUDRIDEP will seek for diverse sources
high risk.                                   of funding by writing winning grant
Dependence on a single source of funding. proposals,          undertaking       consultancy
This is considered a high risk.              services for other organizations and
                                             institute a Credit and Savings with
                                             Education microfinance programme which
                                             will help it to recover part of its costs.
High depreciation of the Ghanaian cedi Undertake prudent financial management
which reduces the purchasing power of activities like short term bonds to maintain
funds over time. This is a low risk.         the value of the organization’s money at
                                             bank. Ensure timely implementation of
                                             projects to minimize the reduction of
                                             purchasing power which may affect the
                                             project.
Government’s        free    market    policy Intensification of agricultural marketing
threatening local agricultural marketing. network activities to take advantage of bulk
This is considered a medium risk.            marketing of produce and provision of
                                             quality assurance to remain competitive in
                                             the market.
Bad nature of roads making commuting Staff will set off earlier on field visits to
from one community to another difficult. avoid over-speeding thereby avoiding
This is a low risk.                          accidents.
Unpredictable weather conditions making Encouraging of farmers to plant short term
cropping a risky business. This is seen as a and drought resistant varieties of crops to
medium risk.                                 minimize the effects of dry conditions.
Chronic bushfires which sometimes Intensification of anti-bushfire campaigns
destroy people’s farms. This is a medium through institution of incentive measures
risk.                                        and advocacy for enforcing punitive
                                             regulations to reduce the menace.
Unpleasant interference of politicians in TUDRIDEP staff will remain politically
group activities. This is a low risk.        neutral all the time and avoid close
                                             alliances with politicians and/or aspirants.
Pockets of land and chieftaincy disputes in Staff will remain neutral all the time to
some target communities. This is a low land and chieftaincy issues and avoid close
risk.                                        alliances with chiefs and/or aspirants in
                                             such volatile areas.
Staff poaching by other NGOs. This is Institute motivational packages like
considered a low risk.                       training, better workplace relationships and
                                             better remuneration through better fund-
                                             raising ways and efficient use of existing
                                             resources.
Source: Author’s own construct, 2011.



                                            19
                                  CHAPTER THREE

                             SITUATIONAL ANALYSES

The situational analyses are done by comparing selected development indicators in the
UWR with national and Greater Accra Region (GAR) averages. This comparison is
being done for development interventions to be targeted at the national averages in the
short to medium term and to achieve the GAR (which has the best regional performance
in almost all the development indicators) levels in the medium to long term.

3.1     Agro-Ecological and Economic Characteristics
The agro-ecological situation of the UWR, according to Nyanteng and Dapaah (1997), is
partly Guinea Savanna Transition and Sudan Savanna. The vegetation comprises mainly
grasses and shrubs interspersed with lower tree occurrence. The commonest economic
trees in the wild are “Dawadawa” (Parkia clappertoniana) and Shea (Butyrospermum
parkii or Vitellaria paradoxa), of whose products are used in cooking and for medical
applications. Climatic changes are almost relatively in the extreme in the Ghanaian
context with inadequate and erratic rainfall patterns and low and high temperatures. The
rainfall, which is monomodal in nature, is about an average of 1,000 mm usually starting
in May/June and ending in September/October with temperatures between about 19C in
December/January and 42C in March/April. Relative humidity can go as high as 90% in
the rainy season and as low as 20% in the dry season. Dickson and Benneh (1988) have
described the soils as savannah ochrosols with a thin layer of acidic gleisols along the
River Volta while MOFA (2010) has indicated that they are poor in organic matter,
ranging from 0.5% to 1.3% thereby falling short of the optimum level of 5%. There is
“hard pan” formed beneath a considerable portion of the soil thereby resulting in major
run-offs during heavy rains which sometimes cause floods to destroy crops and also with
the soil losing its water to evaporation in shorter periods. Annual and chronic bushfires,
coupled with 96.3% of households depending on wood for cooking, is making the area
prone to desertification (Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), 2002). These poor soil
conditions have resulted in the occurrence of witchweed (Striga hermonthica), a cereal
parasite affecting cereal production seriously and general lower agricultural productivity.

Despite these unfavourable conditions, the region still has a great potential in livestock,
pulses, vegetable and cereal production, especially if complemented with irrigation
during the dry season. Crops commonly cultivated are maize, millet, sorghum, rice,
groundnuts, tomatoes, pepper, soyabean and cowpea. Livestock like cattle, sheep, goats,
pigs, guinea fowls, fowls and pigeons are also kept mostly not for commercial purposes
but for insurance, prestige and religious reasons.

The population is predominantly rural, as stipulated in table 3.1, with a sex ratio of 97
males to every 100 females. According to the GSS (2002), the population is young with
49.5% being below 18 years, the youth (18 to 24 years) constitutes 10.4% and the
remaining adult population of 40.1%. Another analysis gives the possible labour active
population of 15 to 64 years as 50.5% and the most sexually active and reproductive age
of 15 to 49 years forming 42.4% of the population. There is a high dependency rate as

                                            20
majority of the people below 25 years are in school with some 6.1% of the people being
above 64 years who are not likely to be in productive labour. The intercensal population
growth rate from 2000 to 2010 is 1.5% as compared to the national rate of 2.4% and the
GAR figure of 2.8%. These consequently resulted in population density growth rates of
persons per square meter of 31 to 37 (19.4%), 79 to 102 (29.1%) and 895 to 1,205
(34.6%) respectively. These growth rates may not necessarily mean that the fertility rate
of the UWR is low but may support the assertion of rural-urban migration i.e. from the
UWR to other parts of the country, particularly the GAR of which there is a growing
female porter phenomenon, known as Kayayo.

Table 3.1: Population distribution by district, sex and rural occurrence in the UWR1
District                                            Male      Female      Total   % Rural
Nadowli (Nadowli and Daffiama/Busie/Issa)          47,481     49,734     97,215    100.0
Sissala (Sissala East & Sissala West)              49,610     50,835    100,446     89.6
Jirapa/Lambussie (Jirapa & Lambussie/Kani) 54,867             58,906    113,773     86.3
Lawra (Lawra and Nandom)                           49,202     53,615    102,816     86.2
Wa (Wa East, Wa West & Wa Municipal)              132,195 131,319 263,514           70.3
Total                                             333,355 344,408 677,763           82.5
Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2002 and 2011.

Religious affiliation of the people, as recorded by GSS (2005), is 35.5% Christianity,
32.2% Islam, 29.3% Traditional African Belief and 0.6% not subscribing to any religious
practice. The even distribution of the 3 major religious affiliations therefore shows that
any common characteristics of the people cannot to be attributed to religion but rather
cultural. Comparatively, the UWR has the lowest income and expenditure in Ghana, and
as shown in table 3.2, the population is still mainly agrarian of which value addition to
agricultural produce is still not significant thereby resulting in low profits to their labour
in relating to markets culminating in majority of them spending less than US$1 per day
and classifying theme as absolutely poor. This, coupled with the low agricultural
productivity, has resulted in 34% of households being food insecure as compared to a
national average of 5% and a GAR occurrence of 1% (Biederlack and Rivers, 2009).

Table 3.2: Per capita income and expenditure and population percentage (7 years and
older) in agriculture and forestry in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages2
Category                                        UWR           National       GAR
Income (GH¢)                                     106            397          544
Expenditure (GH¢)                                166            644         1,050
% Population in agriculture and forestry        73.5            49.2          9.0
Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2002, 2008.

1
  After the 2000 population and housing census (PHC), more districts have been created by dividing
existing ones as shown with those in parentheses in the table. At the time of writing this document, the
Ghana Statistical Service had not published the 2010 district figures, therefore the figures here were
projected from the 2000 P.H.C. figures with the 2010 regional average of 20.6% and 14.7% male and
female increment respectively. The 2000 P.H.C. rural percentage is also maintained here.
2
  Exchange rate as at the time of data collection, June 2006, was US$1 = GH¢0.92 while at the time of
writing this report, February 2011, it had come to US$1 = GH¢1.51.

                                                  21
In terms of income distribution among the population, table 3.3 shows that it is only 3.1%
of the people in the UWR who are in the highest bracket, showing almost an inverse
relationship with that of the GAR of which it is 4.6% of their population who are in the
lowest quintile. The high population of households of 76.7% in the lowest quintile and
therefore being relative poor does not augur well for national stability as pronounced
income inequality in the society is likely to breed crime.

Table 3.3: Household wealth by quintile in the UWR as compared to national and GAR
averages
Quintile                    UWR (%)             National (%)         GAR (%)
Lowest                         76.7                 12.6                 4.6
Second                         12.5                 15.5                 9.1
Middle                          5.3                 18.2                15.5
Fourth                          2.4                 21.6                24.7
Highest                         3.1                 32.0                46.1
Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2008.

3.2      Governance Institutions
Preceded by a chequered political history since its independence in 1957, Ghana has been
running an executive presidential system in which the president has a 4-year mandate of
which he qualifies to be re-elected for a second and final term. Cabinet and other
ministers are nominated by the president and confirmed by parliament. The 230 member
parliamentary system though has a 4 year term for the parliamentarians, one can re-enter
several times as far as his/her constituency gives him/her the nod. There is an
independent judiciary of which the Chief Justice is nominated by the President and
approved by parliament and under normalcy, his/her term will end upon pension. There
are 10 administrative regions with each headed by a Regional Minister with a Regional
Coordinating Council administering the affairs of the region. The regions are further
divided into 212 districts with each being headed by a District Chief Executive. These
districts have District Assemblies of which 70% of members are elected through
universal total adult suffrage with the remaining ones being appointed by the
government, can pass bye-laws. The lowest level of government is the Unit Committees
at the community level of which members are also elected.

There are also traditional paramount chiefs of whose succession is through ascription of
members of exclusive royal families, who do not have political power but wield a lot of
social and political influence. Under these are divisional chiefs, chiefs and sub chiefs.
The paramount and divisional chiefs have traditional councils who see to the well-being
of their areas by ensuring peaceful co-existence of their people as well as attracting
development projects to their traditional areas. Counterpart female chiefs in the UWR
are quite few but community women leaders known as magajias are quite common.




                                           22
3.3     Literacy, Access to Information and Gender
As depicted in table 3.4, illiteracy is quite high among the people of the UWR as
compared to the rest of the country. The relatively low development of the UWR can be
attributed to its low level of human resource capacity limiting their access to information
for decision-making, especially in the case of females as they form the majority of the
population. The persistence of illiteracy despite government and other NGOs efforts of
the provision of school infrastructure and other teaching and learning materials, could be
attributed to inadequate qualified teachers. Because most settlements are rural, lack
electricity and do not offer good opportunities for further capacity building, most teachers
avoid postings to these areas to help arrest the illiteracy problem.

Table 3.4: Illiteracy level (people aged 6 years and above) and education gender gap in
UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Sex                          UWR (%)              National (%)           GAR (%)
Male                            41.1                  22.3                  9.2
Female                          54.0                  31.3                 15.7
Total                           47.8                  27.1                 12.7
Gender gap                      12.9                   9.0                  6.5
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al, 2009.

The problem of some children not being in school still persists as children still help their
parents in catering for livestock and on the farms, especially the boys, hence table 3.5
showing a high gender disparity in favour of girls. The boy child being worse off in the
UWR has been a result of an affirmative educational action for girls by NGOs such as
Catholic Relief Services, the World University Services of Canada and Action Aid
International Ghana, through activities such as “food for school” and the girls’ vacation
camps.

Table 3.5: Percentage of children of primary school age attending school and secondary
school gender parity in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Category                                  UWR            National           GAR
Male (%)                                   56.0             75.4            86.9
Female (%)                                 65.2             75.3            86.8
Total (%)                                  60.4             75.3            86.8
Primary school gender parity               1.16             1.00            1.00
Secondary school gender parity             1.20             0.99            0.87
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2006.

In addition, table 3.6 presents the worst scenario of drop-out rates in the UWR with the
highest case happening in grade 6. This also contributes highly to the illiteracy problem
in the region. The problem of unfriendly school environments of which the causes could
be linked to inadequate teachers, inadequate teaching and learning materials,
inappropriate teaching methodologies, caning, bullying, sexual abuse and hunger, among
others. There is also a problem of inadequate infrastructure and qualified teachers for
pre-schools as it was just recently recognized by government and provision has not been
made for them over the years.

                                            23
Table 3.6: Percentage of students in previous school year who are not attending school
(Dropout rates for de facto household population aged 5 to 24 years) in the UWR as
compared to national and GAR averages
       Grade                UWR (%)              National (%)           GAR (%)
          1                    11.3                   3.7                  3.1
          2                    13.5                   4.0                  4.3
          3                    12.9                   4.9                  5.5
          4                     9.4                   3.9                  4.6
          5                     8.8                   3.7                  4.9
          6                    17.3                   4.2                  5.8
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al, 2009.

For a people to develop, access to information is critical for effective decision-making in
order to make informed choices. Though access to radio is quite encouraging across the
entire country, the other forms of media especially in the case of newspapers is not the
best with its attendant gender disparity with the UWR being the worst off with 29.9% of
the female sample not having access to any form of media, according to table 3.7.

Table 3.7: Percentage of people aged 15 to 49 years who are exposed to specific media
on weekly basis in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Access to a type of media       UWR (%)           National (%)        GAR (%)
at least once a week          Men      Women    Men     Women      Men      Women
Newspaper                     13.6         9.5  25.8       14.8    48.9       27.6
Television                    42.0        27.4  61.2       54.0    88.1       80.8
Radio                         81.6        63.9  88.3       76.4    90.6       80.5
All three media               10.2         5.0  21.5       11.7    43.2       23.5
None of the above             13.7        29.9   7.9       16.7     2.5        8.0
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.

It is therefore not surprising that table 3.8 will show men being about 3 times more of
women in the professional/technical/managerial because of lower literacy of women and
most women not having access to information. This puts men more in decision-making
positions of policy formulation and implementation to perpetuate the gender gap.

Table 3.8: Distribution of people aged 15 to 49 years employed in the last 12 months
preceding the survey by occupation in the UWR as compared to national and GAR
occurrences
Occupation                              UWR (%)        National (%)      GAR (%)
                                     Men Women Men Women Men Women
Professional/technical/managerial     6.3       2.1  12.2      4.6    19.8      6.7
Clerical                              2.1       1.4   8.4      1.8    11.7      6.0
Sales and services                    6.3      26.6  12.4     51.4    24.9     70.3
Skilled manual                        9.8      16.2  20.5     10.7    31.7     12.5
Unskilled manual                      0.7       0.0   0.9      0.2     3.1      0.3
Agriculture                          71.2      52.0  41.6     29.9     4.3      3.4
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al, 2009.
                                            24
Parliament being the highest law-making body in Ghana saw only 8.7% of its members
being women at the inception of the 2008 parliamentary session as shown in table 3.9.
This percentage has further reduced to 8.3% as one of the women parliamentarians died
and has been succeeded by a man. In the UWR, out of the 10 parliamentarians and 9
District Chief Executives3, there is only 1 woman in each case.

Table 3.9: 2008 parliamentary results by sex in UWR as compared to national and GAR
averages
Category                      UWR                   National            GAR
Constituencies                  10                    230                 27
Sex                      Men        Women        Men     Women     Men      Women
Contestants               46            5        961         98    104         18
% Contestants            90.2          9.8       90.7       9.3    85.2       14.8
Winners                    9            1        210         20     23          4
% Winners                90.0         10.0       91.3       8.7    85.2       14.8
Source: Calculated by author from http://www.ghanadistricts.com/mps/ accessed
3/2/2009; http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/election2008 accessed 3/3/2009.

3.4     Water and Sanitation
The access to improved sources of water is 94.8% for the UWR as compared to a national
average of 78.1% and a GAR figure of 88.1% (GSS et al., 2006). In 2010, the UWR
office of Community Water and Sanitation Agency reported that there were 1,639
boreholes and 17 small town piped systems in the 926 communities in the UWR. Despite
the fact that the UWR has the highest access to potable water in Ghana, its sustainability
is questionable as the people’s willingness to pay is very low and for that matter money
to be used for maintenance has become a problem. Conversely however, as illustrated in
table 3.10, the UWR has the worst situation of sanitation in the country as 78.7% of
households have no toilet facility and therefore use the bush or field.

Table 3.10: Type of toilet facility used by households in UWR as compared to national
and GAR situation
Category                                  UWR (%)       National (%)    GAR (%)
Use of improved sanitary facility           17.2            60.7          85.5
Use of unimproved sanitary facility          3.4            14.8           6.2
No facility or bush or field                78.7            24.4           8.1
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2006.

Interestingly however, according to table 3.11, the UWR recorded the lowest cases of
cholera incidence. The cholera incidence as a percentage of the total national occurrence
ranges from 0.3% in the UWR to 66.0% in the GAR. In the UWR, the epicenter of the
disease was found to be the Jirapa District as 8 cases were reported out of the total
occurrence of 10 for the whole region. This does not mean that the region should relent
in its efforts on good sanitation campaign as table 3.10 showed a situation of a “sanitation
time bomb” if nothing is done to check the open defaecation menace.

3
    At the time of writing, 2 new districts have been created but no new chief executives appointed yet.

                                                       25
Table 3.11: Cholera outbreak in Ghana from September 2010 to 24th April, 2011.
Category                                UWR               National          GAR
Cases                                    10                 7,988           6,518
Cases per 100,000 of population          1.5                 33.0           166.7
Deaths                                    0                   89             53
Case fatality rate (%)                    0                   1.1            0.8
Source: Ghana Statistical Service and Ghana Health Service, 2011.

3.5      Nutrition, Health and HIV/AIDS
Inadequate food supply at a tender age in life, i.e. both in the womb and before age 5, is
critical as a bad nutritional start for an individual can affect his/her personal development
for life. Among the 3 comparative areas, table 3.12 shows that the UWR nutrition
situation is the worst for both under 5 years children and women of child bearing age.
The stunting indicator which shows chronic malnutrition is worrisome as more than a
quarter of children are found with this problem. Malnutrition condition is a function of
several factors of which the critical ones include inadequate food intake, which confirms
the food insecurity situation of the region, and inappropriate food mix of which the
nutrition composition of households is inadequate. Worm infestation also promotes
malnutrition as the worms share ingested food with children in their intestines. Though
much is being done in terms of de-worming as Biederlack and Rivers (2009) have
reported a de-worming rate of 77.3% for children in the UWR as compared to 69.8% and
83.9% for national and GAR respectively, the UWR stands a high risk of re-infection as
the open defaecation being practised perpetuate tapeworm infestation as pigs and cattle
(secondary hosts) also feed on tapeworm eggs infested grass from the field. Therefore
any beef or pork that is not well cooked before eating could bring tapeworm infestation.

Table 3.12: Malnutrition rates for children 0 to 59 months and mothers (critical body
mass index (BMI)) in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Indicator                             UWR (%)         National (%)      GAR (%)
Global acute malnutrition                12.3              7.1             5.8
Severe acute malnutrition                 4.8              2.0             1.9
Stunting                                 25.5             22.1            10.6
Underweight                              16.8             11.6             6.6
Maternal body mass index < 18.5           9.7              8.3             4.9
Source: Biederlack and Rivers, 2009.

Taking fever as a proxy for disease prevalence, as it is the commonest symptom for
malaria, the prevalent disease in the UWR, its occurrence is higher than the national and
GAR cases, as shown in table 3.13. The prompt treatment of infant malaria is necessary
as delays could result in anaemia which could sometimes lead to infant deaths. So far the
percentage of sick children who had medical treatment is not encouraging in all the 3
indicators of treatment. Despite the fact that the use of insecticide treated mosquito nets
by children in the UWR is encouraging, as Biederlack and Rivers (2009) have reported
72.8% for the UWR as compared to 54.9% and 42.7% for national and the GAR
respectively, more need to be done in disease prevention in the UWR.


                                             26
Table 3.13: Prevalence and prompt treatment of fever in UWR as compared to national
and GAR averages
Category                                        UWR (%) National (%) GAR (%)
Children who had fever in the last 2 weeks       20.3        19.9         12.5
Children for whom advice or treatment was        44.3        50.7         53.8
sought from a health provider
Children who took anti-malarial drug             41.1        43.0         43.6
Children who took anti-biotic drugs              22.3        25.2         22.3
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.

Disease prevention need to be given priority through thorough observation of sanitation
and nutrition principles and practices as the UWR has the least number of medical
doctors as shown in table 3.14. Inadequate medical hardware, inadequate economic
activities to enable people to pay for private medical services, lack of educational
facilities for post-graduate medical courses, inadequate social amenities and the general
harsh environmental conditions could be cited as some of the reasons why most medical
doctors do not want to accept postings to the UWR. Though the nurses population is
comparatively encouraging for the region, the presence of medical doctors is critical
especially for maternal and child health.

Table 3.14: Population of medical doctors and nurses and patient ratios in UWR as
compared to national and GAR occurrences
Indicator                      UWR               National               GAR
Doctors                          15                1,855                 827
Nurses                          758               21,861                4,656
Doctor population ratio        44,736             13,074                5,177
Nurse population ratio          885                1,109                 919
Source: www.moh-ghana/Quick_links/facts_figures_content (accessed on 24/02/2011).

Under 5 years child mortality is comparatively high in the UWR as the situation is almost
twice for the national occurrence and almost three times the GAR situation, according to
table 3.15. The aforementioned discussions on food insecurity, malnutrition, insanitary
conditions, worm infestation, delays in disease treatment, inadequate access to medical
doctors among others, are all part of the causes of under 5 years mortality. Despite the
fact that maternal mortality is not as high as those of the national and GAR figures, the
occurrence of 120.6 deaths per 100,000 live births is still high and needs to be tackled
through good nutrition and proper anti- and neo-natal care.

Table 3.15: Children under 5 mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio for 2008 of
UWR as compared to national and GAR averages.
Category                                             UWR      National       GAR
*Under 5 mortality (per 1,000 births)                 142         80          50
**Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) 120.6      199.7        194.3
Source: *Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.
**www.moh-ghana.org/UploadFiles/facts_figures/REPRODUCTIVE           (accessed     on
26/02/2011).

                                           27
The UWR has a high total fertility rate of 5.0 as compared to 4.0 and 2.5 for the national
and GAR occurrences respectively. High fertility rates coupled with inadequate access to
social amenities, inadequate economic opportunities and food insecurity deepens the
woes of poverty of the people. Though in table 3.16, the national teenage pregnancy
situation is worse than that of the UWR, having 12.5% of teenagers already beginning
child bearing is of concern to the economy as they might not have finished their
education or skill training to earn them some income to fend for themselves and their
would-be dependants. These also contribute to the high incidence of maternal and child
mortality already discussed.

Table 3.16: Percentage of teenage females (aged 15 – 19 years) who were mothers
and/or pregnant in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Category                                       UWR (%)   National (%) GAR (%)
Have had a live birth                            9.4          9.9       5.9
Pregnant with first child                        3.1          3.4       0.8
Percentage who have began child bearing         12.5         13.3       6.6
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.

Condom use is very low, as portrayed by table 3.17, and this corroborates the high
teenage pregnancy situation in table 3.16. Indulging in higher risk sex by the youth, the
most sexually active age group is a threat to bring down high fertility rates which do not
augur well for good population management and also exposes them to the risk of
contracting HIV. This has a bad consequence on the nation’s manpower in terms of its
quality as women do not get sufficient education and also lower productivity in terms of
people being infected with AIDS.

Table 3.17: Condom use among youth aged 15 – 24 years at their last higher risk sex in
the past 12 months in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Category                            UWR (%)           National (%)         GAR (%)
                                 Men       Women Men Women Men Women
% who had higher risk           (81.8)       44.8    86.4     52.3      90.6     60.0
intercourse
% who used condom at higher (45.6)          (30.3)   46.4     28.2      52.9     46.1
risk intercourse
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009. Figures in parenthesis are based on 25 –
49 unweighted cases.

Between 2008 and 2009, rate of HIV infection in the UWR increased by 93.8%, being the
highest in the country, as compared to a national change of 11.8% within the same
period. Though 2009 prevalence rate of the region was 3.1% as compared to the national
rate of 1.9% and the GAR recording 3.2%, the rate of increase in the UWR is very
worrisome as it is moving too fast to catch up with the Eastern Region rate of 4.2% which
has always been the highest in the country (Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC), 2010).




                                           28
The GSS et al. (2009) have underscored the importance of male circumcision as it is
believed that it minimizes the chances of contracting HIV. Among males aged 15 to 49
years in the UWR, 78.5% were found to be circumcised as compared to 91.4% for Ghana
and 83.7% for the GAR, which means that there is the need for more education to
increase the regional coverage of male circumcision.

In terms of knowledge about HIV transmission, table 3.18 shows that it is not everybody
who knows about ways of avoiding the transmission. In addition, there is a gender
dimension as throughout the country, there is an information gap more to the
disadvantage of females than males. What is worrying is that whereas according to table
3.18 comparatively it is the men in the UWR who have the highest knowledge about
preventing HIV transmission, the women in the region have the lowest among the 3 areas
showing a clear information gap between the men and women of the UWR.

Table 3.18: Proportion of people aged 15 to 49 years who know the main ways of
preventing HIV transmission in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Prevention Method                UWR (%)          National (%)       GAR (%)
                               Men   Women      Men      Women Men Women
Using condom every time        89.1    59.7     82.4       75.9   85.0      75.8

Limiting sex to 1 HIV-          91.7       76.8    88.4       85.2     88.6     88.3
negative partner
Condom use & limiting sex       83.5       54.6    76.8       68.6     79.3     71.1
to 1 HIV-negative partner
Abstaining from sex             82.8       66.5    81.2       80.1     86.9     84.3

Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.

If the campaign to slow down the rate of HIV infection in the UWR is to succeed, then
there is the need for an effective education to improve upon the comprehensive
knowledge about the disease and its mode of transmission. Table 3.19 shows that
comprehensive knowledge about the disease in the UWR is very low, and country-wide
women do not have enough information about it as compared to men. Though rating
highest among the distribution by 82.7% of men and 60.7% of women aged 15 to 49
years know that a healthy looking person can have HIV, this particular indicator is very
important as it is the first misconception that people have and therefore engage in high
risk sex and eventually get infected.

Though the slogan of “ABC – Abstinence, Being faithful with one’s partner and Condom
use” has been much propagated, people seem to take the reality of AIDS for granted.
The low comprehensive knowledge is also not promoting the idea of people going for
HIV test to know their HIV status. This is very important for the infected to know their
situation earlier so that they could seek for early treatment to prolong their life and
genuinely avoid infecting others whereas those found not to be infected will live a more
careful life to avoid being infected.


                                            29
Table 3.19: Proportion of people (15 to 49 years) who have comprehensive knowledge
of HIV/AIDS in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Category                             UWR (%)        National (%)      GAR (%)
                                 Men        Women Men Women Men Women
A healthy looking person can      82.7       60.7  85.9    81.9    94.6     87.4
have HIV
AIDS cannot be transmitted        54.3       43.7  67.0    65.1    79.8     80.3
by mosquito bites
AIDS cannot be transmitted        69.3       51.9  59.9    48.2    69.3     62.3
by supernatural means
AIDS cannot be transmitted        73.9       58.0  78.2    73.6    88.7     85.5
by sharing food with infected
person
% who say a healthy looking       39.8       24.8  40.7    33.3    57.7     49.4
person can have HIV and who
reject the two most common
local misconceptions4
Comprehensive knowledge           34.6       17.1  33.2    25.4    47.4     36.1
about HIV/AIDS5
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.

One factor militating against the fight to combat HIV is stigmatization and the hypothesis
here is that some infected people are knowingly or unknowingly and silently infecting
others. The fear of rejection of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by the society is
one thing that the fight against HIV infections has not succeeded. Table 3.20 shows the
various situations under which people are ready to accept PLWHA, with the willingness
to care for a family member infected with HIV being the highest and buying of fresh
vegetable from a PLWHA being the lowest. The fact that the willingness to care for a
PLWHA scored 93.6% does not necessarily show intra family love bonding but rather the
stigma attached with the external society branding a particular family of having
HIV/AIDS. This is therefore a way of keeping such information within the family to
protect the family name.

One thing deepening stigmatization is the setting up of special days of which PLWHA go
for medication at hospitals and their encouragement to form associations. People
intentionally pay visits to such areas just to know those who are infected and later on
shun their company to deepen their rejection. Though one school of thought believes that
PLWHA should boldly come out to declare their status and assert themselves in society
to claim their rights, it looks as if the society is not yet at that level.


4
  Two most common local misconceptions are “AIDS can be transmitted by mosquito bites” and “AIDS
can be transmitted through supernatural means”.
5
  Comprehensive knowledge means knowing that consistent use of condoms during sex and having one
HIV-negative and faithful partner can reduce the chances of getting HIV, knowing that a healthy looking
person can have HIV and rejecting the two most common local misconception about HIV transmission or
prevention.

                                                   30
Table 3.20: People’s (aged 15 to 49 years) attitude towards those living with HIV/AIDS
in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Percentage who                       UWR (%)           National (%)        GAR (%)
                                 Men        Women Men Women Men Women
Are willing to care for a         93.6       85.7     78.5    74.5      76.9    77.3
family member with HIV in
the respondent’s home
Would buy fresh vegetables        30.7       31.1     42.9    32.4      50.5    40.1
from HIV infected person
Say that a female teacher with    79.9       73.1     66.1    61.9      73.1    70.3
HIV who is not sick should be
allowed to continue teaching
Would not want to keep secret     47.8       41.5     57.5    49.4      51.3    44.6
that a family member has HIV
Accept all four indicators        12.7       10.8     18.8    11.4      17.6    14.3
Source: Ghana Statistical Service et al., 2009.

3.6     Social Exclusion
According to UNDP (2007), social exclusion refers to deliberate actions or behaviours by
a group of people or individual(s) resulting in limited or inequitable access to
opportunities and/or capabilities to participate in decision-making and gaining access to
productive resources by another group of people or individual(s). This is usually
perpetuated by discriminatory institutional settings in the economic, social and political
spheres usually being informed by one’s ethnicity, geographical location, sex, gender,
age, income status, health, physique and educational attainment, among others. For a
peaceful co-existence in society, the state should work towards an egalitarian society
where discrimination is minimized as once there is a deliberate or unconscious action to
exclude people from accessing certain services or enjoying certain rights, with time
people will fight back leading to social unrest. Since poverty has been the main basis for
discrimination, table 3.21 showed that social exclusion is more prevalent in the UWR as
compared to the national and GAR situation as relative poverty is on the average more
rife in the region than elsewhere in the country. In the UWR, the clearly socially
excluded groups include the Fulani people and PLWHA. If efforts are made to address
most of the indicators discussed earlier, social exclusion will be reduced for a more
peaceful society to be enjoyed by all.

Table 3.21: The poor who felt socially excluded in 2004 and social exclusion index for
2005/2006 in UWR as compared to national and GAR averages
Category                  UWR (%)              National (%)           GAR (%)
Yes                           65.4                 60.6                  58.1
No                            34.6                 39.4                  41.9
Social exclusion index        53.8                 17.4                   7.2
Source: UNDP, 2007.




                                           31
                                  CHAPTER FOUR

                        PROGRAMME IMPLIMENTATION

This chapter discusses the strategic response to help solve the problems elucidated in
Chapter 3. Evolving around a theme of Empowering Rural People through Sustainable
Skill Development, gender equity will be mainstreamed in all programme interventions,
with the possibility of an affirmative action, where necessary, to help correct gender
imbalances in access to productive resources to ensure development for all.

4.1   Programme Goal
The goal of this strategic plan is to reduce infant and maternal mortality by 20% in
TUDRIDEP assisted communities by 2016.

4.2    Objectives and Activities
To help achieve the programme goal, the objectives of this plan will be guided by the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of which the United Nations members set to
achieve by 2015. This will be done by implementing programmes in Food and Nutrition
Security; Microfinance and Micro Enterprise Development; Quality Basic Education and
Youth Development; Preventive and Curative Health; Water and Sanitation; and
Environmental Conservation. Each programme will engage in advocacy and networking
with other like-minded NGOs to avoid duplication of efforts and ensure that duty-bearers
especially government delivers on its responsibilities to the Ghanaian populace.

4.2.1 Food and Nutrition Security
Being the fundamental need of man, the Food and Nutrition programme seeks to satisfy
the first MDG i.e. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. The inability of most
households in the UWR to be food secured could also be traced to market imperfections
where they are not able to get good prices for them to have sufficient income to access
other food ingredients that they need but cannot produce themselves. In this wise, this
programme will emphasize on trading with the outside world which is underpinned by
fair trade to pursue the eighth MDG i.e. Develop a Global Partnership for Development.

General Objective:
In 5 years, the underweight of children under 5 years and low maternal BMI in
TUDRIDEP assisted communities shall be reduced by 5%.

Specific Objectives:
    In 5 years, at least 50% more of households in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
       will double their crop production;
    In 5 years, at least 30% more of households in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
       will double their livestock production;
    In 5 years, at least 50% more of households in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
       will know and practice effective ways of processing and storing staple foodstuffs.
    In 5 years, at least 50% more of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will have
       access to effective market information for effective business decision-making.

                                           32
      In 5 years, at least 50% more of households in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
       will be linked to bulk purchasers of foodstuffs;
      In 5 years, at least 50% more of households in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
       will record at least 50% more in incomes over the past 12 months;
      In 5 years, at least 50% more of women in households in TUDRIDEP assisted
       communities will know how to formulate nutritious food that will be necessary to
       correct maternal and infant malnutrition;

To achieve the above stated objectives, TUDRIDEP will pursue the following activities:

4.2.1.1 Crop Production
The organization will consolidate gains made over the years by intensifying training on
low input agricultural technology to minimize cost of crop production. This will include
training in composting which utilizes farm yard by-products like crop residues and
livestock droppings, the use of cover crops for weed smothering and water conservation,
planting of nitrogen fixing plants like mucuna and general crop rotation. Interested
farmers will be selected and trained on foundation seed multiplication for them to serve
as sources of improved seed supply to other farmers in the target areas. Emphasis will be
placed on groundnut and soyabean production as soil fertility improvement and cash
crop, while maize is promoted as a staple.

4.2.1.2 Livestock Production
This aspect will focus on training of farmers in the selection of local livestock breeds for
improvement through appropriate genetic vigor management in small-ruminants, guinea
fowls and fowls. Some farmers will specialize in this area to sell parent stock to those
who will be interested. Farmers will also be trained in animal husbandry especially in
nutrition, administration of prophylactic drugs and housing. Special community
sensitization sessions will be organized to educate farmers, especially the youth, of the
importance of livestock rearing to food security for them to change their mind-set about
livestock rearing from social pastime to that of a business.

4.2.1.3 Agricultural Processing, Storage and Nutritional Campaign
To reduce post harvest loss, household level training will be given on how to process
some agricultural produce to increase their shelf life. Storage procedures like the triple
bag storage technique will be made more common among the populace to ensure the
continuous access to grains throughout the year. Training will also be organized for
women to appreciate the use of common but non-expensive food ingredients to prepare
nutritious food. Emphasis will be placed on the processing of soyabean and moringa for
household consumption while at the same time impressing of the people to eat animal
source protein to improve upon their nutritional status.

4.2.1.4 Agricultural Marketing
TUDRIDEP will consolidate its activities in linking farmers to markets elsewhere in and
out of the UWR. To this end, some farmers will be selected for training to form the
nexus of a future foodstuff market company by organizing farmers in various
communities for bulk purchases of their produce. They will also be trained in quality

                                            33
assurance to educate their colleagues to avoid the mixing of seeds during planting and
mixing different grain varieties together after harvesting, which in most cases lead to low
quality produce and lower prices being offered at the market. Proper packaging and
quantity determination will also be ensured. Communities will be taken through ways of
getting current market information by use of the radio and mobile phone texting to aid
them in commodity price determination.

4.2.1.5 Agricultural Policy Advocacy and Networking
As a member of FOODSPAN, TUDRIDEP will collaborate with other like-minded
NGOs to ensure that government become more serious with agriculture by resourcing the
MOFA with the necessary human resource to improve upon the farmer-agricultural
extension ratio to improve upon technical support to the farmer. In addition, government
will be urged to support irrigation infrastructure in the face of the current climatic change
which is making rain-fed agriculture a risky business. Farmers will be supported to
organize themselves at the district level to form an advocacy group for them to demand
their rights from duty-bearers and also ensure that communities also play their part in the
agricultural value chain to ensure food security and food safety.

4.2.2 Microfinance and Micro Enterprise Development
The mobilization of idle funds in the rural economy to finance rural micro enterprises and
the effective utilization of these funds, which this programme seeks to achieve, are key
for rural development, and this is in line with the first MDG, Eradicate Extreme Poverty
and Hunger. This will focus more on women as an affirmative action to help correct the
gender imbalance in access to productive resources and income towards the achievement
of the third MDG to Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women.

General Objective:
In 5 years, 30% more of all socio-economically credit worthy women in TUDRIDEP
assisted communities will be gainfully employed with profits.

Specific Objectives:
    In 5 years, 40% more of socio-economically credit worthy women in TUDRIDEP
       assisted communities will have access to institutional financial services;
    In 5 years, at least 50% more of women in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will
       display and practice basic skills in entrepreneurial development;
    In 5 years, at least 40% more women in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will set
       up their own microenterprises;

To achieve the above stated objectives, TUDRIDEP will pursue the following activities:

4.2.2.1 Village Savings and Loans Associations
The VSLA model, which utilizes local financial mobilization for mutual on-lending and
has been practised over the years by TUDRIDEP, will be consolidated. The
methodology of operation shall be reviewed in comparison with best international
practices but situated within the local context, and appropriate measures put in place for
higher efficiency. The programme will be scaled up to cover more people in the area.

                                             34
4.2.2.2 Credit and Savings with Education
As the VSLA is relatively slow in building up enough funds for the necessary capital
injection into an area for poverty alleviation, the Credit and Savings with Education
(CSwE) model will also be introduced to augment rural enterprise finance. The model
involves the mobilization of interested people into associations and encouraging them to
save and granting them loans, with a large portion of the loan funds coming from external
sources, and educating the clientele on nutrition, health, enterprise development and any
subject of interest. This will involve identifying the “high flyers” among the VSLAs who
have acquired higher business management skills and are ready for a “business take-off”
to handle bigger business volumes and make external loans available to them.

4.2.2.3 Training in Business Skills Development
For the proper utilization of resources, all TUDRIDEP clientele will be given some form
of basic business skills training. While members of the CSwE and VSLAs are trained in
enterprise development skills, farmers will be trained in farm budgeting to help them
improve upon the returns to their investment. Adult education methodologies will be
employed here to make the programme a success.

4.2.2.4 Enterprise Development Policy Advocacy and Networking
As a member of the GTLC, TUDRIDEP in collaboration with other NGOs, will continue
to push for policy change in favour of rural cottage industries to compete effectively on
the local Ghanaian market. This will include lobbying government to look at current
terms of trade and contributing to policy debate in government policies that are crowding
out the local entrepreneurs out of the market. The network will also lobby District
Assemblies to permit local entrepreneurs to be part of local supplies to government
projects, especially the school feeding programme. Traders will be supported to organize
themselves at the district level to form an advocacy group for them to demand fair trade
policies from duty-bearers and also ensure that communities also play their part in the
payment of their taxes.

4.2.3 Quality Basic Education and Youth Development
To improve upon access to information and for proper records keeping to make informed
choices in the life of the people, quality basic education becomes a sine qua non and this
will be pursued to achieve the second MDG which states Achieve Universal Primary
Education. Also, the youth who are unemployed will be trained in various marketable
skills for them to earn some income, and all these will help to Eradicate Extreme Poverty
and Hunger, i.e. working towards the realization of the first MDG as well.

General Objective:
In 5 years, youth illiteracy and unemployment in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will
be reduced by 30%.

Specific Objectives:
    In 5 years, over 95% of children resident in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
       who enter basic education will complete with a basic education certificate;



                                           35
      In 5 years, no healthy child of school going age in TUDRIDEP assisted
       communities will stay out of school;
      In 5 years, all schools in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will be child friendly
       with the necessary supply of teaching and learning materials for effective
       education;
      In 5 years, all schools in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will have functional
       school management committees (SMCs) to oversee effective teaching and
       learning;
      In 5 years, 40% more of unemployed youth have acquired marketable skills and
       will be practicing their vocations to earn profit.

To achieve the above stated objectives, TUDRIDEP will pursue the following activities:

4.2.3.1 School Management Improvement
This comprises the reviving of existent moribund parent-teacher associations (PTAs) and
SMCs and formation of new ones in schools where they do not exist and for them to take
their rightful positions in basic school management. It will also include management
training for head-teachers of basic schools and their assistants, SMCs and executives of
PTAs for them to improve upon the management of schools to increase the efficiency of
teaching and learning. The SMCs will also be given some material support for them to
work well.

4.2.3.2 School Retention Campaign
This will involve a community collective effort to ensure that no child of school-going
age is left out of school. School children will be organized to put peer pressure on their
classmates who do not attend school while parents who entertain children at home or on
their farms during school hours shall be reported to community elders for necessary
sanctions to be applied. SMCs and PTAs will ensure that schools maintain child friendly
conditions – minimization of corporal punishment, presence of good teachers, effective
teaching, good ambience for learning, minimization of child abuse, etc.

4.2.3.3 School Infrastructure and Materials Improvement
TUDRIDEP will support in the provision of school infrastructure at areas where
communities are in dire need of the facility. Priority will be given to the construction of
pre-schools in more deprived communities, as most basic schools lack them and these
also act as a relief to mothers to keep their children while they engage in economic
activities, and the building of libraries in attachment to existing schools which do not
have such facilities. The organization will also augment government efforts in the
provision of teaching and learning materials to improve upon education delivery.

4.2.3.4 Youth Skill Training
This will be in the form of scholarships for needy youth who could not enter secondary
school after basic school for them to enter into vocational and technical schools. It will
also involve those (including uneducated ones and school drop outs) who will want to
learn a trade under informal artisans such as welders, auto mechanics, electricians, etc.
The package will consist of support for tuition fees and basic tools for start-up.

                                            36
4.2.3.5 Education Policy Advocacy and Networking
TUDRIDEP will join the Ghana National Education Coalition Campaign to join forces
with other NGOs to urge government to deliver on its constitutional mandates and its
party promises to the educational sector. Teachers will be trained in child rights models
for them in turn to impart the knowledge to children who will tactfully begin advocacy by
demanding their rights from duty-bearers while at the same time living up to their
responsibilities. SMCs will be supported to organize themselves at the district level to
form an advocacy group for them to demand child and youth education rights from duty-
bearers and also ensure that communities also play their part in the education delivery
system.

4.2.4 Preventive and Curative Health
Due to the inadequate medical facilities, few numbers of medical doctors and other
paramedics in the UWR, the focus of TUDRIDEP in this programme will be very much
preventive. These programmes will be done in pursuance of the fourth to sixth MDGs
viz. Reduce Child Mortality; Improve Maternal Health; and Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria
and other Diseases.

General Objective:
In 5 years, at least 30% more of youth and adults in TUDRIDEP assisted communities
will take actions that minimize the occurrence of common preventable diseases.

Specific Objectives:
    In 5 years time, at least 50% more of people aged 15 years and older in
       TUDRIDEP assisted communities will be taking action to reduce the incidence of
       malaria;
    In 5 years time, at least 50% more of pregnant women will deliver at health
       facilities that are attended to by a medical doctor;
    In 5 years, at least 50% more of women will have access to anti- and post-natal
       health services;
    In 5 years time, at least 50% of people aged 15 years and older in TUDRIDEP
       assisted communities will have comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS;
    In 5 years time, at least 50% of people in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will
       be living in harmony with PLWHA in their communities;

To achieve the above stated objectives, TUDRIDEP will pursue the following activities:

4.2.4.1 Anti-Malarial Campaign
With malaria being the commonest disease reported at health centres, anti-malaria
campaign will be introduced with children and pregnant women being the primary target
as they can easily become anaemic and if not treated on time, could lead to their death.
The strategy will include making insecticide treated bed-nets available to them and
educating them of their use, discouraging people from sitting in mosquito prone areas
especially at dusk and seeking medical assistance early after contracting the disease to
avoid it aggravating, as well as sticking to medical prescriptions given at health centres.


                                            37
4.2.4.2 Maternal and Infant Mortality Reduction Campaign
A programme on reduction of maternal and infant mortality will be launched with an
objective of ensuring safe delivery of pregnant women and educating them to eat
nutritious food to boost their resistance to diseases. This will involve the putting up of
special accommodation near district hospitals so that pregnant women who are due to
deliver in about two weeks’ time could lodge there so as to have timely access to
qualified medical personnel to supervise their delivery to minimize the occurrence of
death. Also, TUDRIDEP will strengthen the capacity of Community-based Health
Planning System (CHPS) compounds for them to give quality anti-natal and post partum
support to ensure infant and maternal health. Arrangements will be made with transport
unions for them to transport women who are in labour to health centres on time. In
addition, special support will be set aside for women and children who have special
health needs and which are not supported by the National Health Insurance Scheme
(NHIS). All these will be facilitated by community health volunteers who will be trained
to live up to expectation.

4.2.4.3 Anti-HIV Transmission Campaign
As comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS has been shown to be incomplete,
campaign among the population, especially the youth, shall be intensified. This will be
through radio discussions and advertisements, school talk shows, quizzes, drama, display
of posters, billboards and stickers, facilitation of voluntary counseling and testing and
pomp celebration of World AIDS day. Prominent among the educational message will be
the need to live in harmony with PLWHA to minimize stigmatization. Personnel of
CHPS compounds and community health volunteers will be equipped with the necessary
information to do house to house education on the subject matter.

4.2.4.4 Health Policy Advocacy and Networking
TUDRIDEP will join the Ghana NGOs Coalition on Health to advocate for more doctors
for the UWR. This will further be supported by encouraging communities to press their
district assemblies to be more proactive in this area by finding them doctors. The
organization will lobby district assemblies to create special incentives for doctors who
will be ready to accept postings to the rural district hospitals. On programme policy,
TUDRIDEP will champion the campaign for abolishing special days for PLWHA to
collect their drugs as this perpetuates stigmatization, which is also one way of
encouraging the spread of the disease, and include HIV/AIDS in the NHIS. Community
health volunteers will be supported to organize themselves at the district level to form an
advocacy group for them to demand community health rights from duty-bearers and also
ensure that communities play their expected part in the health delivery chain.

4.2.5 Water and Sanitation
For a population to be healthy, among the critical factors that need to be considered are to
secure the drinking and use of potable water and the maintenance of good environmental
sanitation all the time, which are in line with the fourth to seventh MDGs viz. Reduce
Child Mortality; Improve Maternal Health; Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other
Diseases; and Ensure Environmental Sustainability.



                                            38
General Objective:
In 5 years, at least 95% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will have access to potable
water in less than 30 minutes and institute sound environmental practices.

Specific Objectives:
    In 5 years, over 95% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will have access to
       potable water in less than 30 minutes;
    In 5 years, over 95% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will be open
       defaecation free;
    In 5 years, over 95% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will institute and effect
       bye-laws that punish households who do not keep their environment clean;
    In 5 years, over 95% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will institute rewards
       for households who keep their environment clean;
    In 5 years, all district assemblies within whose jurisdiction TUDRIDEP operates
       will institute and effect bye-laws that punish households who do not keep their
       environment clean;
    In 5 years, all district assemblies within whose jurisdiction TUDRIDEP operates
       will institute annual best community rewards to promote environmental
       cleanliness.

To achieve the above stated objectives, TUDRIDEP will pursue the following activities:

4.2.5.1 Rain Water Harvesting
Households will be introduced to rainwater harvesting in terms of training and minimal
material support for them to construct rain gutters to collect water from their roofs into
receptacles. As a principle, all buildings constructed by TUDRIDEP will be fitted with
this technology.

4.2.5.2 Bore Hole Provision and Utilization
With the UWR enjoying the highest access to potable water in the country, emphasis here
will be laid on maintenance and sustainability of existing potable water facilities. Water
and Sanitation (WATSAN) committees will be given refresher trainings for them to be
more vibrant in the management and maintenance of facilities and more community
sensitizations done to improve upon community members’ willingness to pay. New
boreholes will be constructed in schools which do not have water and where people spend
more than 29 minutes in getting water to their homes.

4.2.5.3 Introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation
The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) model of sanitation will be introduced to
TUDRIDEP assisted communities for them to take the lead to rid their communities of
filth. This will involve the training of communities and identification of natural leaders
who will facilitate the process of households to construct their own latrines, the lobbying
of chiefs to institute weekly community cleaning days and provision of rewards and
punitive measures to ensure total community cleanliness. This programme will also be
extended to schools.


                                            39
4.2.5.4 Water and Sanitation Policy Advocacy and Networking
TUDRIDEP will join the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation to advocate for
higher government commitment to sanitation in the UWR. It will build the capacity of
community WATSAN committees to press for support from the district assemblies in
terms of water facilities, waste management and sanitary inspectors. District assemblies
will also be lobbied and supported to institute community prizes at celebration of special
national days to reward high community, organization, household and individual
performers. WATSAN committees will be supported to organize themselves at the
district level to form an advocacy group for them to demand community water and
sanitation rights from duty-bearers and also ensure that communities also play their part
in the maintenance of water facilities and clean environment.

4.2.6 Environmental Conservation
As measures are put in place to increase agricultural productivity, there is the need to
Ensure Environmental Sustainability, i.e. the seventh MDG, in order to conserve the
agricultural substratum for the sustenance of posterity. In addition, the UWR is situated
in a fragile ecological region which is being threatened by the encroachment of the
Sahara Desert, and for that matter, intensifying environmental conservation activities is
now necessary than ever to bring about the needed ambient conditions for comfortable
human habitation.

General Objective:
In 5 years, at least 50% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will embrace practices that
promote environmental stability through sound natural resources management.

Specific Objectives:
    In 5 years, 50% of TUDRIDEP assisted communities will not experience
       bushfires within the preceding one year;
    In 5 years, 50% of communities will take action to report and/or punish people
       who set bushfires;
    In 5 years, 1,000,000 tree seedlings will be planted in TUDRIDEP assisted
       communities with at least 50% survival rate;
    In 5 years, 30% more households in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will adopt
       diverse energy use practices to minimize the burden on fuel wood;
    In 5 years, 30% more farmers in TUDRIDEP assisted communities will adopt
       integrated pest management on their farms;
    In 5 years, district assemblies in whose jurisdiction TUDRIDEP operates will
       institute rewards for best environmentally friendly community

To achieve the above stated objectives, TUDRIDEP will pursue the following activities:

4.2.6.1 Anti-Bushfire Campaign
Active sensitization on the effects, control and prevention of bushfires, coupled with
quizzes and attendant prizes, will be conducted in schools in the programme areas of
TUDRIDEP to inculcate a sense of environmental conservation in the minds of young
people so that they grow with it. Anti-bushfire volunteers will be trained to give each

                                           40
community a standing squad of 15 people who will lead the community in quenching
bushfires and champion their prevention as well. Also at the community level, people
will be encouraged to report those who set bushfires to community leaders and the police
with special rewards instituted for informants, while all community meetings will begin
with a message of prevention of bush fires.

4.2.6.2 Tree Planting and Nurturing
Individuals, schools and communities will be supported to set up their own tree
plantations with the necessary fire belts to save them from bushfires. People will be
encouraged to identify land which cannot effectively support agricultural production for
this purpose. The community entities will be demarcated community land reserves which
will be allowed to forage naturally to serve as a source of plant products for herbalists.

4.2.6.3 Integrated Pest Management
With the excessive application of pesticides in cotton production, the wanton use of
weedicides and application of wrong inorganic pesticides on vegetables, food safety is
becoming an issue in the UWR as there could be residual poisonous effects along the
food chain. To help handle this situation, TUDRIDEP will train communities on
alternative ways of controlling pests by using plant extracts and adopting other integrated
pest management practices to reduce the application of inorganic chemicals. TUDRIDEP
will continue to educate people on the dangers of using chemical containers for domestic
purposes and offer alternatives where necessary.

4.2.6.4 Bee-Keeping
TUDRIDEP will scale up on its modern bee-keeping programme to teach people how to
avoid the killing of bees during harvesting for the insects to play their role in biodiversity.
This is also to help minimize the occurrence of bushfires as people use fire and smoke in
harvesting honey and in the process put the bush on fire. An aspect of honey and wax
processing will also be added to enhance the product’s market value. The organization
will subsidize the training while trainees pay a portion of the cost.

4.2.6.5 Alternative Energy Sources
Biogas technology, improved clay stoves and other alternatives will be introduced to
communities for them to minimize their dependence on fuel wood. The biogas
technology, which will use animal dung initially, will also generate organic residue
fertilizer for practitioners to use on their farms. The use of human waste for the biogas
will first begin with schools engaged in the school feeding programme, in order to work
on the mind-set of children to accept it before extending it to the general community.
Furthermore, communities that are more than 20 km away from the national electricity
grid will be supported with solar energy system for children to have light for learning at
night.




                                              41
4.2.6.6 Climate Change Adaptation
Communities will be sensitized on climate change and its consequences and educated on
how to adapt to it especially in the area of agricultural production, disease and disaster
occurrence. Community preparedness plans will be made for them to be combat ready to
respond to any changes that may occur as a result of climate change.

4.2.6.7 Environmental Conservation Policy and Networking
TUDRIDEP is already a member of FOODSPAN and will continue to keep a watch on
government to ensure that the environmental conservation interests of Ghana are well
protected. The organization will champion the protection of wildlife and forests of the
reserve bordering the UWR and the Upper East Region which of late has come under
threat from gold mining companies prospecting for gold. Community anti-bushfire
volunteers will be supported to organize themselves at the district level to form an
advocacy group for them to demand environmental conservation rights from duty-bearers
and also ensure that communities also play their part in environmental conservation. The
schools and communities environmental clubs already trained by TUDRIDEP will form
the nexus of this advocacy move. On celebration of World Environment Day and other
national days, special awards will be given to individuals, schools and communities who
have shown commitment in conserving the environment, and the district assemblies will
be encouraged to show interest in this.




                                           42
                                     CHAPTER FIVE

                             RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS

The expansion of programmes envisaged in chapter 4 has resource implications in terms
of human, financial and capital re-tooling for the objectives of this plan to be achieved.

5.1      Human Resource Requirements
The human resource mobilization strategy will involve the re-training of staff in current
models of the various programme interventions, as well as finance and administration
staff, to effectively support the programme machinery. Comparing figures 2 and 3 shows
that staff re-positioning will be necessary to place capable staff in appropriate positions
while new ones are recruited to fill resulting vacancies.

5.1.1 Management and Staff
As in figure 3, the General Assembly will still be in place for programme ownership.
The Board of Directors shall be transformed into a Board of Trustees to reflect the
current status of holding the organization in trust for the target clientele and managing
funds on behalf of donors. They shall take strategic decisions and still be answerable to
the General Assembly. The Board shall appoint the Executive Director. All other
positions in the organization shall be appointed by the Executive Director.

The overall daily administration of the organization will rest with the Executive Director.
The Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and Grants Manager will ensure that programmes
are implemented according to their set objectives in a timely manner, supervise internal
and external evaluations, conduct research into topical areas of interest and lead in
fundraising for the organization. S/he will also deputize for the Executive Director in his
absence. The Finance and Administration Manager will be in-charge of accounting,
administration and fixed assets. S/he will have an Accounts Officer, Administrative
Officer and a Computer Technician to support him. The Computer Technician will travel
across all offices to look at computer issues. The Drivers and Security/Cleaners will
report to the Administrative Officer. Legal and audit services shall be outsourced.

There will be 4 Programme Area Offices namely Tumu, Funsi, Nadowli and Lambussie.
While Tumu and Funsi already exist, Nadowli and Lambussie will be opened in 2012 and
2013 respectively. Each programme area will be headed by a Programme Area Manager
with 5 specialized programme officers reporting to him/her. Each programme area will
be zoned into 5 areas with a programme officer in charge of each. Since the programme
officers are specialized in particular areas as indicated in figure 3, they will have a cross-
cutting role with each attending to specialized issues in each other’s zone whenever the
need arises. There shall be microfinance field officers, whose number shall depend on
the volume of work available, reporting to the Micro Enterprise Development Officers.
There will also be an Administrative Officer in each Programme Area Office, who will
report to the Programme area Manager, to undertake all the administrative and
accounting duties in each office. S/he will have the Drivers and Security/Cleaners
reporting to him/her. A box level in figure 3 determines an employee’s level of authority.

                                             43
Figure 3: Organizational Structure of Reconstituted TUDRIDEP

                                                         General Assembly


                                                         Board of Trustees


                                                         Executive Director



      Monitoring, Evaluation,
      Research & Grants Manager         Programme                                              Finance & Administration
                                        Area Managers           Legal         External         Manager
                                                                Counsel       Auditor

 Food &         Micro             Education       Health,           Environmental
 Nutrition      Enterprise        & Youth         Water &           Conservation
 Security       Development       Development     Sanitation        Programme
 Programme      Programme         Programme       Programme         Officers
 Officers       Officers          Officers        Officers
                                                                                    Administrative    Computer      Accounts
                                                                                    Officer           Technician    Officer
                 Micro                  Administrative
                 Finance                Assistants
                 Field
                 Officers
                                   Drivers      Security/Cleaners             Drivers       Security/Cleaners




                                                               44
5.1.2 Staff Monitoring and Development
Before the commencement of each fiscal year, management shall meet to set objectives
for the year based on what is written in the strategic plan. Each employee will meet with
his/her supervisor to set performance objectives for the year derived from those set by
management. There shall be six-month interim appraisal to re-align the set objectives to
the realities of the time and deal with any emanating issues affecting an employee in the
discharge of his/her duties. Staff performance appraisal shall be done at the end of the
year and rated on a scale of 0 to 5, which shall be transferred to staff salary increment for
the following year in the range of 1% to 5%. However, economic conditions in the
country may trigger cost of living allowance which shall be based on management’s
ability to pay. Staff whose performance are rated 1 or below shall be asked to withdraw
while those at 2 will be assisted to buck up through special mentoring exercises.

Those who have worked for at least 3 years and performed consistently well with 4 or 5
rates may be considered for higher positions when the opportunity arises. Depending on
funds availability, such could also be supported to take up courses to upgrade themselves
up to 80% subsidy from TUDRIDEP with such approvals given by the Board of Trustees
upon recommendation of the Executive Director. Staff who resign or go on pension shall
receive an end-of-service benefit calculated on a product of their current basic salary and
their number of years of service, but the multiplier not exceeding 10 years.

5.2    Fixed Assets Acquisition and Management
A fixed asset shall include all hardware that could last for more than 1 year and its
purchasing cost being more than US$200 equivalent, and their purchase shall be
approved by the Executive Director only. All offices shall be equipped with at least the
minimum fixed assets for the smooth running of programmes. This will include a pick-
up and 6 motor-bikes per programme area with the head-office also having a pick-up and
1 motor-bike, with variation according to programme enormity. The organization will
uphold a high maintenance culture to ensure the longevity of its assets. Obsolete or non-
functioning assets shall be disposed off through auction or by donation with approval
from the Board of Trustees. Any lost fixed asset must be reported to the police.

5.3     Information, Communication and Technology
The organization shall take advantage of the state-of-the-art technology to move towards
a paperless working status to reduce transactional costs. All offices shall be networked
by the use of internet modem, telephone and fax machines while managers shall be
equipped with laptops. Desktop computers will be made accessible to all other staff and
digital cameras supplied to programme staff to capture events for documentation.

5.4     Financial Mobilization
TUDRIDEP shall embark on vigorous fund-raising campaign to achieve the strategic
plan’s requirement of US$35,840,356, according to table 5.1, through the development of
good proposals with proof of value for money to donors. Out of this, US$383,400 will be
generated from the microfinance programme with the remaining US$35,456,956 coming
from multilateral and bilateral grant sources. Prudent financial management will ensure a
programme and administrative support to programme implementation ratio of 11.3%.

                                             45
Table 5.1: Budget

Item                                                                    Amount (US$)
                                   2011             2012            2013           2014       2015         Total
Food and nutrition security   430,900          650,403          953,057       1,031,059   1,173,696   4,239,114

Microfinance and              226,064          274,556          400,362       388,157     526,531     1,815,670
microenterprise development
Quality basic education and   816,500          1,311,063        1,932,673     2,099,320   2,338,534   8,498,088
youth development
Preventive and curative       456,500          1,208,763        1,550,313     1,705,344   1,949,083   7,003,432
health
Water and sanitation          470,500          747,313          1,098,983     1,182,261   1,329,769   4,828,825

Environmental conservation    538,500          844,113          1,241,763     1,339,319   1,502,533   5,466,226

Programme and                 360,105          642,268          987,137       950,967     1,048,524   3,989,000
administrative support
Total costs                   3,299,069        5,678,476        8,164,286     8,696,426   9,868,669   35,840,356

Margin from microfinance      8,100            32,400           64,800        110,700     167,400     383,400

Support needed                3,290,969        5,646,076        8,099,486     8,585,726   9,701,269   35,456,956

Source: Author’s own construct from Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, 2011.




                                                              46
                                    CHAPTER SIX

            MONITORING, EVALUATION AND DOCUMENTATION

For the purposes of programme learning, better design in subsequent times and research,
monitoring, evaluation and documentation is important. Emphasis will be placed on the
documentation of project outcomes in addition to measuring outputs against their set
objectives and indicators. While best practices will be noted for better future project
planning, failures will also be documented for learning purposes.

6.1     Monitoring
Table 6.1 outlines a monitoring tool for giving the progress of projects to supervisors and
reporting lines. Monthly, quarterly and yearly work plans shall be drawn by all staff and
submitted to their supervisors for approval. There shall be monthly, quarterly and yearly
reporting in addition to specifications by individual donors. While Programme Area
Managers are supposed to undertake monthly visits to the zones, Managers and the
Executive Director from the head office will pay quarterly visits – all these will ensure
the validation of reports submitted to various reporting lines.

Table 6.1: Programme, financial and audit reporting lines
      Report                       Source                             Destination
Monthly work      Administrative Assistants, Programme        Programme Area
plan,             Officers, Programme Area Managers           Managers, Monitoring,
programme and and Finance and Administration                  Evaluation, Research and
accounting        Manager                                     Grants Manager and
reports                                                       Executive Director
Quarterly work Administrative Assistants, Programme           Quarterly Review Meeting,
plan,             Officers, Programme Area Managers,          Monitoring, Evaluation,
programme and Monitoring, Evaluation, Research and            Research and Grants
financial report Grants Manager and Finance and               Manager, Executive
                  Administration Manager                      Director and Donors
Semi-annual       Internal Audit Team, Monitoring,            Executive Director and
audit,            Evaluation, Research and Grants             Board of Trustees Mid-
programme and Manager and Finance and                         Year Review Meeting
financial reports Administration Manager
Annual work       Programme Area Managers, External           Board of Trustees, General
plan, audit,      Auditor, Monitoring, Evaluation,            Assembly and Donors
programme         Research and Grants Manager, Finance
progress and      and Administration Manager and
financial reports Executive Director
Source: Author’s own construct, 2011.

There shall be Programme Area monthly meetings of which matters of interest including
programme progress, financial and administrative issues shall be discussed. It will also
serve as a platform for the Area Manager to brief his staff of senior management
decisions and for him/her to get feed-back to senior management. The senior

                                            47
management, which shall comprise the Executive Director, Monitoring, Evaluation,
Research and Grants Manager, the Finance and Administration Manager and the
Programme Area Managers shall meet on quarterly basis to look at programme progress
and financial position of the organization to ensure that everything is on track. Senior
management shall also conduct a mid-year review meeting to examine the set objectives
for the year and make the necessary adjustments to reflect the realities on the ground.
There shall be an annual general staff meeting of which all staff and management will
meet to have direct dialogue to address issues of programme and welfare interest.

The Board shall meet 3 times a year to receive report from the Executive Director on
programme and financial performance, discuss matters of the organizations’
development, consider issues that are above the Executive Director and review strategic
decisions. However, as and when it becomes necessary, an emergency Board meeting
can be convened to consider pressing issues. The General Assembly will meet once a
year to receive reports from the Board of Trustees. All meetings shall be scheduled in
such a way that lower level meetings come first before the next level one along the
hierarchical ladder in the organization to make subordinates well prepared before meeting
with their supervisors.

6.2     Evaluation, Research and Documentation
Every new project to be implemented shall be preceded by a baseline study and this shall
be done either internally or externally depending on the depth of the project, with a
participatory learning and action approach being given priority to build community
ownership. Again, depending on the size and time span of the project, there shall be a
mid-term evaluation to ensure that the project is in course with its set objectives. Project
evaluations shall take into account TUDRIDEP’s interest in research to ensure that at the
end of the project the desirable data is available for future publications in both the
development and scientific world.

In addition, there shall be audio-visual coverage at the beginning and completion of the
project as a form of evaluation and also make it possible to report better to donors and
other stakeholders. TUDRIDEP will enhance the operation of its website by updating the
information on it every six months to give current information to its stakeholders. There
shall also be flyers and biannual newsletters indicating the organization’s best practices
and lessons learned with electronic copies distributed worldwide.

6.3     Audit Procedures
A fixed assets register shall be maintained in the organization with a fixed assets count
done every 6 months. Three people appointed by the Finance and Administration
Manager and varying every time shall undertake the exercise at all TUDRIDEP offices.
Internal audits shall be undertaken annually with 3 people appointed by the Executive
Director. Apart from these, there shall be external audits every two years with the auditor
being appointed by the Board of Trustees.




                                            48
                                   REFERENCES

Biederlack, Lisa and Rivers, Jonathan (2009): Comprehensive Food Security and
       Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) Ghana, UN World Food Programme, Rome,
       Italy.

Dickson, Kwamina B. and Benneh, George (1988): A New Geography of Ghana,
      Revised Edition, Longman Group UK Ltd., London, UK.

Ghana AIDS Commission (2010): Ghana’s Progress Report on the United Nations
      General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Declaration of Commitment on
      HIV and AIDS January 2008 to December 2009. GAC, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Health Service (29th April, 2011): Cholera Outbreak in Ghana from September
      2010 to April 2011, Disease Surveillance Department of Ghana Health Service,
      Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service (2011): 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census,
      Provisional Results Summary, Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service (2002): 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census Summary
      Report of Final Results, Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service (2005): 2000 Population Data Analysis Volume 1: Socio-
      Economic and Demographic Trends Analysis, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service (2008): Ghana Living Standards Survey: Report of the Fifth
      Round (GLSS 5), Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service, Ministry of Health, USAID, UNICEF, Macro International
      (2006): Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research and ORC
      Macro (2009): GDHS, 2008. Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.

MOFA (2010): Agriculture in Ghana – 2009 Facts and Figures, MOFA, Accra, Ghana.

Nyanteng, V. K. and Dapaah, S. K. (1997). Agricultural Development: Policies and
      Options. In Nyanteng, V. K. (ed.): Policies and Options for Ghanaian Economic
      Development. Second Edition. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic
      Research, University of Ghana, Legon.

UNDP (2010): Human Development Report 2010 – 20th Anniversary Edition: The Real
     Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, New York, U.S.A.

UNDP (2007): 2007 Ghana Human Development Report, Accra, Ghana.

                                          49
                                      APPENDIX

                                  METHODOLOGY

The methodology followed in developing this strategic plan is as follows:

Desktop Reviews
The following documents of TUDRIDEP were examined:
    The organization’s evaluation reports
    Profile
    2010 Annual Programme Report
    Programme progress reports

Consultations with Staff of TUDRIDEP
TUDRIDEP management and programme personnel were interviewed to look at their
perspective of the programs’ development. They were also extensively consulted to
arrive at budget projections for the plan.

Literature Review
This included the review of external development documents which were related to the
organization’s operations and for secondary data, especially for the situational analysis:
     Current global and regional development concerns, the Millennium Development
       Goals and the 2010 World Human Development Report.
     Ghana’s development planning documents such as the 2008 Ghana Human
       Development Report, Ghana 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Ghana 2008
       Demographic and Health Survey, Ghana Living Standards Survey V, 2000 Ghana
       Population and Housing Census and the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing
       Census.

Community Consultations
Various community meetings in current TUDRIDEP’s operational areas were held to
seek the people’s input into the development of this plan. Communities were much
interested in the areas of education, health, agriculture, environmental conservation and
youth development.

Agricultural Commodity Bulk Purchasing Potential
This looked at the potential for bulk marketing outlets to ensure good prices for farmers’
commodities. A visit was paid to the Upper West Agro-Processing Company at Sombo,
school feeding programs and boarding schools in the Sissala East and West Districts to
look at the possibility of bulk purchase of farmers’ produce. This proved positive and
promising for grains and pulses especially soyabean and maize.

Stakeholders’ Validation
After writing every chapter of this document, it was subjected to validation by officials
and the Board of Trustees of TUDRIDEP. Clarifications were made during such
consultations for improvement of the whole write-up.

                                           50

				
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