Ancient India Ancient India Early Settlers Indus

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Ancient India Ancient India Early Settlers Indus Powered By Docstoc
					Ancient India
Early Settlers: Indus River Valley
 Early people lived in the Indus
  River Valley
 Like the Nile, the Indus flooded
  predictably & provided rich soil for
  farming
 People of Indus River developed
  well-planned cities with brick
  homes, streets, wells, sewers,
  markets
  Early Settlers: Indus River Valley
 Cities
       in Indus River Valley began
 to decline & came to an end
 around 1500 B.C. Why?
  –Indus River changed course?
  –Over-farming & over-grazing of
   land?
  –Attacks by invaders?
       Early Settlers: Aryans
 Aryans   entered Indus River Valley
  in 1500 B.C.
 Did not live in cities (nomads) &
  had no writing system; spoke
  early form of Sanskrit (language
  that is still around today in India)
 Passed on traditions through
  Vedas—thousands of oral
  scriptures & poems that tell of the
  history & religion of Aryans
Through Cultural Diffusion
between Early Indus River
    peoples and Aryan
 Invaders—Unique Indian
    Culture Developed
Early Settlers: Cultural Diffusion
 Through cultural diffusion
 (sharing & blending of ideas) of
 Indus River Valley Civilization
 and Aryans, a unique Indian
 culture was created:
  –Hinduism
  –Caste System
             Caste System
 Caste   System—complicated set
  of divisions of people within Indian
  society; higher castes were
  “purer” than lower castes
 Did not marry outside of caste; did
  not share food with lower caste
 Each group had own occupation &
  dharma (duty within caste)
  –“Better to do one’s own duty badly
   than do another’s duty well”
                 Caste System
 Priests


 Warriors,   Rulers

 Common      People

 Unskilled   Laborers
 Slaves
 (Untouchables)
Ancient India
    Hinduism &
    Buddhism
                  Hinduism
 Oldest religion in the world
 Beliefs:
  –Brahma—a mighty spirit
   that creates all & destroys all lives
   everywhere, in everything.
  –To become one with Brahman
   (called moksha), you must get
   “purer”
             Hinduism
 Beliefs:
  –Caste system reflects purity;
   higher caste means one is
   “more pure”
  –Reincarnation—after you die,
   your soul returns to another
   body; into which caste your
   soul returns depends on how
   you lived your life (called your
   karma)
       Reincarnation . . .

Everything  a person does
 affects the future of his/her
 soul.
No deed is forgotten
A person builds a future life
 through action.
Reincarnation
            Buddhism
 528 B.C. Siddhartha Gautama
 introduced
 Buddhism—anyone
 can achieve
 Enlightenment
 through the Four
 Noble Truths
           Buddhism
 Four Noble Truths:
 –Suffering is part of life
 –People suffer because they
  want things that cannot have
 –To end suffering means to end
  “wanting”
 –Once overcome suffering, can
  achieve nirvana (state of
  enlightenment by following the
  Eight-Fold Path)
              Eight-Fold Path
1.   Right Views—believe
2.   Right Thought—don’t be envious
3.   Right Action—do what is right
4.   Right Effort—be disciplined
5.   Right Livelihood—live simply
6.   Right Speech—say nice things
7.   Right Mindfulness—keep good mind
                         & body
8.   Right Meditation—be focused
            Buddhism
 Based on non-violence &
  kindness—true Buddhist wouldn’t
  hurt a fly
 No rituals; based on meditation &
  actions
 Anyone (even women, the poor, &
  slaves) could attain nirvana
       Spread of Buddhism
322-298 B.C. Chandragupta
 united all of northern India under
 Mauryan Kingdom using terror
His grandson, Ashoka was more
 peaceful & became Buddhist
Ashoka sent hundreds of
 missionaries to spread Buddhism;
 Buddhism became a major world
 religion
      Creating a Buddhist Brochure
 King  Ashoka of the Mauryan Kingdom of India
  has asked you to create a persuasive brochure
  for Buddhism to help spread the faith
 Your brochure should:
   • Include information about Buddhism
   • Include images that reflect your content
   • Explain why it is the “best” religion
   • Include persuasive writing that tries to
     convert people in the region from Hinduism to
     Buddhism

				
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posted:5/19/2012
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