Attention by dffhrtcv3


From Confusion to
  The Role of Attention in a
Neuro-developmental Model of
 Assessment and Interventions

 Housekeeping

 Introduction of Rudolf Stockling

 Presentation

 Discussion
Introduction of Rudolf Stockling

  MSc (Psych) Wollongong
  Member Australian Psychological Society (APS)
  Registered Psychologist NSW Australia

    Secondary Teacher (4 Years)
    Educational Psychologist (12 Years)
    Psychologist in Private Practice (8 Years)
    Director of Assessment Lexicon Reading Centre Dubai
     (at present),
The Neuro-developmental Model
         of Learning
    Attention Control Systems




A. Alertness

B. Sleep and arousal balance

C. Mental effort

D. Performance consistency
                  A. Alertness
 Regulates the flow of energy
 Prevents mental fatigue

Look Out for:
At home:
 Difficulty finishing homework
 Can’t sit still on car trips, at the table, etc.

In school:
 Yawns
 Fidgets
 Contorts the body
  B. Sleep and arousal balance
 Brain’s ability to promote sleep
 Regulates appropriate alertness during day

Look Out for:
At home:
 Resists going to bed
 Cannot fall asleep at a regular time;
 Hard time getting up in the morning

In school:
 Does not really wake up until late morning;
 Yawns,
 Stretches
 Tired during class
             C. Mental effort
 Supplies the energy required for a student to
  start, work on, and complete a task

Look Out for:
At home:
 Requires heavy prodding to do homework or
  study for tests; have to “light a fire” under him to
  do chores

In school:
 Late starting work
 Puts off tasks that are particularly hard or
D. Performance consistency
 Ensures a steady, reliable flow of energy from
  moment to moment and day to day

Look Out for:
At home:
 Energy level and interest in tasks are

In school:
 Inconsistent School work quality and amount
        Strategies: Mental Energy
1. Praise attention efforts.

2. Encourage physical activity.

3. Give advance notice.

4. Break up studying time into chunks.

5. Recommend a bedtime routine.

6. Provide breaks with physical activity
       Strategies: Mental Energy
6. Help to get started on homework.

7. Identify high mental effort periods.

8. Monitor performance inconsistencies.

9. Use a dry-erase board to organize
   homework time.

A. Saliency determination
B. Depth and detail of processing
C. Cognitive activation
D. Focal maintenance
E. Satisfaction level
          A. Saliency determination
• Selects important information for use and puts
  unimportant information aside

Look Out for:
At home
 When given a list of chores, cannot distinguish which
  are more important than others
 may have a hard time making a decision when
  presented with many options

In school
 Distracted by sights, sounds, or events happening
   close- by;
 Takes detailed notes, without prioritizing
      B. Depth and detail of processing
• Controls how deeply students concentrate on details
  in order to capture the information

Look Out for:
At home:
 Has to be told directions or information several times
  before it “sinks in”

In school:
 Misses critical details, like operational signs in math
   or punctuation in writing
             C. Cognitive activation
 Triggers prior knowledge and experience learning new

Look Out for:
At home:
 Unengaged and disconnected (cognitive underactivation) or

 Bounce around seemingly random topics (overactivation)

In school:

 Disengaged from classroom discussions or

 Disrupts discussion with irrelevant ideas
                D. Focal maintenance
• Allows a student to focus for the right amount
  of time on important information
Look Out for:
At home
 Jumps from activity to activity without
 may overuse the TV remote
In school
 Stops focusing in the middle of an activity;
 Is not prepared when class begins a new
              E. Satisfaction level
• Controls how deeply students concentrate on
  details in order to capture the information

Look Out for:
At home
 Only concentrates on things of interest
 Exhibits an extreme hunger for material
  possessions (the “latest” thing)

In school
 Disrupts other students when bored;
 does not focus in class unless interested in the
          Strategies: Processing
1.   Teach scanning or skimming techniques

2.   Draw focus to important information.

3.   Provide a clear ruler to help your child keep her
     place while reading.

4.   Use sub vocalization.

5.   Connect new information to prior knowledge.
     Strategies: Processing cont.
6.   Make new information relevant.

7.   Encourage eye contact and repetition.

8.   Teach your child to prioritize.

9.   Teach and model internal standards.

10. Use internal dialogue, or self-talk,

11. Reflect on successes.

12. Cue children to upcoming transitions .

A. Previewing

B. Facilitation and inhibition

C. Pacing

D. Self-monitoring

E. Reinforceability
                  A. Previewing
   Consider more than one action or response
   Anticipate the outcome of a choice

Look Out for:
At home:
 Trouble thinking through the possible consequences
    of her actions, even when prompted by parents

In school:
 Does not use outlines to plan a paper or project
 Difficulty estimating answers to math problems
 Difficulty in predicting events in or endings to stories
   B. Facilitation and inhibition
 Exercise restraint and not act immediately
 Consider various options
 Choose best response or strategy in a situation

Look Out for:
At home
 Does the first thing that comes to mind without
   considering possibilities;
 can’t resist temptation (e.g. sneaking treats before

In school:
 Blurts out responses in class discussion
 Says whatever is on his mind
                    C. Pacing
   Adjusts the rate to complete a task;
   Enables production at appropriate rate

Look Out for:
At home
 Rushes through homework
 Trouble allotting enough time

In school
 Does poorly on timed tests
 Still completing assignments when others are done
 Finishes tasks far too quickly resulting in errors
           D. Self-monitoring
• Allows to evaluate continuous performance
• Allows to evaluate completion a task

Look Out for:
At home:
 Does not check his work,
 Leaving chores unfinished or poorly done

In school:
 Trouble editing his own work;
 Doesn’t “get it“ when behaviour is bothering others
           E. Reinforceability
• Helps to respond or act on prior experience

Look Out for:
At home
• Gets into trouble over the same problem despite past
  interventions or consequences

In school
 Keeps making the same mistakes despite tutoring or
 Insensitive to punishment and reward
            Strategies: Production
1.   Engage in “what if” exercises in various
     academic, behavioural, and social situations.

2.   Build in planning time

3.   Model planning techniques for your child by
     ‘thinking aloud’ while performing a task.

4.   Use stepwise approaches.
     Strategies: Production cont.
5.   Stress the importance of organization.

6.   Encourage self-grading.

7.   Provide consistent feedback.

8.   Create a visual reminder to “hold that thought.”

9.   Discuss the lesson or assignment.
            Strategies: Basics

 General Tips

 Home, School and Clinic Collaboration

 Involving Children
     Strategies: General Tips
 Decide which strategies to try

 Limit yourself to 1-3 strategies to try first.

 If the first few strategies not improve the
  child's skills, try others.

 Adapt strategies for use with your child’s
  age groups
        Home, School and Clinic

 Share observations about your child's strengths and

 Discuss where the breakdown is occurring

 Share information on issues in other areas

 Attention issues often masks other learning issues
       Home, School and Clinic
         Collaboration, contd
 Identify your child's strengths and interests

 Discuss possible strategies

 Acknowledge your emotional reactions

 Discuss appropriate next steps
            Involving Children
 Attention skills are important to succeed with school
  work, control behaviour and relate well to others.

 Some children give up and see themselves as failures

 Others exhibit behaviour problems related to attention.
       Involving Children, contd
What to do:
 Open non-judgemental discussion of learning profile

 Explain that everyone has strengths and

 Create a shared sense of optimism

 Explain that learning problems can be managed

 Work toward a common realistic goal
          Professional Organizations

 American Academy of Child and Adolescent
   Information and Pamphlets

 American Academy of Pediatrics:
   Information for parents of children from birth through age 21.

 American Psychological Association:
   The professional organization of psychologists in the USA
                Resources: Websites
 All Kinds of Minds:

  Provides resources to help parents, educators, and clinicians

 Learning Disabilities Association of America:

     Provides information on understanding learning disabilities

 National Center for Learning Disabilities:

  Information about learning, early literacy and learning resources

 LD Online

  Learning Disabilities and ADHD Information


    Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
• Brown, Thomas E. Attention Deficit Disorder: The
  Unfocused Mind in Children and Adults.: Yale
  University Press 2005

• Levine, Melvin D. All Kinds of Minds. Cambridge, Mass.:
  Educators Publishing Service, 1997.

• Website:

• Website:

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