Lean/Six Sigma Overview Al Hammonds for EAS 590, Spring 08 by E96nnen

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 78

									The Center for Industrial
Effectiveness
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences




               Lean/Six Sigma Overview
                            Al Hammonds
                       for EAS 590, Spring 08
                        Why are we here?




                                   Why do Lean?

The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                  1
Lean Thinking

         Lean Production = Toyota Production
          System (TPS)
         Identified in a five year ($5 million) MIT
          study of the worldwide automotive
          industry
         Found that the production system used
          by Toyota was fundamentally different
          than traditional mass production

   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                       2
Lean Thinking Isn’t New



                                              Has roots back to
                                              Henry Ford’s
                                              production system.


 Lean thinking is more than lean production…
 it is a business philosophy.

    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                   3
                                       Key Definitions


VALUE
  Giving the customer what they want, when
  they want it, and at the right price.




FLOW
  Making product flow through production
  without interruption.

  The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                         4
                                        Key Definitions

PULL
  A customer demand based method of
  controlling flow of products or services by
  replenishing in short intervals.



STRIVING FOR EXCELLENCE
  A culture in which everyone is striving to
  continually improve.

  The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                          5
Typical Mass Flow Process
Maximize Efficiency and Economies of Scale



                                Inventory              Process 2


    Inputs                                                               Outputs
                                                      Inventory


    Process 1                                                               Customer
                                          Rework             Process 3
                                          (Hidden?)

                            MEASURABLES
      • Each independent entity maximizes their efficiency
      • Batch Process – departments compete
      The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                   6
Lean Production Flow Process
Goal: Elimination of Waste



    Inputs


              Process 1                         Process 2   Process 3

                                                                        Outputs


                                                                        Customer
                            MEASURABLES
     • Performance is based on system effectiveness as a whole
     • Single piece or continuous flow
      The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                   7
       How do you provide
           value to the
       customer and make
             a profit?


The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                          8
Defining Value

 Value Added Activity                         Non-Value Added
   An activity that                            Activity
   transforms or                                Those activities that
   shapes material or                           take time or
   information (for the                         resources, but do
   first time) to meet                          not add to the
   customer                                     customer
   requirements.                                requirements.



    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                        9
                                          Exercise

                                          Identify examples
                                          of Value Added
                                          Activities and
                                          Non-value
                                          Added Activities
                                          associated with
                                          your work.



The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                         10
8 Types of Waste


                                              Waste of   Waste of
                                              Waiting    Correction

                                                                 Waste of
                            Waste of                             Over-
                            Motion                               Production
                                                    FLOW
                                                                Waste of
                            Waste of                            Processing
                            Inventory
                                               Waste of Waste of
                                               Material Intellect
                                               Movement


    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                              11
Traditional Approach

                                             Output              Output




                                                               This is not Lean
          Output

                    Waste




                                                      Cost Plus Mentality
                                                      Cost + Profit = Price



   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                  12
Working Toward Lean

                 Output

                          Waste
                                                      Output




                                             Output




  Working Smarter…
  Not Harder
                                                               Today’s Reality
                                                               Price – Cost = Profit
   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                       13
Lean Thinking Tools

 VALUE STREAM MAPPING
 Identify and plot all steps required to do a process.
    • Challenge every step by asking the “5 WHY’s”

  NOTE!! If there doesn’t seem to be a valid reason
  for any steps identified in the value stream,
  consider eliminating the steps from the process.




     The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                         14
Lean Thinking Tools


  5S’s - Practices that create a workplace
  suited for visual control and lean
  manufacturing:
  1. Sort (Seiri) = Keep only what is needed
  2. Straighten (Seiton) = Put everything in order
  3. Sweep (Seiso) = Clean everything
  4. Standardize (Seiketsu) = Make standards
     obvious – everybody does it the same way
  5. Sustain (Shitsuke) = Institutionalize and
     continual improvement.

       The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                     15
Lean Thinking Tools


  STANDARDIZED WORK
    This tool ensures that the best method of
    conducting each activity is identified and
    steps are taken to ensure everyone does
    it this way.
                  The right people
                  The right steps
                  The right sequence
                  Every time
    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                 16
Lean Thinking Tools

 MISTAKE PROOFING (Poka-Yoke)
   Tools and techniques used to prevent
   people from doing things incorrectly. It
   can be a simple mechanical device or
   technique.
         Get it right the first time
         Set people up for success, not failure



    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                   17
Lean Thinking Tools

TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM)
   A series of methods to ensure that every
    machine in the production process is
    always able to perform its required tasks
    without interruption.
   Targets key equipment.



    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                18
Lean Thinking Tools

 SET UP REDUCTION
 • On Time Delivery – gives the customers what they want
   when they want it.
 • Flexibility – ability to run different types of products.
 • Increased Capacity – provides more actual production
   time.
 • Cycle Time - reducing setup time allows lot size to be
   reduced, which drives reduced cycle times.
 • Costs - reducing Work In Process drives lower
   operational costs (carrying costs, scrap, rework, space
   utilization, etc.)
     The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                               19
Lean Thinking Tools


  LEVEL SCHEDULING
    The goal is to produce at the same pace
    every day minimizing variation in the
    workload.




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              20
Lean Thinking Tools


  CELLULAR FLOW
    Machines or processes are side by side
    with very little inventory between them.
    The goal is efficient, continuous flow.




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                               21
Lean Thinking Tools


  OPERATIONS BALANCING
    Achieving the best arrangement of
    people, material, and equipment.




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              22
Lean Thinking Tools

  TAKT TIME
    Takt time sets the pace of production to
    match the rate of customer demand
    (sales) and is the heartbeat of the lean
    system.
                                              Effective Working Time
   Takt Time =
                                              Customer Requirement




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                       23
Who Should Implement Lean Thinking
Principles

   Product Development Areas
   Order Taking and Scheduling Processes
   Manufacturing Operations
   Logistics
   Administrative Systems
   Human Resources


           ************ EVERYONE! ************

    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                 24
Lean Implementation Process
                                                                  LEAN LEVEL
                                                                  SCHEDULING
                                                           SET UP
                                                         REDUCTION
                                                  PULL/CELL/
                                              STANDARDIZED WORK

                                              VALUE STREAM
                                                MAPPING

                   WASTE ELIMINATION
                  5-S/VISUAL CONTROLS

   COMMUNICATE &
      TRAIN
   Leadership & Develop Strategy
    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                               25
Why Do Lean ?

  Companies implementing Lean Thinking report
  the following improvements:
  • Productivity increases 15%-70%
  • Rejects (PPM) decrease 50%-250%
  • Inventory turns increase 55% - 70%
  • Space required decreases 35% - 70%
  • Employee involvement increases 70% - 95%
  • Annual savings per employee $1,200 - $3,500

   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                  26
What Will Lean Mean?


  You will attack waste in all its forms.
  You will embrace and celebrate
    continuous improvement.
  The only constant is change.




   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                             27
Lean is a never ending journey. It is a
systematic approach to the
identification and elimination of waste
and non-value added activities
through continual improvement in all
products and services.
   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                             28
The Center for Industrial
Effectiveness
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences




                              Six Sigma
 The History of Six Sigma

1987: Motorola initiates Six Sigma
1988: Some early successes and failures
1993: AlliedSignal embraces Six Sigma
1995: GE adopts Six Sigma (Jack Welch)
1996: Six Sigma starts to grow
2000: Six Sigma continues its evolution

  The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                            30
         Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)

What is COPQ ?
Quantify the size ($) of the problem in language
  that will have impact on upper management


Why is COPQ Important ?
Identify major opportunities for cost reduction
Identify opportunities for reducing customer
   dissatisfaction & associated threats to salability
Stimulate improvements through publication
Prioritize the opportunities

 The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                        31
Why Focus on COPQ?
                                                   Price Erosion
    Profit                            Profit

                                                                     Profit
                                  Cost of             Cost of
                                Poor Quality        Poor Quality
                                  COPQ                COPQ           COPQ

  Total Cost to
  manufacture
   and deliver                   Theoretical        Theoretical    Theoretical
    products                       Costs              Costs          Costs




                                         Which Feels Better??
    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                 32
The Cost of Poor Quality “Iceberg”

Rejects                     Administration         Traditional Quality Costs
Inspection                  Disposition                      (tangible)
Warranty                    Concessions
Scrap
Rework




                                                Additional Costs of Poor Quality
More Setups                                                 (intangible)
Expediting Costs       Lost Opportunity
Late Delivery
Lost Sales
                       Hidden Factory
Lost Customer Loyalty
                                                (Difficult or impossible to measure)
Long Cycle Times
Engineering Change Orders


         Average COPQ approximately 15% of Sales
      The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                       33
What is Six Sigma?

  A philosophy?
  A problem solving methodology?
  A set of tools?
  A metric?




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              34
Six Sigma Has Four Dimensions



                                              Philosophy



                          Metric                            Tools



                                              Methodology


    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                    35
Benefits of Six Sigma

                                              Cost-of-Quality decreased
                                              - from 30.1% before 1988
                                              - to 7.4% after 1993


                                              Aim for:
                                              - 8% Revenue Growth per year
                                              - 6% Productivity Improvement per year
                                              forever


                                              Gross Savings of $1,225M in 1998



    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                 36
Some Companies Known to be Formally Applying the
Six Sigma Methodology


      Motorola                                 Dell Computers
      Texas Instruments                        Seton Medical Centers
      AlliedSignal                             American Express
      General Electric                         Maytag
      Sony                                     Pioneer Hi-Bred International
      DuPont                                   Seagate Technology
      Ford Motor Company                       Millard Refrigerated Services
      Polaroid                                 Canadian Marconi
      Dow Chemical                             Avery Dennison
      Lockheed Martin                          BBA Group PLC
      Toshiba                                  Crane
      Bombardier                               Korean Heavy Industries
      Noranda/Falconbridge                     Nokia
      CitiGroup                                Pechiney
      BMW                                      Siebe
      Xerox                                    Thermo King
      Raytheon                                 GenCorp
      Coca-Cola                                IBM
      ICI Explosives                           Maple Leaf Foods
     The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                               37
Is 99% Good Enough?
     99% Good (3.8 Sigma)                        99.99966% Good (6 Sigma)
 20k lost articles of mail per hour              Seven articles lost per hour
 Unsafe drinking water for almost                One unsafe minute every seven
 15 minutes each day                             months
 5,000 incorrect surgical                        1.7 incorrect surgical
 operations per week                             operations per week
 Two short or long landings at                   One short or long landing
 most major airports each day                    every five years
 200,000 wrong drug prescriptions                68 wrong prescriptions per
 each year                                       year
 No electricity for almost seven                 One hour without electricity
 hours each month                                every 34 years


       The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                 38
The Goals of Six Sigma



                                                    $
                                                 Customer
                                                 Satisfactio
                                                      n

                                              Yield Improvement


                                              Defect Reduction



    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                  39
Six Sigma is About Leadership



                                              20%



                                        80%



            Change Leadership                       Technical Skills
  The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                       40
Continual Improvement...

                                                               Ongoing efforts
  Performance




                                                             Incremental
                                   Quantum                   improvement
                                improvement



                                                            Six Sigma Projects


                                                     Time
           The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                 41
Performance Umbrella

                                             A Performance
                                              Organization

   Change                                              Continuous
   management                                         improvement
                                Lean
                                                         tools
                             manufacturing
                                                       Kaizen      Safety
          ISO and                                                 practices
         QS-9000                    Statistical      Preventive
         practices                   process        maintenance   TQM
                                     control
       Six Sigma




   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                              42
Six Sigma Levels

 DFSS
                                                         Sweet Fruit
          ------------------------------------           Design for Manufacturability
 Black Belts
                                                         Process Entitlement
 Lean
 Green Belts                                             Bulk of Fruit
                                                         Process Characterization
          ------------------------------------           and Optimization
 White Belts                                             Low Hanging Fruit
                                                         Simple Tools

 “Nike”    ------------------------------------          Ground Fruit
                                                         Logic and Intuition

               We don't know what we don't know
               We can't act on what we don't know
               We won't know until we search
               We won't search for what we don't question
                     We don't question what we don't measure
                     Hence, We just don't know
      The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                        43
The Infrastructure




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              44
Roles

  Executive
  Champion
  Process Owner
  Master Black Belt
  Black Belt
  Green Belt



   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                             45
Exercise:

You are the GM of a very successful cinema with many
  employees. You will be out of the country for three
  months and have asked your staff to fax you a weekly
  report each Monday morning. What information
  (measures) would you like to see in that fax?



           Hollywood Inc. Weekly Report




   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                     46
 Exercise:


You are heading to the cinema with some friends . . .
The movie you would like to see is playing in several
cinemas in your area. All are about the same travel
time from your home, charge the same amount, have
the same stadium seating, and are showing movies
at the same time. What criteria do you use to
choose?




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                    47
Critical to Who’s Satisfaction?

             Supplier Perspective                Customer Perspective
                 (Theatre)                           (Movie Goers)
                     Management)
           Ticket Sales                       Good Popcorn
           Concession Sales                   No Sticky Floors
           Labor/Work Force Costs             Clean Restrooms
           Profit Reports                     Short Lines
           Other...                           Good, funny, entertaining movies




                          . . . So why do such differences
                                              in perspective exist ?


    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                   48
Being Customer Driven




   Voice of the                               Critical to Quality    Process
    Customer                                   Characteristics      Capability




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                            49
Satisfying Customers



                                                                            Delighters
                                                                            (Increases consumer loyalty)




                                                           Performance
                                                           (Competitive differentiation)




                                             Must Have’s
                                             (Minimum requirements)                        (based on Kano principles)




   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                                                    50
Maximizing Customer Alignment



                                               Delivery
                                              Cycle Time


                                                Price      Need
                              Do                Cost

                                               Quality
                                               Defects




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                  51
Culture Change - Achieving Critical Mass
                                                             Team Members




                                                                               Green Belts
Number of People




                                                                                            Black Belts

                                                                       Master Black Belts




                                                         Implementation Time

                      Convert 30% and you’ve got a new organization!!
                   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                                          52
 Team Work

The Strength of the Wolf is in the Pack.




 The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                           53
Advantages of Teams

 Greater knowledge & experience base
 Different perspectives
 More total person power
 Social bond, affiliation, identification
 Willing to take more risks
 Synergy – whole is greater than the sum of
   its parts


   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              54
Knowledge Sharing

                                         Cross-functional Six Sigma
                                         Project Teams

                                                             DPMO

                    1,000,000.00

                     100,000.00

                      10,000.00

                        1,000.00
                                                                                                        Knowledge sharing
                                                                                                        triggered by sigma
                         100.00

                          10.00

                            1.00

                            0.10

                            0.01
                                                                                                        process benchmarks
                            0.00
                                     5



                                               5



                                                         5



                                                                      5



                                                                                5



                                                                                          5



                                                                                                    5
                                         1



                                                   2



                                                              3



                                                                          4



                                                                                    5



                                                                                              6
                               a
                                   0.



                                             1.



                                                       2.



                                                                    3.



                                                                              4.



                                                                                        5.



                                                                                                  6.
                             gm
                           Si




                                                                                                               Intranet-enabled
                                                                                                               best practices;
                                                                                                               real-time process
                                                                                                               metrics
   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                                                                   55
DMAIC Overview




   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                             56
  DMAIC Overview - Define

Define the Customer, they’re Critical to
 Quality (CTQ) issues, and the Core
 Business Process involved.
Define who customers are, what their
 requirements are for products and services,
 and what their expectations are
Define project boundaries - the stop and start
 of the process
Define the process to be improved by
 mapping the process flow
   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                 57
What is a 6 Sigma Project

  Hard $$
  Fact based
  Control plan
  Systematic approach
  (apply DMAIC)




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              58
   Problem Solving Comparison
                         Nike (Just Do It         Workout                 Lean                Six Sigma
                            Projects)



                                                                      Improve cycle
   Goal / issue /      Most likely nagging                           times, improve
    outcome              issues, could be                              VA/NVA ratio,       Cost reduction /
                        cost or cycle time   Cost or cycle time        reduce waste        defect reduction
                                                                                             Greater than
   Cost savings*
                       Less than $25,000     Less than $50,000     Less than $100,000         $100,000
Time from problem
  identification to
      solution             Immediate              1-3 days               1 week             1 to 5 months

Time to implement                            Days to less than 4   Days to less than 4
                           Immediate               weeks                 weeks            Weeks to months
Project initiated by         Anyone               Anyone                 Anyone          Upper management

    Approvals                                  Within or cross                           Cross departments
                       Within department        departments        Cross departments      / Executive staff
   Departments
     affected                 One               One or more           One or more            One or more
     Training                 None                  Low               Low / medium              High
                                                                     Common tools*,
   Tools utilized                                                    VSM, Flow, Pull,
                        Common tools*          Common tools*              Takt                Statistical

This matrix represents a very broad approximation to the differences between these problem solving tools.
      The tools: Pareto, Brainstorming, Team Dynamics, C&E diagrams, Flow Diagrams
* Common Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                                              59
                               A Project’s Evolution
           Pre-Project                                          Define Phase
      Management      Project
         30,000       Champions
         feet
                                                        Black
                                  20,000                Belt
                                  feet
                                                         10,000
                                                         feet



                                                                                Team
                                                                               Kick-Off
                                                                               Meeting
                                                                     Project
                                                                     Team           Landing
            Potential                                   Refinement w/
                                Project Definition
        Improvement                                   Stakeholders and     Launch/”start” of
                                   and Selection
      Topics, Subjects,                               diagnosis; enters        project
The Center for Ideas Effectiveness
                                     Sessions
               Industrial                            project in database                       60
                                                s
4 Types of Project Focus


 Process quality focus                              Project cost savings focus
Example:                                        Example:
 Critical manufacturing processes               Complete x projects to save $z
 Critical transactional processes
 Critical engineering processes
 Improving these will save/make $$



   Product focus                                      Problem focus
  Example:                                          Example:
   Product 1                                        Biggest fire to address
   Product 2
   Product 3

      The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                   61
Defining Project Metrics


                                              Primary
                                              Metric              Secondary
                                                                  Metric(s)

   Business
   Metric(s)
                                                  Consequential          Financial
                                                    Metric(s)            Metric(s)


    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                     62
Y=f(x)




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              63
DMAIC Overview - Measure


Measure the performance of the Core
 Business Process involved.
Develop a data collection plan for the process.
Collect data from many sources to determine
 types of defects and metrics.
Compare to customer survey results to
 determine shortfall.


   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              64
Input Variables to be Investigated
      Process Map

  C&E Matrix and FMEA
   C&E Matrix and FMEA                              Unknown
                                                               Output Variables (y)
  Gage R&R, Capability                 Measure       10 - 15   some X’s listed.


  Brainstorming, FMEA,
   C&E, Process Map
                                                     30 - 50
                                       Analyze                   Prioritized X’s
                                                                  (Step 6)
  4 Block Tools                                       8 - 10
    Screening DOE’s
                                                       4-8       Vital X’s
       DOE’s, RSM
                                       Improve

  Quality Systems                                                Key Leverage
                                                       3-6       X’s
  SPC, Control Plans                   Control




                                               Optimized Process
     The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                      65
Variability is the Enemy

                       “Right the First Time” is
                      the most cost effective way
                   to achieve Customer Satisfaction



                               Variability
                              is the ENEMY
    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                      66
The Hidden Factory
                                                      Process Map (macro level)

Arrivalat
 Horne                                      Mostmaterialsgo thisway    Prepare for
                                                                                                          Melt in
                    Storage                                              smelting              Storage
                                                                                                          Reactor
                                                                       (crushing...)




                                                                                          Separate slag
        Dry                       Melt in                             Cool slag at
                                                       Skimslag                            fromcopper
        slag                     furnace                              slag dump
                                                                                              bottom




                                                                                       Store copper
                                                                                         bottom




                                                      Hidden Factory !!!!!
            The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                                              67
Normal Distribution
                                                µ

                                                      Point of Inflection




                                                1s

                      -                                               +

                                             68.26%
                                             95.44%
                                             99.74%


   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                            68
What is 6 Sigma?


                                                                      USL =
                                                s = 1.0               upper spec.
                                                                      limit



                                                s   s     s   s   s   s
                                             10.0                     16.0

                                                    Z = 6 sigmas



   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                69
Practical Interpretation of Sigma Scale


                         Being without electricity for...
                             % Good            Prob. of Defect
   2 Sigma                          69%           31%            9 days/month
   3 Sigma                          93.4%         6.6%           2 days/month
   3.8 Sigma                        99.0%         1.0%           7 hours/month
   4 Sigma                          99.4%         0.62%          4.5 hours/month
   5 Sigma                          99.98%        0.023%         10 mins/month
   6 Sigma                          99.9997%      0.0003%        9 sec/month

     The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                 70
Benchmarking Implications
 PPM          IRS - Tax Advice
              (phone-in)
1000000       (140,000 PPM)
                                   Restaurant Bills
                                               Doctor Prescription Writing
 100000
                                                        Payroll Processing
                                                   •       Order Write-up
 10000              Average
                                                              Journal Vouchers
                    Company
                                                                  Wire Transfers
  1000                                                               Airline Baggage Handling
                                   Purchased Material
   100                               Lot Reject Rate


    10
                                                         Best-in-Class

     1
          2                    3                  4              5              6               7
                                                                                     Domestic Airline Flight
                                                                                     Fatality Rate
                                     Sigma Scale of Measure                          (0.43 PPM)
     The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                                        71
DMAIC Overview - Analyze

  Analyze the data collected and process map
   to determine root causes of defects and
   opportunities for improvement.
  Identify gaps between current performance
    and goal performance
  Prioritize opportunities to improve
  Identify sources of variation



  The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                               72
DMAIC Overview - Improve

  Improve the target process by designing
    creative solutions to fix and prevent
    problems.
  Create innovate solutions using technology
   and discipline.
  Develop and deploy implementation plan.



   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                               73
Design of Experiments




    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                              74
 DMAIC Overview - Control

Control the improvements to keep the process
 on the new course.
Prevent reverting back to the "old way"
Require the development, documentation and
 implementation of an ongoing monitoring plan
Institutionalize the improvements through the
  modification of systems and structures
  (staffing, training, incentives)

  The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                75
  Six Sigma is a Tool Box

   Define                    Measure           Analyze        Improve          Control

Adult Learning                Process
                                              Multi Vari    Variable DOE        EVOP
    Model                     Mapping
  Project               Cause & Effect                                        Response
                                              Correlation   Fractional DOE
Management                 Matrix                                            Surface DOE
  Computer                   Fishbone                        Full and 2k       Multiple
                                              Regression
    Tools                    Diagram                        Factorial DOE     Regression
 Descriptive                 Statistical      Hypothesis                      Transition
                                                            Advanced DOE
  Statistics                 Analysis          Testing                          Plans
                                                              Logistic
                            Lean Tools         ANOVA                         Control Plans
                                                             Regression

                                 MSA            FMEA                             SPC

                                                                               Control
                             Capability
                                                                               Methods

    The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                                                                             76
The Bottom Line




    The Highest Quality Producer is the
Lowest Cost Producer…How is this possible?

   The Center for Industrial Effectiveness
                                             77

								
To top