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Causes of the Civil War Causes of the Civil War

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Causes of the Civil War Causes of the Civil War Powered By Docstoc
					Causes of the Civil War

 Conflict & Compromise over
            Slavery
       Missouri Compromise
• Missouri was a territory & applied for
  statehood
• MO. already had slaves
• Some Congressmen tried to amend the
  statehood to require gradual elimination of
  slavery in MO.
• Henry Clay came up with a compromise:
• MO. would be a slave state, ME. free st.
• Drew line, no slavery in rest of land acquired
  in LA. Purchase North of 36 degrees 30’
      Mexican American War
• US gained new land in Mex-Am War
• Question of whether new states from this
  area would be slave or free
• Texas would be a slave state
• Congressman David Wilmot wanted to ban
  slavery in all lands acquired from Mexico
• N. supported Wilmot’s Proviso
• S. threatened to secede (leave the USA)
• Final bill did not include Wilmot’s Proviso
• New Party- Free Soil Party was formed:
  believed that all new states should be free.
        Compromise of 1850
• Created by Henry Clay
• Four Parts
  – CA admitted as a free state
  – Abolished slave trade in DC but kept slavery there
  – Texas received $10 million, gave up claims to
    parts of NM and Utah
  – Fugitive Slave Law: runaway slaves had to be
    returned, Northerners could be punished for
    helping them
• Reaction esp. strong to Fugitive Slave Law
        Fugitive Slave Law
• Used to capture Anthony Burns, a slave
  who had run away and moved to Boston
• He was put in chains and marched thru
  Boston
• His capture infuriated abolitionists in
  Boston and throughout the North
      Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Created by Stephen Douglas (D-IL)
• Kansas and Nebraska Territory
  organized based on popular sovereignty
  (people elect a legislature, the
  legislature decides if state will be slave
  or free)
• Repealed Missouri Compromise
          Bleeding Kansas
• Northerners moved to Kansas to try to elect
  an anti-slavery legislature
• Southerners from MO. Crossed the border
  into KS to vote in election
• Fights: Attack of “free press” (anti-slavery
  newspaper headquarters) in Lawrence, KS.
• John Brown & co. massacre at Potowatomi
  Creek- dragged pro-slavery southerners out
  of bed, killed them
• South Carolina Rep. Preston Brooks caned
  Sen. Charles Sumner on Senate floor for
  giving an anti-slavery speech.
        Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Harriet Beecher Stowe-abolitionist
  author
• Wrote it based on her own
  observations, and slave narratives
• Uncle Tom-hero, loyal slave who
  suffered through wrongs of slavery
• Uncle Tom came to mean an African-
  American who conforms to white
  expectations
• Abe Lincoln called HB Stowe “the little
  woman who started this great war.”
    Dred Scott Decision 1857
• Dred Scott slave, one owner took him into IL
  and WI
• Asked owner’s wife to let him buy his
  freedom, she said no
• He sued for his freedom in 1840’s, argued he
  should be free b/c he had lived in a free state
• Supreme Court and Chief Justice Taney ruled
  Scott had no right to sue because he was an
  African-American and not a citizen, also said
  he was property
• Repealed the MO. Compromise, Northerners
  outraged
John Brown’s Raid of Harper’s
        Ferry- 1859
• John Brown abolitionist, believed it was
  his divine mission to end slavery
• He had killed 5 pro-slavery settlers at
  Potowatomi Creek, KS.
• Planned to start a slave rebellion by
  raiding a federal arsenal
• No slaves came, took arsenal briefly,
  then defeated by Marines
• Brown executed after trial
John Brown- hero or terrorist?
• Northerners saw him as a hero
• Southerners saw him as a violent
  terrorist
• Martyr to many-
• Song “John Brown’s Body”
            Abe Lincoln
• Ran for Senator of IL in 1858 against
  Stephen Douglas
• Lost the senate election, partly due to
  Douglas’ race baiting in the Lincoln-
  Douglas debates
• 1860 Lincoln ran for President vs.
  Douglas (N Dem), Bell (constitutional
  Union Party), Breckenridge (S Dem)
• Lincoln won- SC seceded followed by 6
  other states

				
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