HIV and AIDS
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What is HIV?
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    is the virus that weakens the immune system and can
    cause AIDS. The virus can be passed from one person
    to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact.
    Pregnant women can pass HIV to their baby during
    pregnancy or delivery as well as through breast
    feeding. People with HIV have what is called HIV
    infection. Traditionally only AIDS cases have been
    reported. But recently in California, new cases of HIV
    infection are being reported by a unique identifier (no

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    Where did it come from?
   The earliest known case was from a blood sample collected
   in 1959 from a man in the Republic of Congo (how he
   became infected is not known). Genetic analysis of this
   blood sample suggests that HIV-1 may have stemmed from
   a single virus in the late 1940’s or early 1950’s.
   The cause of AIDS is a virus that scientists isolated in
   1983. The virus was first named HTLV-III (human T-cell
   lymphotropic virus-type III. Later it was changed to HIV.
   There are two types of HIV. HIV-1 mostly found in the
   U.S. HIV-2 mostly found in Europe, Asia, Africa and Sub-
   Saharan countries.

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             Some scientists believe HIV spread from monkeys to humans
1926         between 1926 – 1946. Recent research indicates HIV most
             probably first crossed species from chimpanzees to humans as
             early as 1675 and did not establish itself as a epidemic in Africa
             until 1930.
             Researchers studied 1,213 plasma samples obtained from Africa between
1959         1959 – 1982. The 1959 sample tested positive HIV-1 becoming the
             oldest confirmed case of HIV. The case of a Manchester sailor who died
             of AIDS-like illness in 1959 was reported to be the oldest, but it has not
             been confirmed.
         Gay men in the US & Sweden – heterosexuals in Tanzania and Haiti
1978     begin showing symptoms of what later be called AIDS.

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         CDC notices an alarming rate of of rare cancer (Kaposi's Sarcoma).
1981     First called “gay cancer” soon after rename it GRID (gay related
         immune deficiency). 1,614 AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S.; 619

         CDC warns blood banks of possible problem with the blood supply.
1983     Institut Pasteur in France finds the virus. 4,749 cases of AIDS in the
         U.S.; 2,122 dead.

         Robert Gallo claims he discovered the virus a year later after
1984     the French isolated it. U.S. President Reagan has not
         mentioned the word AIDS in public. 11,055 cases in the U.S.;
         5,620 dead.

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         FDA approves the first HIV-1 antibody test. The first International
1985     Conference on AIDS is held in Atlanta, GA. Nothing from President
         Reagan yet. 22,996 AIDS cases in the U.S.; 12,592 dead – including:
         Rock Hudson and Ricky Wilson (B-52’s).

         AZT becomes the first drug approved by the FDA. 71,176 AIDS cases
1987     diagnosed in the U.S.; 41,027 dead – including: Liberace and Michael
         Bennett (Chorus Line).

         Ronald Reagan apologizes for his neglect of the epidemic while he was
         president. Magic Johnson tells the world he has HIV. 257,750 AIDS
1990     diagnosed in the U.S.; 157,637 dead – including: Keith Haring (artist),
         Ryan White.

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         FDA approves the first Protease Inhibitors for HIV treatment.
1995     534,806 AIDS diagnosis, 332,249 dead in the U.S.

         For the first time, death from AIDS plummeted more than 40 percent
         during the first half of 1997. Scientists say the decline can be traced
1997     to new drugs. As well the number of new cases of AIDS are
         decreasing, but about 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year.''

         For the first time in more than 17 years, the Bay Area Reporter (A SF
1998     Gay weekly) contained no obituaries of AIDS victims.

         CDC reports that HIV infection rates rising among Gay and Bisexual
2003     men.

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How HIV infects the body
 When HIV infects the body,
  it prefers to attack certain
  cells of our defense
  system. These cells are
  called helper T cells. HIV
  specializes in these cells
  since these cells have
  CD4 molecules on the
  surface to which HIV                  helper T cell
 A person normally has between 600 – 1500 T cells

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How HIV infects the body
The virus anchors itself to the CD4 on the
surface of the helper T cell causing the
viral membrane to fuse with the host cell’s
membrane. This is how the virus genetic
information gets inside the cell.

                                        The virus’s DNA converts
                                        itself into RNA

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How HIV infects the body
                               A copy of the RNA genetic
                               information is added to the
                               bubble . This section of the
                               cell membrane turns inside
                               out and new viruses are
 Cell Death:
 The release of new virus
 particles significantly
 weakens the host cell which
 soon dies. That’s how the
 immune system weakens.

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These bodily fluids have been proven to spread
  blood
  semen
  pre-ejaculate or pre-cum
  vaginal fluids
  breast milk

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    HIV Symptoms
 rapid weight loss
 dry cough
 recurring fever or profuse night sweats
 profound & unexplained fatigue
 swollen lymph glands
 diarrhea lasting more than one week
 white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, mouth or
 pneumonia
 Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin
  or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids.
 Memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders

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What is AIDS?
An HIV infected person receives an AIDS diagnosis after
developing one of the CDC-defined opportunistic infections
and or a CD4 cell count of below 200.

      AIDS cases are reportable to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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AIDS Defining Conditions:
(Opportunistic Infections)
       1.    Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs
       2.    Candidiasis, esophageal
       3.    CD4 counts below 200, or a CD4 percentage less than 14
       4.    Cervical cancer, invasive
       5.    Coccidiomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (Valley
       6.    Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary
       7.    Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (>1 month duration)
       8.    Cytomegalovirus disease (CMV); other than liver, spleen or
       9.    Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with loss of vision)
       10.   HIV encephalopathy
       11.   Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (>1 month duration); or
             bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis
       12.   Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

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Opportunistic Infections (continued):
         13.   Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (>1 month duration)
         14.   Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)
         15.   Lymphoma, Burkitt's (or equivalent term)
         16.   Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)
         17.   Lymphoma, primary in brain
         18.   Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), disseminated or
         19.   Mycobacterium tuberculosis, any site (pulmonary or
         20.   Mycobacterium,, disseminated or extrapulmonary
         21.   Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
         22.   Pneumonia, recurrent
         23.   Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
         24    Salmonella septicemia, recurrent
         25.   Toxoplasmosis of brain
         26.   Wasting syndrome due to HIV

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Antibody Testing
Detects the specific immune response to HIV the body sends out to
fight HIV infection (antibodies). Takes 2 weeks to 6 months (window
period) to develop enough antibodies for the test to be 99.8 %
      Oral test – OraSure
      Blood test
      Rapid Test
PCR/DNA (Viral Load)
Detects the presence of the HIV-1 or HIV-2 in the body. The window
period for this test is 14 days to be 100% accurate.
      Blood only

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 Not having sex (abstinence) is the safest
 Condoms are best protection to prevent the transfer of
 Limit the number of sex partners. This may lower your
  chances of getting infected
 Not sharing needles for IV drug use, steroids, vitamins,
 Not sharing toys
 Test every 6 months for all STD’s. The presence of an
  STD increases the chances of HIV infection.
 Communicate with your partners about safer sex.

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