French Revolution - Download as PowerPoint by 1tHm83

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									French Revolution
                France….
               Background
• Buildup of autocracy in 15th-16th centuries
• Largely Catholic
  – Huguenots (Protestant) a sizeable minority
  – Fighting b/t Catholic and Protestant
  – 1598- Edict of Nantes: promoted religious
    tolerance
     Strengthening the Crown
• Cardinal Richelieu- advisor to French
  monarch
  – Goal: strengthen the monarchy
• Louis XIV: inherited throne at 4 yrs. Old
  – Reign 1643-1715
  – “Sun King”, “Most Christian King”, divine right
  – Palace of Versailles
  – Revoke Edict of Nantes
    Strengthening the Crown
• Louis XIV
  – Appoints Jean Baptiste Colbert as economic
    advisor
    • Mercantilism= need for empire
    • Increase empire= more resources= more wealth
  – Numerous wars= debt
             French Revolution
• Economic problems:
  –   War debts
  –   Poor taxation policies
  –   Poor harvests
  –   Lavish lifestyle of monarchy
• 1789- Louis XVI summoned Estates General
  – governing body with members from each estate
  – Had not met in 175 years (absolutism)
         French Revolution
• Conflict between the estates at the
  meeting
• June 17, 1789- Third Estate declares
  themselves the National Assembly
• July 14, 1789- storming of Bastille
• August, 1789- Declaration of Rights of
  Man
          French Revolution
• 1791- new Constitution ratified
  – Created Constitutional Monarchy; King retains
    executive power
• Austrians and Prussians invade France to
  restore monarchy
  – Marie Antionette was sister of Austrian
    Emperor
  – Unsuccessful
          French Revolution
• Continued unrest= another new
  Constitution
  – Declares France a republic
  – Established the Convention as the new ruling
    body
• 1793: behead king and queen
          French Revolution
• Reign of Terror:
  – Constitution once again thrown out
  – Very Violent stage of revolution
  – Maximilien Robespierre and Jacobins
       – Thousands beheaded
       – Eventually, Robespierre too was beheaded

• 1795: yet another government established
            Rise of Napoleon
• Directory created strong military
  – Napoleon Bonaparte popular military man
     • 24 at the time
  – 1799: overthrows Directory and declares
    himself First Consul
                  Napoleon
• Popular ruler
  – Many domestic reforms
  – Napoleonic Codes (1804)- implemented some
    Enlightenment ideas and equality for men
• Begins to build a French empire in Europe
  – Conquers Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal,
    and parts of Italy
  – 1804- crowns himself emperor
                Napoleon
• 1810: empire at its height
• 1812: attacks Russia= mistake
• Conquered areas use this as opportunity
  to defeat and overthrow Napoleon
  – Exiled
  – But, disagreements about how to restore
    order
               Napoleon
• 1813- Napoleon returns, tries to regain
  power
• Defeated at Waterloo and permanently
  exiled to St. Helena, later dies there.
• Other nations meet to restore balance of
  power
         Congress of Vienna
• 1815: Congress of Vienna
  – French territory return to pre-Napoleonic
    borders
  – Returned rulers of areas conquered by
    Napoleon
  – French monarchy restored, but with
    Constitutional limits
                France….
                Continued
• 1830: another republic created, lasts until
  Revolutions of 1848
• 1852: Louis Napoleon established a
  second French empire
• 1870: Louis-Napoleon overthrown and yet
  another republic created

• How is all that for confusing?????

								
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