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					SUITABILITY OF PINEHURST FORMATION AS A GLASS                                                                                                                                                    RESULTS
SAND, RICHMOND COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Results of the attrition scrubbing tests for samples from individual drill holes are
Robert Mensah-Biney, North Carolina State University Minerals Research Laboratory;                                                                                                               summarized in Table 2. Table 3 lists the results of the flotation tests, and Table 4 shows
Leigh Ann Carpenter, J. William Miller, and Benjamin J. Allen,                                                                                                                                   the summary of the attrition scrubbing tests for the composite samples. The results of the
        Department of Environmental Studies, University of North Carolina at Asheville; and
                                                                                                                                                                                                 heavy liquid separation tests are tabulated in Table 5. Table numbers correspond to IC33
Jeffrey C. Reid, North Carolina Geological Survey                                                                                                                                                – see citation below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Table 2. Attrition scrubbing tests* – Samples from individual drill holes.

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                                                                                          Test Number                        6719-1          6719-2          6719-3     6719-4          6719-5         6719-6         6719-7
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sample ID                          R83             R83             R41        R18             R63            R9             R42

Split-spoon samples of six drill cores 0 to 60 feet deep within 2,800 acres from the                                                                                                                                                                 Scrubbed Product Cumulative % Retained

Pinehurst Formation, Richmond County, North Carolina, were evaluated for glass sand                                                                                                               US 40 mesh                         28.0            26.5            41.0       33.6            37.2           45.3           52.9

raw material potential. The Pinehurst Formation, as mapped on the 1985 Geologic Map                                                                                                               US 60 mesh                         58.1            56.9            69.2       62.9            57.2           73.9           75.2

of North Carolina, covers approximately 120,660 acres in Richmond, Scotland, Moore                                                                                                                US 100 mesh                        84.8            84.7            91.0       88.7            76.3           92.6           91.4

and Hoke counties. Commercial glass sand has been produced from a nearby site from                                                                                                                US 140 mesh                        91.4            91.4            95.7       94.4            81.1           96.2           95.7
the Pinehurst Formation. Minerals were identified with a binocular microscope and by                                                                                                              Scrub Yield, Wt. % (Note 1)        80.1            80.3            73.8       77.3            62.4           71.9           63.0
powder x-ray diffraction. Trace amounts of heavy minerals found in the raw material                                                                                                               Final Non-magnetic Yield,          72.7            70.1            70.2       69.5            59.3           66.9           59.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wt. % (Note 2)                                                     Final Product Chemical Analysis %
included schorl (a member of the tourmaline group), rutile, and zircon. Less abundant
trace minerals were goethite, hematite, muscovite, kaolinite, and chromite. The major                                                                                                             Fe2O3                                              0.02            0.02       0.01            0.02           0.04           0.02
mineral present in these samples was quartz, averaging 60-73% of each sample.                                                                                                                     Al2O3                                              0.15            0.13       0.14            0.13           0.34           0.16
                                                                                                                                                                                                  MnO                                                0.01            0.01       0.01            0.01           0.01           0.01
Several physical separation processes were necessary to make a product suitable for                                                                                                               TiO2                                               0.01            0.01       0.01            0.01           0.02           0.01
glass application. These included attrition scrubbing, sizing, flotation, heavy liquid                                                                                                            K2O                                                0.01            0.01       0.01            0.01           0.01           0.01
separation, and magnetic separation to remove impurities suc h as iron and titanium                                                                                                               Na2O                                               0.05            0.05       0.05            0.05           0.05           0.05
minerals, mica, organic matter, feldspar, trace elements, and other                                                                                                                               MgO                                                0.05            0.05       0.05            0.05           0.05           0.05
impurities.                                                                                                                                                                                       CaO                                                0.01            0.01       0.01            0.01           0.01           0.01
                                                                                                                                                                                                  P2O5                                               0.05            0.05       0.05            0.05           0.05           0.05
The glass sand product after attrition scrubbing, sizing, and magnetic separation                                                                                                                 SiO2                                               99.6            99.8       98.7            99.1           97.2           98.8
contained 0.13-0.16 % Al2O3, 0.02 – 0.04% Fe2O3, < 0.01 – 0.02% TiO2 and traces of                                                                                                                LOI                                                0.01            0.1        0.07            0.09           0.1            0.1
other minor elements. Further reduction of impurities will be obtained from separation                                                                                                                 *Attrition scrubbed at 70 % solids with H2SO4
processes that include flotation. This product is well within the specifications for typical                                                                                                           Note 1 - The yield of sand after scrubbing and slime removal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Note 2 - The yield after magnetic separation of the sized product.
glass sand and is suitable for many glass sand applications.

Subsequent ongoing collaborative work by the NC Geological Survey and the NCSU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Table 3. Flotation Test Results – Samples from individual drill holes.
Mineral Resources Laboratory are investigating the suitability of the Pinehurst
Formation as a frac sand – a higher value product. The proximity of a nearby railroad                                                                                                             Test Number                             6719-8              6719-9             6719-10               6719-11               6719-12
and the Port of Wilmington, NC provide worldwide market access.                                                                                                                                   Sample ID                               R83                 R18                R18                   R41                   R18
                                                                                                                                              Glass sand (frac sand)
                                                                                                                                              (above) – The Pinehurst                             Depth (meters)                          0.00 – 5.94         5.33-10.36         0.0-10.36             0.00 – 5.94           0.0 -5.33

                                                                                                                                              Formation (yellow) has                                                                                          Feldspar Tailings Cum. % Retained
                                                                                                                                              extensive reserves of glass                         US 40 mesh                              30.7                28.1               33.2                  39.4                  37.8
                                                                                                                                              sand that may also prove                            US 60 mesh                              60.7                57.3               62.1                  68.1                  66.2
                                                                                                                                              to be a frac sand.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  US 100 mesh                             86.4                85.5               88.2                  91.0                  90.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                  US 140 mesh                             93.3                93.5               94.6                  96.3                  96.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Float Yield, Wt.% (Note 1)              80.1                81.0               78.0                  74.9                  75.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Final Non-magnetic Yield, Wt. %         78.3                78.9               76.7                  73.8                  74.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Note 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Note 1 - The yield of sand after removal of mica, iron minerals and feldspar.
                           Site location map – (above) – Black dot shows site                                                                                                                    Note 2 - The yield after magnetic separation of the sized feldspar tailings.
                           in Richmond County, North Carolina
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 4. Attrition Scrubbing Tests – Composite Sample from all drill holes.

                                                                                                                                              Glass sand (frac sand)                              Test Number                      6719-13           6719-14        6719-15      6719-16     6719-17                  6719-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scrub % Solids                   70                70             65           65          70                       70
                                                                                                                                              (above) – Detail of figure
                                                   Pine Bluff
                Ellerbe

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Scrub Reagent                    NaOH              H2SO4          H2SO4        NaOH        None                     H2SO4
                                   Hoffman
                                                                         HOKE
                                                                                                                                              above showing location of                           Scrub Time (min.)                5.0               5.0            5.0          5.0         5.0                      3.0
                 RICHMOND
                                                                                                                                              cross sections with                                                                                    Scrubbed Product- Cumulative % Retained
                 Rockingham
                                                                                         Raeford
                                                                                                                                              sampled drill holes. Refer                          US 40 mesh                       28.5              33.2           33.0         34.2        31.0                     31.3
                                                                                                                                              to image above for isopach                          US 60 mesh                       56.7              62.4           62.1         62.8        61.1                     60.4
                                                SCOTLAND
                                                                                                                                              color explanation. Yellow                           US 100 mesh                      84.4              87.8           87.7         87.7        87.2                     86.7
                          Hamlet                                   Wagram
                                                                                                                                                                                                  US 140 mesh                      92.0              94.2           94.1         93.8        94.1                     93.4
                                   Study area
                                                                                                                                              lines show cross sections                           Scrub Yield, Wt. % (Note         79.1              78.5           78.3         76.9        80.9                     78.6
                                                                                                                                              of Figures 6                                        1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Final Non-magnetic Yield,        75.2              76.9           76.5         74.6        78.8                     76.5
                                                                Laurinburg
                                                                                                                                              and 7. Refer to Figures 6                           Wt. % (Note 2)                                     Final Product Chemical Analysis. %
                                    Gibson
                                                                                 ROBESON                                                      and 7 for specific drill holes                      Fe2O3                            0.02              0.03           0.03         0.02        0.04                     0.03
                                                                                Maxton

                                                                                                                                              used in this study.                                 Al2O3                            0.16              0.22           0.23         0.14        0.22                     0.21
                                                                                                                                                                                                  MnO                              0.01              0.01           0.01         0.01        0.01                     0.01
                                                                                                   Primary roads
                                                                                                                              N
                                                                                                                                                                                                  TiO2                             0.02              0.03           0.02         0.02        0.02                     0.02
                                                                                                   Study area
       10                     0                     10                             20 Miles
                                                                                                   County boundaries
                                                                                                                          W       E                                                               K2O                              0.01              0.01           0.01         0.01        0.01                     0.01
                                                                                                   Municipal boundaries       S
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Na2O                             0.05              0.05           0.05         0.05        0.05                     0.05
                                                                                                                                                                                                  MgO                              0.05              0.05           0.05         0.05        0.05                     0.05
        Site location map detail – (above) – Map shows primary roads, and municipal                                                                                                               CaO                              0.01              0.01           0.01         0.01        0.01                     0.01
        and county boundaries. A main line railroad passes adjacent to the study area                                                           Glass sand (frac sand)                            P2O5                             0.05              0.05           0.05         0.05        0.05                     0.05
        and goes directly to the Port of Wilmington, North Carolina.                                                                            (above) – Generalized                             SiO2                             98.0              96.5           97.0         97.2        98.4                     98.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOI                              0.08              0.07           0.09         0.1         0.08                     0.1
                                                                                                                                                cross section – R1—R18.
                                                                                                                                                A black diamond symbol                             Note 1 - The yield of sand after scrubbing and slime removal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Note 2 - The yield after magnetic separation of the sized product.
                                                                                                                                                designates
                                                                                                                                                drill holes used in this
                                                                                                                                                study. Refer to Figure 5 for
                                                                                                                                                the location of this cross                                          Table 5. Heavy liquid separation test results – Raw samples from individual drill holes.
                                                                                                                                                section.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Float Product                              Sink Product                                      Total
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Drill Hole           Wt- grams             Wt. %               Wt- grams              Wt. %                 Wt- grams              Wt. %
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R18                  158.6                 99.5                0.8                    0.5                   159.4                  100.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R42                  152.7                 99.5                0.8                    0.5                   153.5                  100.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R9                   152.0                 99.5                0.7                    0.5                   152.7                  100.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R63                  162.2                 99.8                0.4                    0.2                   162.6                  100.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R83                  153.8                 99.6                0.5                    0.4                   154.3                  100.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R41                  148.8                 99.4                0.9                    0.6                   149.7                  100.0


                                                                                                                                                                                                 Reference cited – Further processing information and
                                                                                                                                                                                                 additional information see: Robert Mensah-Biney,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Leigh Ann Carpenter, J. William Miller, Jr., and
            Site location map detail – (above) – Generalized geologic setting showing                                                                                                            Jeffrey C. Reid, 2005, Suitability of Pinehurst
            the site (outlined in blue) superimposed on the 1985 Geologic Map of North                                                                                                           Formation as a Glass Sand, Richmond County,
            Carolina. The primary units in the immediate area of the site are the                                                                                                                North Carolina, North Carolina Geological Survey,
                                                                                                                                      Glass sand (frac sand) – Work is currently underway to
            Pinehurst Formation (Tp) [shown in yellow], and the Middendorf Formation                                                                                                             Information Circular 33, 29 p.                                                                                  Draft 2.0 20060215 - jcr
                                                                                                                                      evaluate the Pinehurst as a frac sand – a higher value
            (Km) shown in pale green. County lines are brown.                                                                         product. The proximity of a nearby railroad and the Port
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Note: table numbers correspond to those in IC33.
                                                                                                                                      of Wilmington, NC provide worldwide market access.

				
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