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Test Prep Through Reading (PowerPoint)

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					         Nogales High School
    Prep Your Way to Success!




                A Collaborative Effort of
                Nogales High School




1
    About This Intervention…


    This power point was drawn from the
      information found in our school-wide gap
      analysis. Question of the Week is
      subsumed within. Level 3 and 4 of our
      gap analysis provided context for the test-
      a-like questions in this test prep.


2
    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Unit 1 Basic Testing Strategies
    Unit 2 Advanced Testing Strategies
    Unit 3 Vocabulary of Testing
    Unit 4 Mnemonic Devices
    Unit 5 Scantrons & Answer Sheets
    Unit 6 Reading Strategies and Question of
           the Week

3
    UNIT 1: Pass That Test


              Basic Test Taking
              Strategies
              General Information




4
    Reminder!!!


       The answer choices for multiple choice
        questions are called “distracters.”
       The choices are written to take your attention
        away from the correct answer.




5
    READ THE DIRECTIONS!!!



       Do the directions ask you to do more than
        one thing?
       Do you understand what the directions are
        asking you to do?



6
    Are the questions using grammar
             to distract you?



                   Grammar & Sentence
                   Structure




7
    Decoding Distracters


    Are the articles “a” or “an” used separately or
      arranged like this? a/an
     Use “a” before consonants
     Use “an” before vowels and vowel like
      sounds



8
    Practice Questions

    One of the largest            One of the
    animals in the world is an:   largest animals in the
                                     world is a/an:
       a.   giraffe               a. giraffe

       b.   tiger                 b. tiger

       c.   elephant              c. elephant

       d.   gazelle               d. gazelle




9
     Phrase/Clause

     Can you match a clause in the question with a
      phrase in the distracter choices?

        The rule is that a time clause will have the
         perfect tense in the main clause and the
         simple tense in the time phrase.



10
     Practice Question

     It had been raining for 3 days,

     a.   when the sun finally comes out.
     b.   when the sun finally was coming out.
     c.   when the sun will finally come out.
     d.   when the sun finally came out.


11
     Are sounds being used to distract
                  you?




                     Repeating Sounds




12
     More About Decoding


     Is SOUND being used to catch your attention?

     REPEATED CONSONANTS
     Example:
      The curious cat crawled quietly
     Repeated sounds can be used in the answer choices to
       pull your attention away from the correct answer.

13
     More Decoding

     Is sound being used to catch your attention?

     REPEATED VOWELS or vowel like sounds.
      Ask after Annie Answers her next question.


     Repeated sounds can be used in the answer
      choices to pull your attention away from the
      correct answer.

14
     Even More Decoding

     Are homophones used to catch your attention?

        Homophones sound alike, but are not spelled
         alike and do not have the same meanings.

        THERE, THEIR, THEY’RE



15
     Are absolutes being used to
            distract you?




                  True/False Questions




16
     For True and False

     Watch out for absolutes like “always” & “never”.

        Dogs bite.
        Dogs always bite.
        Dogs never bite.




17
     Absolutes….


        When “always” or “never” are used in a
         “True/False” question, the answer is
         most likely to be false.




18
     Are there Best Practices that can
          help to decode a test?




                     Three Principals




19
     Principle #1



        If there is no penalty for guessing, when you
         don’t know the answer, ( after you have tried
         process of elimination)…Guess!




20
     Principle #2



     When the question has positive wording, the
      BEST PRACTICE is to go through the
      process of elimination and throw out the
      answer choices that could not be the correct
      answer.


21
     Principle # 3



        Rushing leads to careless mistakes. PACE
         YOURSELF!!!




22
     UNIT 2: Advanced Test Strategies




                    Beyond the Basic




23
     Principle # 1

        Read the question slowly.
        Read it again.
        Paraphrase it mentally.
        Look at the answers or do your
         computations.
        Go back again for a final re-read.


24
     Are negatives being used to
            distract you?




                  Except, Least, Not…..




25
     Principle #2

     Watch out for “except/least/not” which are
       negatives!
      Instead of asking you to eliminate all of the
       wrong answers, this type of question asks
       you to eliminate all of the right answers.
     Example:
      All of the following are true except…


26
      Are there tricks for questions
     containing charts and graphs?




                    Charts & Graphs




27
     Principle #3

     For charts, scan along with your pencil so that
       you don’t get lost.
      What are the labels/value/units on the x axis?
      What are the labels/value/units on the y axis?
      Can you locate zero? Is this significant?
      Is the chart showing increase or decrease?
      What is the relationship between the x- and
       y-axes?
      Is the graph finite or infinite? Do all values
28     make sense on this graph?
     Principle # 4



        Spend the most time where it will do the most
         good.




29
     If I don’t know the entire answer,
        can I use partial knowledge?




                     Try Partial Knowledge




30
     Principle # 5



        Use partial knowledge. Go through process
         of elimination. Mentally scan categories,
         time periods, eras...




31
     Practice Question Principle #5

     What is Henry Clay known for?
      a. He was the instigator of the Boston Tea Party.
      b. Along with Thomas Jefferson, he negotiated the
             Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the territory of the
             United States.
      c. As a member of the Continental Congress, he
             denounced British rule in his “Give me liberty or give
             me death” speech.
      d. He authored the Compromise of 1850, which attempted
             to placate both free and slave-holding states in order
             to avert civil war.


32
     Explanation for Henry Clay


        Remember that you don’t have to know who
         Henry Clay was, you just have to try to
         eliminate some answers. What time period is
         he from? If you vaguely know that he had
         something to do with the Civil War, eliminate
         all non-Civil War answers.


33
     Principle # 6


     Your personal opinion counts for
      nothing!
        Don’t let your life experience enter into your
         consideration of a question and possible
         answer.


34
     Are they using traps to distract
                  you?




                    Watch for Traps….




35
     Principle # 7

     DON’T be fooled by trap answers. They might contain
       repeated names, dates, years to catch the eye.
     Henry Clay authored the Compromise of
      a. 1850
      b. 1851
      c. 1852
      d. 1853




36
     Principle # 8



        Always check to see if you are allowed to write in the
         test booklet. If you are, then circle answers on the
         test booklet and bubble when you have finished a
         page. This eliminates the chance of error as you
         skip around. But if you are not allowed to write in the
         booklet, DON’T!


37
     Are there tips especially for math
               and science?




                     Subject Specific Tips




38
     Principal #9: Tips for Math and Science

     Answer each part of a question step by step.
     EX: Read the word problem, write an equation, solve
       the equation, and make a generalization about the
       answer.
      SHOW ALL COMPUTATIONS! (Your Work)
      Review generic vocabulary ahead of time.
      Everything starts with arithmetic, so review your
       basic skills.
      Practice computations without a calculator.
      Check units on your answers.


39
     UNIT 3: Vocabulary of Testing




                   Bloom’s Taxonomy




40
     Knowledge/Remembering

     Basically giving back information that was
       given to you in the same form.



        recall, recite, memorize, list, name, describe,
         label, match, identify, define



41
     Comprehension/Understanding

     Showing you understand something by putting
       it in your own words.



        discuss, express, explain, summarize,
         paraphrase, infer, locate, find, tell, extend,
         give examples, depict

42
     Application/Using Understanding

     Use rules or concepts in a new problem
      situation: to apply known solutions to new
      events; to employ guides such as maps or
      charts.

        practice, apply, compute, use, translate,
         change, solve, interpret, pretend, dramatize,
         illustrate, demonstrate

43
     Synthesis/Creating

     To use the knowledge you have and create
       something new from it.

        create, draw, compose, design, formulate
         organize, combine, devise, modify assemble,
         plan, construct, write, compile, revise,
         suppose


44
     Analysis/Examining

     To take things apart, to separate them, or
       rearrange them in order to understand them
       better.

        debate, diagram, compare, contrast,
         question, analyze, categorize, outline,
         experiment, criticize, differentiate, distinguish



45
     Evaluation/Deciding or Judging

     No right or wrong answer, but you must support
      your answer with solid evidence.



        select, judge, predict, justify, decide, choose,
         assess, evaluate, support, conclude, value



46
     UNIT 4: Mnemonic Devices


                Making up phrases that
                help you remember test
                information.




47
     How to Make a Mnemonic


        Decide which information you would like to
         memorize.
        Try the “order of operations”.
        Take the first letter from each aspect of the
         order of operations.
        Make up a phrase to help you remember the
         letters.

48
     Mnemonic for MATH

     Order of Operations:
      Parentheses
      Exponents
      Multiplication
      Division
      Addition
      Subtraction
        PLEASE EXCUSE MY DEAR AUNT SALLIE

49
     UNIT 5: Scantrons & Answer
                Sheet



                 How to Survive the
                 Paperwork




50
     Tools

        Always use a # 2 pencil unless otherwise
         directed.
        Completely bubble in your answer choice.
        If you make a mistake, make sure to erase
         COMPLETELY.
        DO NOT make any marks on the answer
         sheets other than directed.

51
     Unit 6: Prep Your Way to Success
                 in Reading



                    Reading for Different
                    Purposes




52
     STRATEGY: How to Find Details


        Ask the questions What? How? Why?
         Where? When? Or Who?
        Form a mental picture of the facts the author
         presents
        See how the facts give you information about
         the subject of the passage

53
     How to Find Details (Excerpt)
     “Physical Fitness”

       Strength means the power in one’s
      muscles. Like suppleness, strength
      helps prevent strains or sprains when
      you lift, push, or pull things. Strong
      muscles are also needed for good
      posture. Muscles support the
      backbone.

54
     How to Find Details (Question)

     Strength helps you to
     a) move more quickly
     b) sit, stand, or reach for things
     c) exercise for a long period without
        getting tired
     d) prevent strains or sprains


55
     How to Find Details (Explanation)

     d) Prevent strains or sprains

     The answer is found in the 2nd,3rd, and 4th line
       of the excerpt. Look for the two nouns
       “strains and sprains” within the passage.
       They give you more information about the
       subject “strength.”


56
     STRATEGY: How to Find the Main Idea


        Read the passage.
        For each paragraph, find the topic by asking
         who or what is this about?
        Ask, What main point does the author make
         about the topic? This will be the main idea of
         the paragraph

57
     More Main Idea….

        For a passage of more than one paragraph,
         study the whole passage. Find the main idea
         of each paragraph. Then identify the topic of
         the whole passage. Finally, find the main
         point that the author makes about that topic.
        Check that you have found the main idea.
         Ask, Do all the details in the passage explain
         or describe that main idea?

58
     Finding the Main Idea (Excerpt)
     “The Amazing All-Purpose Hand”

        Human beings have an unusual kind of
      thumb. It’s call opposable. That means we
      can move the thumb separately from our
      fingers. We can move it across our palms to
      meet each fingertip. Of all animals, only
      human beings, monkeys, and apes have this
      kind of thumb.


59
     Finding the Main Idea (Question)

     According to the excerpt, what makes the hand
        so different from the paws of most other
        animals?
     a) The hand has more bones.
     b) The hand has an opposable thumb.
     c) The hand has more muscles.
     d) The hand has more knuckles.


60
     Finding the Main Idea (Explanation)

     b)   The hand has an opposable thumb.

     Look at the 2nd line of the excerpt. What was
        the main point the author made about the
        human hand that made it different from
        most other animals?


61
     STRATEGY: How to Summarize

        Note the key ideas or details.
        Ask, Who or what is the topic of these facts?
        Ask, What main point do these facts make
         about the topic?
        Check that you have written a good
         summary. Ask, Does this statement cover
         the important details of all the facts?

62
     How to Summarize (Excerpt)

       The muscles that help us move are attached
      to bones. But muscles can only pull bones:
      they cannot push. Therefore, most muscles
      work in pairs. To bend your arm, for instance,
      the muscle on top of you arm pulls it up. To
      straighten your arm, the muscle on the
      bottom of your arm pulls it back down.


63
     How to Summarize (Question)

     What is the best summary of these facts?
     a) The arm has a muscle on the top and
        another muscle on the bottom.
     b) Most muscles are attached to bones such as
        the arm bones.
     c) Because muscles can only pull, they work in
        pairs to move bones.
     d) The muscles of the arm can move the arm
64      either up or down.
     How to Summarize (Explanation)

     c) Because muscles can only pull, they work in
        pairs to move bones.
     Pull together all of the facts as a summary and
        decide which facts are the most important in
        this excerpt. From the 2nd line to the end,
        many facts about the topic are given. If all
        facts are combined, what is the main point
        about this topic that is highlighted?

65
     STRATEGY: How to Put Events in
     Sequence


        Look for words that signal time or order
         (next, before, then, last, afterward, finally...)
        Underline each event or write it on a
         separate piece of paper.
        Number the events in the order in which they
         happened.

66
     Events in Sequence (Excerpt)
     “How the Body Fights Disease”

        Often, when a germ enters the body, the
      body starts producing antibodies. These are
      substances that fight against the germ and
      help destroy it.
         Our bodies can produce antibodies for
      many diseases. That’s why we can catch
      those diseases only once. The first time we
      are sick with the disease, our body make

67
     More Sequence (Excerpt)

      Antibodies for it. The antibodies fight the
      disease’s germs. Eventually, they kill the
      germs.
         If we are exposed to the disease a second
      time, the germs can enter the body again.
      But the antibodies for those germs are still in
      our bodies. They fight off the germs and
      keep them from making us sick again.

68
     Events in a Sequence (Question)

     Number the events in order, beginning with 1.
     a) __The antibodies kill the disease germs.
     b) __The body produces antibodies for the
        disease.
     c) __Disease germs enter the body for the first
        time.
     d) __The antibodies fight the disease germs.
     e) __The antibodies stay in the body and kill
69      those germs if they return.
     Events in a Sequence (Explanation)

        a) 4; b) 2; c) 1; d) 3; e) 5

     When reading this excerpt, did you identify
      which event came first, second, third, fourth,
      fifth, sixth? You can always make a penciled
      number above each idea as you locate it in
      the excerpt.


70
     STRATEGY: How to Restate Facts


        Read each statement carefully to be sure
         you understand it fully.
        Look away. Form a mental picture of the idea
         in the statement.
        Use your own words to express the idea in
         your mental picture.

71
     How to Restate Facts (Practice)

     •   Each of the following sentences on the
         left has been restated. The
         restatements are listed on the right, but
         they have been scrambled out of order.
         Match each sentence with its
         restatement. On the line provided,
         write the letter of the correct
         restatement.
72
     More Restating Facts (Practice)

               Sentence                Restatement
     1.   All animals depend    a)   Some animals eat
          on plants for their        only plant-eating
          food.                      animals.
     2.   Not all animals eat   b)   Without plants,
          plants.                    animals would
     3.   If an animal does          starve to death.
          not eat plants, it    c)   Some animals don’t
          eats other animals         eat plants.
73
          that do eat plants.
     Restating Facts (Explanation)

     1=(b), 2=(c), 3=(a)

     Did you notice that the restatements use
       different words or word order, but the
       restatements mean the same thing as the
       original sentence.



74
     STRATEGY: How to Find
     Comparisons and Contrasts


        Notice which features of the two (or More)
         things are being described.
        Look for clue words that signal similarities,
         such as both, all, like or alike, likewise, same,
         similar, also, and too.



75
     Compare and Contrast (Excerpt)

     Plants and animals are alike in that both need
       air to survive. Both of them “breathe in” the
       air in which they live. Animals use the part of
       air called oxygen. Then they breathe out the
       part call carbon dioxide, which they don’t
       need. Plants are just the opposite. They use
       the carbon dioxide in the air to help them
       make the food they need. Then, through tiny
       holes on the surface of their leaves, they
       “breathe out” the leftover oxygen.

76
     Compare and Contrast (Practice)

     1. They use Carbon Dioxide.    Animals Plants Both

     2. They need air to survive.   Animals Plants Both

     3. They breathe out oxygen.    Animals Plants Both

     4. They breathe in air.        Animals Plants Both

     5. They use oxygen.            Animals Plants Both


77
     Compare and Contrast (Explanation)

     1)   Plants
     2)   Both
     3)   Plants
     4)   Both
     5)   Animals




78
     Strategy: Classifying

        Identify the categories.

        Note the features of each category.

        Put examples in their correct
         categories.

79
     Classifying (Excerpt)
     “Getting Along in a Tough Place”

        Plants can do very different things to
      survive their natural homes. In the
      desert, for example, it seldom rains.
      When it does rain, desert plants store
      large amounts of rainwater in their
      stems. They use the water gradually
      during the long spells when no rain
      falls.
80
     More Classifying (Excerpt)

      These plants have thick skins. Their
      skins Keep the stored water from
      evaporating. Cactuses are examples of
      this type of plant.
        At the opposite extreme are plants
      that contain hollow spaces in which
      they store the air they must have to
      survive. Sargassum is one such plant.
      Kelp is another.
81
     Classifying (Sample)

     Category:



     Features:   1.          1.
                 2.

     Examples:   1. Cactus   1.Sargassum
                             2.Kelp



82
     Classifying (Explanation)

     Category:   Desert Plants     Salt Water Plants



     Features:   1. Stores large   1. Have hollow
                 amounts rainwater spaces to store
                 2. Thick skinned  air
     Examples:   1. Cactus         1.Sargassum
                                   2.Kelp



83
     STRATEGY: How to Draw Conclusions


        Think of the facts as clues.
        Read between the lines. Find ideas that the
         facts hint at but don’t state directly.
        Be sure the ideas make sense, given the
         facts. Rule out any that do not make sense.



84
     How to Draw Conclusions
     “How Long Can Seeds Rest” (Excerpt)

        Once a plant’s seeds are fully formed,
      they usually need a “resting period”
      before they can begin growing as new
      plants. The seeds of some plants can
      rest for a very long time and then still
      grow when planted.
        Some wild plant seeds have “slept”
      underground for as many as eighty
      years before they sprouted into new
85
     More How to Draw Conclusions…
     (Excerpt)

      plants. Scientists know of seeds that were
      stored for more than 150 years. When
      these seeds were finally planted, they
      produced healthy new plants.
        But these long resting periods are
      unusual. The seeds of most garden flowers
      can rest only for a year or two. After that
      length of time, they will no longer sprout
      into new plants.

86
     More on How to Draw Conclusions
     (Excerpt)

       Does not get its water from the soil.
      Rather, it sucks water from its host
      plant. It does this by sinking roots into
      the branches of the host---much like a
      vampire sinks its teeth into a victim’s
      neck. Sometimes the host tree
      continues to live normally. But in other
      cases, the host is gradually drained to
      death.
87
     How to Draw Conclusion (Question)
     What is the best summary of the passage above?


     a)   Seeds can rest for many years before they
          sprout into new plants.
     b)   Most garden flower seeds rest only for a
          year or two.
     c)   Most seeds need to rest before they sprout
          into new plants, but the resting periods vary.
     d)   Wild plant seeds can rest for up to 150
          years before they sprout into new plants.

88
     How to Draw Conclusions
     (Explanation)

     The BEST answer is “c)”

     The other choices are all true, but each one
       only restates one fact or summarizes two of
       the facts.




89
     STRATEGY: How to Read Diagrams



      Read the title to learn the purpose of
       the diagram.
      Study the drawing(s) and any labels.
      If there is more than one drawing,
       compare and contrast them.

90
     How to Read Diagrams (Excerpt)
     “Magma”




91
     How to Read Diagrams (Question)

        Using the diagram, what statement can you
         make about what happens to cause a
         volcano to erupt? Include as much
         information as possible.
        Answers will vary




92
     STRATEGY: How to Identify Facts and
     Opinions



      Think whether the statement can be
       proved with evidence.
      Think whether everyone would agree
       with the statement after seeing the
       evidence.


93
     More Fact and Opinion…

      Look for words that signal opinion, such
       as should or shouldn’t, must or must
       not, or ought to.
      Look for words expressing emotions or
       values, which usually signal opinions.
       These are words such as good, bad,
       best, most, great, important, beautiful,
       terrible, wonderful, or fun.
94
     Fact and Opinion (Excerpt & Question)
     “Block That Inertia!” #1

      1. Seat belts are one of the most valuable
      new features of cars in the past 25 years.
      2. Seat belts were designed to protect people
      from being hurt in automobile accidents.

     Which sentence is an opinion?________



95
     Fact and Opinion (Excerpt & Question)
     “Block that Inertia” #2

     1. A physical force called inertia is the reason
        why car accidents can be so dangerous.
     2. Drivers---and passengers too---should
        understand inertia.
     3. It means that as object that is at rest will not
        move unless it’s forced to.
     Which sentence is an opinion?_____

96
     Fact and Opinion (Explanation)

     Question #1: Sentence #1 is the opinion.
     Did you notice the word “most”? It indicates the
       use of emotion.

     Question #2: Sentence #2 is the opinion.
     Did you notice the word “should”? It indicates
       an emotional judgment.

97
     STRATEGY: How to Recognize
     Hypotheses

        Identify the question being asked.
        Look for words that signal an educated
         guess, such as believe, think, may or might
         be, possibly, and probably.
        Ask yourself if the educated guess answers
         the question being asked.
        Look for evidence given that supports the
         educated guess.

98
     How to Recognize the Hypothesis
     (Excerpt)

        Teresa and Mona drove all day to get to a
      campground high in the mountains. A week
      later, they drove home using the same route.
      The women kept track of how much gas the
      car used on both laps of the trip. They found
      that it used more gas on the trip to the
      campground than on the trip back. Teresa
      and Mona know that gravity pulls things
      downward toward the Earth.

99
     How to Recognize the Hypothesis
     (Question)


     What hypothesis did they make to explain why
      the car used more gas on the first
      trip?________________________________
      ____________________________________
      ____________________________________


10
0
     How to Recognize the Hypothesis
     (Explanation)


     The trip to the campground probably had more
       uphill driving than the trip back home
       because the campground was high in the
       mountains. A car has to use more gas to
       move uphill against the pull of gravity.


10
1
     STRATEGY: The Five Steps of the
     Scientific Method

        Decide which question to investigate.
        Find the facts related to the question.
        Form a hypothesis.
        Perform an experiment to test the
         hypothesis.
        Draw conclusions about your hypothesis

10
2
     Scientific Method (Excerpt)
     “Staying Warm: Wool or Cotton?

        Masud worked in an ice-cream factory that
      was always chilly. He wondered which
      would keep him warmer, a cotton sweater or
      a wool sweater. He knew that wool fibers
      have tiny pockets of air. He also knew that
      one of the best ways to keep warmth in an
      object is to surround it with a thin layer of air.
        In light of these facts, Masud thought that a
10
3
     (More Excerpt)…Scientific Method

       wool sweater would probably keep him
      warmer than a cotton one. He decided to
      test this hunch with an experiment.
         He filled two identical empty metal cans
      with boiling water. Then he wrapped a
      woolen sock snugly around one of the cans.
      He wrapped a cotton sock of the same
      thickness around the other can.
10
4
     (More Excerpt)…Scientific Method

         Fifteen minutes later, Masud unwrapped
      the cans. He felt each one. The can that
      had been wrapped in wool was warmer that
      the one that had been wrapped in cotton.
      Masud decided that his hunch was right.
      Wool does do a better job of keeping heat in
      a warm object.

10
5
     Scientific Method (Question)

     Which question did Masud ask?
     ___________________________________
     What was Masud’s Hypothesis?
     ___________________________________
     What conclusion did Masud draw at
      the end of the experiment?
     ___________________________________
10
6
    Scientific Method (Explanation)

   Which question did Masud ask?
   Will a wool sweater keep me warmer.
   What was Masud’s Hypothesis?
   Since wool has air pockets, a wool sweater
     will keep me warmer.
   What conclusion did Masud draw at the end
     of the experiment?
   Surrounding an object with a thin layer of
10   air, as with wool, creates more warmth
7
     STRATEGY: How to Find Cause and
     Effect



      Listall the events or facts.
      Look for words that signal cause
       and effect, such as because,
       cause, since, due to, as a result,
       therefore, or so.
10
8
     More Cause and Effect…


        Think about which event happens first and
         which event follow. Remember that a
         passage may state the effect first and the
         cause second.
        Remember—a cause can have more than
         one effect. Also, an effect can have more
         than one cause.
10
9
     More Cause and Effect…


        Look for clue words that signal differences,
         such as but, however, unlike, different,
         although, on the other hand, and yet.
        Make a chart showing the things that are
         described. In the chart, list the features that
         are compared or contrasted.

11
0
     Cause and Effect
     (Questions) What is the Effect?

     Substances are made up of tiny bits of matter
       call molecules. These molecules are held
       together by forces call bonds. Bonds are like
       a glue between molecules. They make
       molecules pull toward each other.
     CAUSE: Molecules are held together by bonds.
     Effect:________________________________

11
1
     Cause and Effect
     (Explanation)



        Effect: Molecules pull toward each other




11
2
     STRATEGY: Predicting Outcomes

        List the facts that you know about the subject.
        Think about how things have happened in the
         past.
        Think whether you expect the future to be
         different from the past or like the past.
        Make a reasonable guess as to what will
         happen. Base your guess on the facts you
         know.
11
3
     Predicting Outcomes (Excerpt)

         Most paper is made of tiny fibers of wood.
      The first step in recycling paper is to soak it
      in water. This softens and separates the
      paper fibers. The result is a sort of soupy
      mush call pulp. Next, the pulp is cleaned
      and dried. Finally, it is rolled into new paper.
         Each time paper is broken down into pulp,
      its fibers become shorter and weaker. The
11
4
     More Predicting Outcomes…

      Paper made from these shorter fibers is not
      as strong as new paper. It tends to crumble
      and fall apart.




11
5
     Predicting Outcomes (Question)

     A paper company made shopping bags with
        paper that had been recycled several time.
        The company did not mix in any new fibers.
        What do you predict these bags will be like?
     a) They will dissolve quickly in water.
     b) They will be stronger than other bags.
     c) They will tear or break easily.
     d) They will not keep their shape well.
11
6
     Predicting Outcomes
     (Explanation)


     The answer is “c)” Each time the paper is
       broken down into pulp it becomes shorter
       and weaker, therefore it will tear or break
       easily.



11
7
     STRATEGY: How to Read Charts


      Read the title. It tells what the chart is
       about.
      Read all headings. They tell what each
       section of the chart is about.
      Study the information under the
       headings.
11
8
     How to Read Charts
     (Excerpt) “Types of Colloids”

     Name              Description           Example
     Fog            liquid mixed in gas      clouds
     Smoke          solid mixed in gas       smoke
     Foam           gas mixed in liquid      whipped cream
     Emulsion       liquid mixed in liquid   mayonnaise
     Sol            solid mixed in liquid    paint
     Gel            Liquid mixed in solid    jelly
11
9
     How to Read Charts (Questions)

     Mayonnaise is an example of which colloid?
      Foam
      Gel
      Emulsion
      Sol




12
0
     How to Read Charts (Explanation)


     Mayonnaise is an example of an emulsion.
      Scan the example column to locate the word,
      then move to the name column to find the
      answer.



12
1
     STRATEGY: How to Identify Problems
     and Solutions


      To find the problem ask, “What was
       Wrong?”
      To find the solution ask, “What was
       done to change things?”
      Be sure you can explain how the
       solution solved the problem.
12
2
     Problems and Solutions (Excerpt)
     “Blowing in the Wind”

        Cars, televisions, toasters, phones, lamps--
      we use dozens of machines in our daily life.
      What makes them run?
        Most run on fossil fuels---oil, coal, and
      natural gas. Gasoline is made from fossil
      fuel. Cars, airplanes, and other engines run
      by burning gasoline. Most of our electricity is
      also made by burning fossil fuel.
12
3
     Problems and Solutions
     (More Excerpt)

         But when fossil fuels burn, they give off
      gases. Some of those gases cause acid rain.
      Others are slowly hearting up our air. That is
      as dangerous as acid rain. Is there any way
      out of the fossil-fuel mess?
         Here’s one way out: the wind. Wind
      doesn’t cost a penny. It doesn’t pollute. But it
      can turn windmills. And those windmills can
      produce electricity. In dozens of places
12
4
     Problems and Solutions
     (More Excerpt)

        around the world, people have built
      windmills to make power without polluting.
        Wind probably can’t solve all of our energy
      problems. It doesn’t blow all the time. Also,
      some people feel windmills would clutter up
      the land. But chances are that windmills will
      become more common. They’re a lot cleaner
      than the burning of fossil fuels.
12
5
     Problems & Solutions (Question)

     How does that solution solve the main problem
        of fossil fuels?
     a) It doesn’t cause any pollution.
     b) It is cheaper than fossil fuels.
     c) It can produce more electricity than fossil
        fuels do.
     d) It is easier to find than fossil fuels.

12
6
     Problems & Solutions
     (Explanation)

     The answer is “a)”
     Most of our electricity is made by burning
      fossil fuel. The gases caused by the
      burning of fossil fuel creates pollution.
      Electricity can be created by
      harnessing the wind. Wind does not
      create pollution.
12
7
     STRATEGY: How to Read Line Graphs

        Read the title. It tells what the graph is
         about.
        Read all words and numbers. They show
         how the graph is laid out.
        Study the line. See where it goes up or
         down. That helps you compare things or see
         how they changed.

12
8
     How to Read Line Graphs (Excerpt)




12
9
     Line Graphs (Questions)

     1)   What is the tile of this graph?____________
     2)   How many years did it the minimum rage take to
          get from $.25 to $ 5.15 per hour?___
     3)   In which year did the minimum wage begin?
     4)   Which direction is the line traveling? What does
          that mean?______________________
     5)   Why did they use a dollar bill graphic?
     6)   _____________________________________
13
0
     Line Graphs (Explanation)

     1)   The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage Since
          Its Inception
     2)   Twenty Years
     3)   1938
     4)   The line is going up which means that the
          wage increased over the years
     5)   They used a dollar bill graphic to represent
          money
13
1
     STRATEGY: How to Apply Knowledge

        Ask, “What do I know that connects to the
         new situation?”
        Identify things in the new situation that are
         similar to what you know.
        Identify things in the new situation that are
         different from what you know.
        Draw conclusions.
13
2
     How to Apply Knowledge (Excerpt)
     “The Earth’s Wear and Tear”

       Erosion is the wearing away of the earth’s
      surface. Erosion is caused by weathering—
      wind, rain, and temperature changes that
      break up rocks and move soil. Two types of
      weathering occur in nature: mechanical
      weathering and chemical weathering.
        Mechanical weathering breaks rocks into
      smaller pieces. For instance, the sun’s heat
      may cause a rock to expand and split. Or
      water may freeze on a rock’s surface. The
13
3
     Apply Knowledge (More Excerpt)

      Expanding ice may crack the rock.
        Wind also causes mechanical weathering.
      When wind blows hard, it picks up pieces of
      rock and soil and carries them along. This
      driving wind can cut away at rocks and hills.
      The rocks get worn away. They split apart
      more easily.
        Chemical weathering is a change in the
13
4
     Apply Knowledge (More Excerpt)

      Minerals inside a rock. This usually happens
      when water is present. For example, water
      can wash away a rock’s minerals. This
      weakens the rock. And rain mixed with a gas
      called carbon dioxide can dissolve rock such
      as limestone.
        Sandblasting is a way to clean the outside
      of stone buildings. A high-powered stream
13
5
     Apply Knowledge (More Excerpt)

       Of sand is blown against the brick or stone.
      As the sand hits the surface, it wears away
      the dirty top layer of the stone. This leaves a
      clean surface.
         Although sandblasting is a sure way to
      clean brick, it has its drawbacks. The process
      often weakens the brick. Over time, the
      bricks can crumble. The process also leaves
13
6
     Apply Knowledge (More Excerpt)

      The bricks or stone more porous. This
      means that they are more likely to absorb
      water, which can cause damage. For these
      reasons, sandblasting is often used only as a
      last resort.



13
7
     Apply Knowledge (Question)

     Use what you learned about erosion to think
        about sandblasting. Circle the best answer
        to complete this statement: Sandblasting is
        like erosion caused by
     a) water
     b) sand particles
     c) ice
     d) air
13
8
     Apply Knowledge (Explanation)


     You read that sandblasting is sand being blown
       against the surface of a brick wall . This is
       most similar to c) wind. Wind picks up bits of
       rocks and carries them along. Over time, this
       can wear away the earth’s crust.


13
9
     STRATEGY: How to Read Bar Graphs

      Read the title. It tells what the graph is
       about.
      Read all words and numbers. They
       show how the graph is laid out.
      Study the bars. They show the facts,
       and they help you compare things
       quickly.
14
0
     How To Read Bar Graphs (Excerpt)
     “Profits in Millions of the 3 Branches of the
     ACME Company


        90
        80
        70
        60
        50                                           East
        40                                           West
        30                                           North
        20
        10
         0
             1st Qtr   2nd Qtr   3rd Qtr   4th Qtr
14
1
     Bar Chart (Questions)

     1)   In which quarter was the East Branch most
          profitable?
     2)   What can be said about the profits of the
          North Branch?
     3)   Which branch showed the greatest
          fluctuation (change) in profits?


14
2
     Bar Charts (Explanation)

     1)   3rd Quarter
     2)   The North Branch did not change much
          over the four quarters
     3)   The East Branch had the greatest
          fluctuation over the four quarters.



14
3
     STRATEGY: How to Make Inferences

        Look for clues. Find the topic, main idea,
         and details.
        Figure out why the author included certain
         details.
        Read between the lines. What do the details
         suggest?
        Check to see if you have enough information
         to make the inference.
14
4
     How to Make Inferences
     (Excerpt)

           Mark Brown is a union official. He says,
      ”Millions of people used to be proud to say,
      “I’m a Democrat.” They used to fight over it.
      They used to drink over it. They used to
      laugh over it. They used to argue over it.
      “Brown thinks that times have changed. The
      number of Democrats seem to have fallen.
      And he wonders why.
14
5
     How to Make Inferences
     (More Excerpt)

     People used to know the answer to this
       question: “What is a Democrat?” Past
       presidents were clear examples. Franklin
       Roosevelt, Harry Truman, and John Kennedy
       were Democrats. They knew what being a
       Democrat was all about. Here are some
       things that Mark Brown says the Democratic
       Party believes in:
14
6
     How to Make Inferences
     (More Excerpt)


      the middle class
      factory workers and unions
      the civil rights of minorities and women
      a strong defense
      social welfare programs


14
7
     How to Make Inferences
     (More Excerpt)

         In the 1990’s, the party must define what
      being a Democrat means today. Many
      people are worried about the economy.
      Today’s Democratic Party seems more
      moderate than it did in the past. Party
      members are stressing investment and
      growth. They want to build bridges between
      them and business. They want to pump up
      the economy. Democrats also want to stop
14
8
     How to Make Inferences
     (More Excerpt)

         Crime by putting more police on the
      streets. Uniting the party is a chief aim. This
      is the new face of the Democratic Party.
         During the 1980’s, voters chose
      Republican presidents. Mark Brown wants
      that pattern to change. “We’ve got our work
      cut out for us to bring these people home.
      We have to find the right message and the
      right messenger.”
14
9
     How to Make Inferences (Question)
     What can you infer about Democrats
     running for president in the 1980s?

     1)   They were not able to gain the trust of
          the majority of voters.
     2)   They spent too much money on their
          political campaigns.
     3)   They were not as smart as the
          Republicans running for president.
     4)   They did not know how worried people
          were about the economy.
15
0
     How to Make Inferences
     (Explanation)

     The answer is “1)” The first sentence of the
       last paragraph tells you that Republican
       presidents were elected in the 1980s. This
       clue supports the inference.




15
1
     STRATEGY: How to Read a Circle
     Graph

        Find the title. What is the topic of the graph?
        Read the labels on each portion of the circle.
         How do the labels relate to the topic of the
         graph?
        Study the percentage(%) and size of each
         portion. Which portion is largest? Which
         portion is smallest?
        Check to see that each portion adds up to
15
         the total (100%)
2
     How to Read a Circle Graph
     (Excerpt)

                 Jelly Belly Flavor Preference Survey



                                      16%
          26%
                                                        Coconut
                                               14%      Popcorn
                                                        Blueberry
                                                        Cherry
                                                        Tangerine
           24%                          20%
15
3
     How to Read a Circle Graph
     (Questions)

     1)   What is the topic of the survey?
     2)   Of the five flavors listed, which is the most
          popular?
     3)   What is the total percent of the two most
          popular flavors?
     4)   Of the five flavors listed, which is the least
          popular?
15
4
     How to Read a Circle Graph
     (Questions)

     1)   What percent of customers are completely
          dissatisfied with the product?
     2)   What percent of customers are completely
          satisfied with the product?
     3)   What is the product of this survey?



15
5
     How to Read a Circle Graph
     (Explanation)

     1)   Flavor preference of customers for Jelly
          Belly jellybeans.
     2)   Tangerine
     3)   50%
     4)   Popcorn



15
6
     STRATEGY: How to Understand
     Political Cartoons

        Notice every detail of the cartoon.
        Look at the characters. Who are they? What are
         they saying?
        Read every word in the cartoon. Study the labels
         and descriptions.
        Figure out if any pictures are symbols. What do you
         think they mean?
        Check to see if your inferences about the cartoon
         make sense.
15
7
     How to Understand a Political Cartoon
     (Excerpt)




15
8
     Political Cartoons (Question)

      Who is the man in the cartoon?_________________
      What is he saying?___________________________
      What does the newspaper say?_________________
      What does the label on the money bag say?
     ____________________________________________
      Why is there a donkey on the front page?
     ____________________________________________
      What is your interpretation of the cartoon?
     ____________________________________________
15
9
     Political Cartoons (Explanation)

      Who is the man in the cartoon? George Bush
      What is he saying? The buck stops here
      What does the newspaper say? CIA chief takes fall
      What does the label on the money bag say?
     Republican fund raising higher that Democrats
      Why is there a donkey on the front page?
     Democratic Symbol
      What is your interpretation of the cartoon?
     Answers will vary
16
0
     STRATEGY: Using a Map Key

      Study the symbols in the map key.
       What does each symbol represent?
      Find the location of the symbols on the
       map.
      Check how the map symbols are used
       to explain information.
16
1
     Using Map Keys: Excerpt




16
2
     Map Keys (Questions)

      What does a diamond represent on this
       map?___________________________
      What do the dots represent?
     ________________________________
      What does the colored bar represent?
       ________________________________
      Which continent had the most recent earth
       quake?__________________________
16
3
     Map Keys ( Explanation)

      What does a diamond represent on this
       map? Most recent earthquake
      What do the dots represent?
       Magnitude or size
      What does the colored bar represent?
       Depth in kilometers
      Which continent had the most recent earth
       quake? South America
16
4
     STRATEGY: How to Find Directions
     and Distances

      Find the direction symbol on the map.
       Places at the top of the map are north.
       Places at the bottom are south. West is
       to the right, and west is to the left.
      Find the number of miles represented
       in the map.

16
5
     More Finding Directions/Distances

      Practice finding the number of
       miles on a map from one place to
       another.
      Check to make sure that you have
       added the number of miles
       correctly.
16
6
     Finding Directions (Excerpt)




16
7
     Finding Directions (Questions)


     1)   How far is it in miles from Sycamore Canyon Park
          to Schabarum Regional
          Park?_____________________________
     2)   What is the distance in km. from Rimgrove Park to
          Snow Creek Park?___________________
     3)   How many miles of the 60 Freeway can be seen on
          this map?__________________________

16
8
     Finding Directions (Explanation)

     1)   How far is it in miles from Sycamore
          Canyon Park to Schabarum Regional Park?
          Approximately 7 miles
     2)   What is the distance in km. from Rimgrove
          Park to Snow Creek Park? Approximately 6
          km.
     3)   How many miles of the 60 Freeway can be
          seen on this map? Approximately 10 miles
16
9
   STRATEGY: How to Understand
   Historical Maps

    Read the title and background
     information. What is the purpose of the
     map?
    Read all the words on the map. If the
     map has a key, locate the symbols on
     the map.
    Check to see how the map shows
17
0
     events, trends, or ideas in history.
     Historical Maps (Excerpt)




17
1
     Historical Maps (Question)


     From the information that is visible…
      What is the year this map represents?_____
      What is the title of this map?_____________
      What might the purpose of this map be?
     _____________________________________

17
2
     Historical Maps (Explanation)


     From the information that is visible…
      what is the year this map represents? 1876
      what is the title of this map? Panamint Range
       Mountains
      What might the purpose of this map be?
       Possibly how a town will be built against this
       mountain range.
17
3
     Closure Slides

     Contributions were made by:
      The entire faculty through level 3 & 4 of
       the gap analysis.
      Last year’s committee for question of the
       week.
      Lucy Cheney’s text contributions
      Administration & faculty through the body
       of the gap analysis.
17
4
     Closure Slides


     Please feel free to refer back to areas of
       interest periodically as we head into the
       state testing window. You may also make
       copies for any students who would like to
       review this presentation at home.


17
5

				
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