P7660 SEPARATING & THROTTLING CALORIMETER by 8o699M

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									                 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY SPECIFICATIONS


WORKSTATION 1
(Basic Flow Experiments Bench)
P6100 HYDRAULICS BENCH
[1] Service module for pumping and volumetric measurement of water supply required to operate
accessories and experiments.
[2] Moulded fibreglass work surface with integral weir tank.
[3] Stepped volumetric measuring tank, 10 litres / 40 litres.
[4] Variable speed motor driven centrifugal pump.
[5] Pressure tapping points at pump suction, delivery and immediately prior to experiment.
[6] 120 litre capacity sump tank.
[7] Robust stove enamelled steel frame mounted on castors.
[8] Direct indication of flowrate given by calibrated weir.
6220 LAMINAR FLOW APPARATUS
[1] 3mm bore non-ferrous pipe with pressure tappings at 350mm centres.
[2] Used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank, variable head outlet tank and manometer
board.
[3] Illustrates the relationship between flow rate and friction head loss in a pipe for both the laminar and
the turbulent flow regions, and the critical interconnecting zone.
P6221 LOSSES IN PIPES SET
[1] Comprising six test sections all with appropriate pressure tappings.
[2] Used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank, variable head outlet tank and manometer
board.
[3] Two straight pieces of 7mm and 10mm nominal bore.
[4] Two pipes of 10mm nominal bore, one with a ball valve and one with elbows.
[5] Two pipes of nominal bore, one with a bore valve and one with an angle seat valve.
P6222 ENTRY/EXIT & CONTRACTION/EXPANSION LOSSES
[1] Comprising two test sections with appropriate pressure tappings.
[2] Used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank, variable head outlet tank and manometer
board.
[3] One test section having an abrupt enlargement from 10mm to 20mm.
[4] One test section having a smooth enlargement from 10mm to 20mm.
P6223 ORIFICE EXPERIMENT - BASIC
[1] Comprising a set of three sharp edged orifice plates with 3mm, 5mm and 8mm internal diameters.
[2] Suitable for mounting in either the side or bottom of the constant head inlet tank.
[3] Complete with padded storage case.
P6224 ORIFICE EXPERIMENT – ADVANCED
[1] Comprising a set of four orifice plates with triangular, square, borda mouthed and bell mouthed
apertures.
[2] Suitable for mounting in either the side or bottom of the constant head inlet tank.
[3] Calipers provided to investigate shape of jet.
[4] Complete with padded storage case.
P6225 WEIRS – BASIC
[1] Comprising a set of three knife edged weir plates in stainless steel, suitable for mounting in the
hydraulics bench weir channel.
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[2] 100mm width rectangular weir, 90mm depth.
[3] Two vee notched weirs, 90mm depth, with included angles of 60º and 90º.
P6226 WEIRS - ADVANCED
[1] Comprising an advanced set of three weirs, suitable for mounting in the hydraulics bench weir
channel.
[2] Full width broad crested weir enabling clinging nappes to be examined.
[3] A Cippoletti trapezoidal weir.
[4] A weir having linear head / flow characteristics.
P6227 VENTURI METER
[1] Venture test section used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank, variable head outlet tank
and manometer board.
[2] Clear acrylic test piece with circular cross section.
[3] Pressure tappings at the inlet, throat and outlet points.
P6228 ORIFICE PLATE EXPERIMENT
[1] Orifice test section used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank, variable head outlet tank
and manometer board.
[2] Clear acrylic housing, within test section, which can be fitted with 8mm or 12mm sharp edged
orifice.
[3] Pressure tappings at D and D/2 from orifice.
[4] Pressure tappings in the orifice flanges.
P6229 TURBINE METER
[1] Turbine flow meter test section used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank.
[2] Turbine speed monitored by magnetic sensor, electric analogue meter displays reading of the flow.
P6230 PITOT TUBE
[1] Pitot static tube test section used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank, the variable head
outlet tank and the manometer board.
[2] Pitot tube with 2.3mm head diameter, complete with scale and pointer to locate to tube position
within the bore of the 20mm transparent test section.
P6231 BERNOULLIS APPARATUS
[1] Clear acrylic convergent and divergent test pipe with rectangular cross section is used to
demonstrate Bernoulli’s theorem.
[2] Integral 11 tube manometer board.
[3] Used in conjunction with the constant head inlet tank and variable head outlet tank.
[4] Dye injector needle and reservoir provided to enhance the study of the onset of turbulent flow in the
convergent section.
[5] Flow through test section easily regulated by varying outlet head.

ESSENTIAL ACCESSORIES
P6101 AUXILIARY PUMP UNIT
[1] Additional variable speed motor driven centrifugal pump with associated pipework and valves to
enable series and parallel pump tests to be run.
[2] Increased water flow capacity to cater for larger scale experiments.

P6102 VARIABLE SPEED PUMP CONTROL
[1] Display unit giving centrifugal pump speed.
[2] Enables pump characteristics to be determined.


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P6103 CONSTANT HEAD INLET TANK
[1] Provision of constant head of water across experiments.
[2] Twin setting for 250mm or 500mm head.
P6104 VARIABLE HEAT OUTLET TANK
[1] Controls differential head across experiment.
[2] Regulated from 0-450mm head.
P6105 FEEDBLOCK
[1] Required for experiments needing more than 500mm head.
P6106 MANOMETER BOARD
[1] Multi tube manometer board.
[2] Two pairs of water filled manometer tubes.
[3] One pair of mercury filled manometer tubes.
P6107 HOOK GAUGE AND SCALE
[1] For use with orifice and weir experiments.
[2] Enables linear vertical measurements to be taken at a series of points along the horizontal.
P6108 ROTAMETER
Variable area flowmeter giving direct readings of total flow rate.


WORKSTATION 2
(Advanced Experiments Bench)
P6100 HYDRAULICS BENCH
[1] Service module for pumping and volumetric measurement of water supply required to operate
    accessories and experiments.
[2] Moulded fibreglass work surface with integral weir tank.
[3] Stepped volumetric measuring tank, 10 litres / 40 litres.
[4] Variable speed motor driven centrifugal pump.
[5] Pressure tapping points at pump suction, delivery and immediately prior to experiment.
[6] 120 litre capacity sump tank.
[7] Robust stove enamelled steel frame mounted on castors.
[8] Direct indication of flowrate given by calibrated weir.
P6238 FREE AND FORCED VORTEX APPARATUS
[1] Experimental determination of the profile of both free and forced vortices.
[2] Used in conjunction with the hydraulics bench.
[3] Transparent cylindrical vessel with centrally positioned orifice outlet and alternative orifice
    diameters enables clear visualisation of the free vortex.
[4] Impeller replacing orifice outlet and driven by tangential inlets produces forced vortex.
[5] Measuring instrument to determine vortex profile.
[6] Flow from the hydraulics bench outlet is fed into the vessel via four inlet tubes set at precise angles
    of incidence to the vessel, giving an initial swirling motion to the fluid. With a suitable valving
    arrangement, two of these tubes are used for radial discharge during the forced vortex experiment.

P6232 HYDRAULIC RAM
[1] Demonstrates the principle that a large quantity of water falling through a low head can be used to
    raise a small quantity of water to higher head.


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P6233 IMPACT OF JETS APPARATUS
[1] Vertical jet arranged to strike target vane positioned above it.
[2] Enclosed within a transparent shield for ease of observation.
[3] Three interchangeable vanes, horizontal flat plate, cone and hemisphere.
[4] Force on the vane measured by applying weights to counteract the reaction of the jet.
P6240 PELTON WHEEL
[1] Pelton turbine with clear acrylic panel to show water jet impingement on turbine blades.
[2] Coupled to prony brake for performance testing.
[3] Used in conjunction with the hydraulics bench and a digital tachometer.
P4740 DIGITAL TACHOMETER
[1] Hand held four digit tachometer with built in optical sensing.
[2] Visible light beam on target.
[3] Range - 1 metre maximum.
[4] Speed range - 50 to19,999 rpm with over range indication.
P6248 OSBORNE REYNOLDS APPARATUS
[1] Re-entrant bell mouthed experimental test section., 16mm bore and 650mm long mounted
    horizontally in a 103mm bore outer tube.
[2] Adjustable height constant head inlet tank supplies water to the outer tube through a baffle into a
    reverse flow stilling chamber.
[3] Uniform flow thus provided to the bell mouthed entry of the experimental tube.
[4] Flow control achieved by angled seat valve at exit from the apparatus.
[5] Dye injector needle and reservoir provided to enhance the study of laminar and turbulent flow
    regimes and the transition between them.
[6] Can be used in conjunction with the hydraulics bench, or as stand alone experiment.
P6235 METACENTRIC HEIGHT APPARATUS - FLAT BOTTOMED VESSEL
[1] Non ferrous flat bottomed pontoon with detachable bridge piece and loading system.
[2] Used for floatation experiments in conjunction with the hydraulics bench.
[3] Determination of the Metacentric height.
P6236 METACENTRIC HEIGHT - ALTERNATIVE HULLS
[1] Alternative hull sections making use of the bridge piece and loading system from the flat bottomed
    vessel apparatus.
[2] Characteristic ships hull shape and semi circular hull section. Both non ferrous.
P6239 WATER FLOW MEASURING APPARATUS
[1] Comparison of water flow measurement methods.
[2] Used in conjunction with the hydraulics bench.
[3] Base board onto which are mounted a close coupled venture section and orifice plate, a 90° elbow
    and a rotameter.
[4] Four bottom fed manometer tubes measure pressure drop across each device.


WORKSTATION 3
(Series and Parallel Pump Test Set & Flow Channel)
P6135 SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP TEST SET
[1] Hydraulics bench to be complete with two identical centrifugal pumps which can be operated in
    either series or parallel configuration.
[2] Both pumps to have independent variable speed motor control and speed display.
[3] Suction and delivery pressures varied by means of inlet and outlet valves, and displayed on a
    bourdon pressure gauge.
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[4] Flow measurement by either calibrated weir or stepped volumetric measuring tank.
[5]   Wattmeter to measure electrical power input to pumps. (ADDITIONAL WATTMETER
REQUIRED FOR SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT, NOT INCLUDED.)
P6245 FLOW CHANNEL
[1] Clear acrylic open flow channel with flow straightener, 2.5m long with internal cross section of
    55mm x 175mm.
[2] Ends supported by floor standing frames, one of which is adjustable to vary the slope of the
    channel.
[3] Test models provided include sharp crested weir, overshot weir, triangular hump section weir,
    broad crested weir and hydraulic jump sluice gate.
[4] Inclinometer and surface profile measuring instrument included.
[5] Can be used in con junction with the hydraulics bench, or as a stand alone experiment.


WORKSTATION 4
(Modular Pump Test Set)
P6360 PUMP SERVICE UNIT COMPRISING FRAME AC PUMP MODULES
A pump test set designed to allow a range of pumps to be tested employing a quick changeover system.
To comprise of a steel frame fitted with castors and furnished with a variable speed swinging frame AC
dynamometer (2 kW), inverter speed control unit, water reservoir, piping and valving in non-ferrous
materials. Data is to be acquired within an integral Personal Computer to be supplied with the test set.
Instrumentation includes load cell torque measurement, and tachometer displayed from a P.C. display
screen. Suction and delivery pressures are to be measured by pressure transducers. A moulded plastic
reservoir is to provide storage of 98 litres.
The test set is to be supplied with the a positive displacement gear pump as a standard and to be able to
accept the following range of pumps, which may be ordered as options:
P6362—A positive displacement Piston Pump - stroke 19.5 mm, bore 20 mm, flow 19 1pm at 1040 rpm,
maximum pressure head 67 bar, limited by relief valve to 5 bar
P6363—A rotodynamic Centrifugal Pump - duty point of 120 1pm and 0.5 bar at 3000 rpm (max. flow
at zero head 140 lpm, max head at zero flow 1.1 bar at 3000 rpm).
P6364 – A rotodynamic Axial Pump - maximum flow 50-60 1pm at 0.2 bar at 10000 rpm. (max head at
zero flow 0.5-1 bar with severe cavitation), impeller diameter 38 mm.
P6365—A positive displacement Vane Pump—40 lpm at 1500 rpm
P6367—A rotodynamic Channel Impeller Pump—26 lpm at 3000 rpm
The testing of such a wide range of pumps on a single test unit is made possible by the provision of
quick release hose and drive couplings together with quick release pump fixing clamps, enabling
changeover to be made easily and efficiently.


WORKSTATION 5
(Friction in Pipes)
[1] Backboard mounted set of parallel pipes manifolded and valved to achieve various flow circuits.
[2] Pressure tappings at all relevant points.
[3] Feed pipe containing variable are flow meter, venturi tube, orifice plate assembly and annular test
section supplies water to the four branch manifold.


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[4] Second and third pipes of 25mm and 12mm bore respectively are each divided into smooth and
artificially roughened sections.
[5] Fourth pipe of small bore contains a ball valve and filter fitting.
[6] Final pipe contains a transparent portion of enlarged cross section, with sudden enlargement and
contraction plus pitot tube assembly housing. Enlarged section is followed by a series of four slow
bends four slow elbows and an angled seat valve.
[7] Pressurised water and mercury tube manometers are included.
[8] Can be used in conjunction with the hydraulics bench, or as a stand alone experiment.


WORKSTATION 6
(Flow Visualization Experiments)
P6246 HELE SHAW APPARATUS
[1] Simulates any process satisfying the laplace equation in two dimensions.
[2] Provides a parallel laminar water flow field to allow a full study of the low Reynolds number flow
    patterns around submerged models representing cylinder, aerofoils, bluff bodies, knife edge weirs
    etc. or through various passages such as valve bodies, nozzles etc.
[3] Incorporates independently controlled sinks and sources to permit the study to be extended to more
    complex problems involving fluid removal or addition at discrete points in the potential flow.
[4] Equipped with multiple dye injection to provide flow visualisation.
[5] Alternative passage and submerged models can be easily cut from the flexible sheet material
    supplied.
P6247 WATER FLOW VISUALISATION APPARATUS
[1] Self contained bench mounted unit.
[2] High walled flow channel with detachable front panel, light source, inlet tank with removable flow
    straightener, level control sluice gate and outlet tank.
[3] Electrically driven circulating pump, interconnecting pipework, flow control and drain valves.
[4] Set of white acrylic models with black background including cylinder, aerofoil, tube bank heat
    exchanger, smooth contraction - enlargement, sudden contraction - enlargement and a bend and
    elbow model.
[5] Overcomes the problems associated with dye’s in recirculation systems and the expense of hydrogen
bubble generation, small un-expanded polystyrene beads are added to the water. The beads having a
specific gravity only marginally greater than water allow the flow pattern to be clearly seen without the
beads settling out


WORKSTATION 7
(Hydrostatics)
 P6242 HYDROSTATICS BENCH
[1] Steel framed Hydrostatics Bench, castor mounted, with storage cupboard, recessed working surface
and backboard containing items for conducting experiments in hydrostatics.
[2] Hare`s tube, 600mm long.
[3] Water manometer, 600 mm long.
[4] Mercury manometer, 250mm long.
[5] Manometer manifold block complete with mercury trap.
[6] Vacuum/pressure Bourdon tube pressure gauge range -1 bar to +6.0 bar.
[7] Vernier hook gauge.
[8] Archimedes experiment with spring balance, bucket and cylinder.
[9] Capillary viscometer to BS 188 - viscosity range 1.5 to 10cSt.
[10] Falling sphere viscometer to BS 188 - viscosity range = 10 to 850St.

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[11] Specific gravity bottle - capacity 50 ml.
[12] Triple beam balance - range 0 to 600g, readabilty 0.1g.
[13] Pipette, 10 ml capacity.
[14] Pascal`s apparatus, comprising glass tubes of differing shapes and varying cross-sectional area
sealed by pressure disc actuated by a weighing beam.
[15] Vacuum pump, hand-operated for maxium vacuum 120torr.
[16] Hydraulic press with two cylinders of bores 20mm and 54mm.
[17] Capillarity apparatus comprising set of capillary tubes in frame and trough.
[18] Searle`s Surface tension balance.
[19] Hydrometer - range 0.7 to 2.0, resolution 0.01.
[20] Thermometer, mercury in glass, 0-50°C.
[21] Set of weights 10mg to 100g.
[22] Set of containers comprising two cylinders of diameter 40mm and height 450mm and 3 beakers,
two of 100ml and one of 1000ml capacity.
P6243 BAROMETER FOR USE WITH P6242
[1] Direct reading Mercury siphon type barometer with compensated silvered metal scale 585mm to
790mm by 1mm divisions on metal reflector and with thermometer -10°C to 50°C by 1°C divisions.
[2] Barometer is supplied mounted on a polished hardwood backboard, with brackets for attachment to
the Hydrostatics Bench.
P6234 CALIBRATION OF A PRESSURE GAUGE
[1] Dead weight pressure gauge calibrator used in conjunction with the hydraulic bench pressure gauge.
[2] Direct determination of static pressure
P6237 CENTRE OF PRESSURE APPARATUS
[1] Measurement of static thrust exerted by a fluid on a vertical water submerged surface, and
determination of the centre of pressure.
[2] Circular arc specimen with vertical end face, supported on a precision weighing beam and arranged
over a tank so the thrust on the specimen can be balanced by direct weighing technique.
[3] Variable water level.


WORKSTATION 8
(Applied Hydrology)
P6510 NETWORK OF PIPES APPARATUS
1. The apparatus consists of a network of four coiled pipe elements and a differential manometer bank.
2. The four pipe elements are located between a pair of large bore four branch valved manifolds which
   allow a number of series, parallel and series/parallel network configurations to be achieved.
3. The manifolds incorporate pressure tappings which allow the pressure drop across each pipe element
   to be measured using the four 500-0-500 mm water on mercury differential manometer bank.
4. The manifolds also incorporate valved discharge points which allow the network to be configured to
   represent various distribution systems including a ring main and a long distribution system.
5. Nine pipe elements of differing pipe bore are supplied. The pipe elements are coiled to allow pipe
   lengths of nominally two metres to be used in the compact working area of the Cussons Hydraulics
   Bench.
P6515 PIPE SURGE & WATER HAMMER APPARATUS
1. The equipment comprises two stainless steel pipes connected to a constant head tank.
2. A service module provides the water supply to the head tank and also incorporates a volumetric tank
   for flow rate measurement, sump tank, circulating pump and flow control valve.
3. Water enters the two test pipes via the constant head tank and discharges into the volumetric tank.
4. A dump valve in the volumetric tank returns the water to the sump tank.
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5. The pipe surge test section incorporates a clear acrylic surge shaft to enable visualisation of its
   oscillatory characteristics to be demonstrated.
6. A metric scale on the shaft permits the height of the oscillation to be measured.
7. The test pipe terminates with a lever operated gate valve and separate flow control valve.
P6520 PERMEABILITY TANK
1. Cussons P6520 Permeability Apparatus consists of a framed glass tank, of internal dimensions 1900
   mm long by 530 mm high and 130 mm front to back.
2. The tank is mounted on a fabricated steel frame fitted with castors and levelling feet.
3. The front, back and ends of the tank are of clear toughened glass giving scratch free visibility
   without the risk of abrasion of the inner surfaces by the permeable medium.
4. The base of the tank incorporates fourteen pressure tappings at 100 mm pitch, the tappings are
   specially designed to prevent the ingress of sand particles.
5. Flexible tubes connect the tappings to two multitube manometer banks scaled 0 to 500 mm, for
   measurement of the water table height along the tank.
6. Removable end baffles are used to contain the permeable medium within the central part of the tank,
   thus providing inlet and outlet header compartments.
7. A speed controlled centrifugal pump circulates water from a sump tank to either or both of these
   header tanks.
8. Adjustable overflow pipes in the header compartments allow the hydraulic gradient across the
   various models to be adjusted.
P6530 HYDROLOGY APPARATUS
1. The apparatus consists of a shallow water tight rectangular tank, approximately 2000 mm by 750
   mm by 250 mm deep, which can be filled with a fine granular medium to form the experimental
   terrain.
2. The tank is supported on a fabricated steel frame with mountings which allow adjustment of the
   inclination of the tank.
3. Above the tank is a frame supporting an array of eight spray nozzles which are used to simulate
   rainfall.
4. Valves control the number of spray nozzles in operation, enabling a moving storm to be simulated.
5. Permeable end baffles are used to contain the granular material within the central part of the tank,
   thus providing inlet and outlet header compartments.
6. Adjustable overflow pipes in the header compartments allow the hydraulic gradient across the tank
   to be adjusted.
7. The lower part of the steel support frame contains a sump tank and a water circulation system which
   can deliver the water supply to either header compartment or to the spray nozzles.
8. The flow rate to the spray nozzles is measured by a variable area flow meter.
P6540 SEDIMENTATION TRANSPORT APPARATUS
1. A transparent, inclinable flow channel through which water can be re-circulated by a pump over a
   mobile bed to demonstrate the whole range of bedforms from incipient particle movement to bed
   wash-out.
2. Three different discharge rates can be selected (and measured) within the range 0.2 to 0.6 litres/sec.
3. The channel slope can be adjusted within the range 0- 10%.
4. The working section of the channel is 1.55 m long, 78 mm wide and 110 mm deep.
5. The equipment is self-contained and may be bench-mounted in either the classroom or laboratory by
   virtue of its portability.
6. A model undershot weir and bridge pier are included for local erosion demonstrations.
7. A water level gauge is supplied to calibrate the overshot weir.
8. An instruction manual is supplied which includes both experimental details and the appropriate
   theoretical background of sediment transport mechanics.

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