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					           Energy Efficiency Programs in Korea
Ⅰ. Introduction
Energy is one of the critical driving forces for human life. It provides us with heat, light
and mobility, etc. Energy demand in Korea has increased in almost same rate as rapid
growth of GNP, which has shown average annual growth rate of 8%.

Korea imported about 97% of its primary energy in 1998. Major energy sources include
fuel oil, coal, nuclear energy, and LNG. Although an increasing use of renewable energy
is expected, it will not contribute to remarkable energy supply in the Korean energy
systems. This poor self-sufficiency is one of the most critical components of the
national energy system that leave Korea vulnerable to future energy shocks. In this light,
the stable energy supply and conservation is vital to the nation's sustainable
development.

An efficient use of energy is not only beneficial to the nation's economy but also
important for conservation of natural environment.

Our energy saving plan has been improved and succeeded while undergoing Gulf War
and two oil crashes.
Many energy conservation programs have been promoted. For example, tax breaks,
loan and subsidy programs, energy conservation technologies, various pilot projects,
energy exhibition and energy service companies program, etc. Here, among those
programs, energy efficiency programs are discussed in detail.

The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE), through Korea Energy
Management Corporation(KEMCO), operates three energy efficiency programs to
facilitate products embodying low energy input. These three programs are "Energy
Efficiency Standards & Labeling Program", "Certification of High Efficiency Energy-
using Appliance Program", "Energy-Saving Office Equipment & Home Electronics
Program". The objective of these programs is to stimulate manufacturers to improve
their products' efficiency by giving incentives and to induce consumers to purchase
more energy efficient products available in the market place.


Ⅱ. Energy efficiency standards & labelling program
Energy efficiency standards & labeling program started in 1992 to encourage the
efficiency in the production and use of energy and help consumers choose more energy
efficient goods through appliances with energy efficiency label, which shows the energy
efficiency grade of the model from 1 to 5.

7 targets of the program are as follows.
   - Electric refrigerator
   - Electric air-conditioner
  - Incandescent bulb
  - Fluorescent lamp
  - Self-ballasted lamp
  - Ballast for fluorescent lamp
  - Passenger car

MOCIE sets the provisions for this program. KEMCO, authorized by the Rational
Energy Utilization Act, supervises its implementation and enforces the provisions.

1. Energy Efficiency Standards
Energy Efficiency Standards are divided into "Minimum Energy Performance
Standards" aiming at stopping manufacture and sale of products embodying high energy
inputs and "Target Energy Performances Standards" designed to give manufacturers to
achieve higher efficiency.

(1) Minimum Energy Performance Standards
Minimum Energy Performance Standards were designed to get rid of inefficient
products in the market. The products that failed to meet the minimum standards are
prohibited from being produced and sold. If manufacturers and suppliers do not observe
the regulation, they will be fined up to US $18,000.

(2) Target Efficiency Performance Standards
Target Energy Performance Standards aim at encouraging manufacturers to enhance the
energy efficiency of their product up to a technically feasible and economically
acceptable level

2. Energy Efficiency Rating labeling Program
(1) Objective
The objective of this program is to induce manufacturers to consistently make products
with high energy efficiency and stimulate importers to introduce more energy-efficient
products into the domestic market, while helping consumers choose more energy-
efficient goods

(2) Subject Appliances
        Appliances                                  Scope                     Effective Date



    Electric refrigerator          whose available internal cubic volume is    Sep. 1, 1992
                                   less than 1,000ℓ and rated power
                                   consumption is less than 500W
                                   (only those which employ CFC as a
                                   refrigerant & blowing agent)
   Electric air-conditioner    whose rated power consumption of the             Jan. 1, 1993
                               electric heating device is less than 5 ㎾ and
                               rated cooling capacity is less than 15,000 ㎉
                               /h (Multi-type cooler is excluded)



             Incandescent     made of tungsten whose power                     Oct. 1, 1992
                 bulb         consumption of 30W, 60W and 100W

              Fluorescent     Line type : 20W, 40W                             Oct. 1, 1992
                 lamp         Circle type : 30W
 Lighting
 appliance     Ballast for    Line type : 20W, 40W                              Jul. 1, 1994
     s         florescent     Circle type : 32W
                  lamp
             Self-ballasted   using E-type base, whose rated frequency is       Jul. 1, 1999
                 lamp         60Hz and rated input voltage is less than
                              300V

       Passenger car           fueled with gasoline, LPG and electricity-      Sep. 1, 1992
                               alternative fuels


(3) Authorized Test Institute
     Authorized Test Institutes                             Appliances

 National Institute of Technology           Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings
 and Quality

 Korea Institute of Energy Research         Refrigerator, Air-conditioner,    Lightings,
                                            Passenger car

 Korea Testing Laboratory                   Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings


 Korea Electric Testing Institute           Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings
     Authorized Test Institutes                                      Appliance

  Korea Electrotechnology Research                Lightings
  Institute

  National Institute of Environmental             Passenger Car
  Research

  Korea Automobile Testing & Research             Passenger Car
  Institute

  Korea Automotive Technology Institute           Passenger Car




(4) Monitoring
KEMCO is authorized to monitor whether the manufacturers or importers of appliances
with energy efficiency rating label observe this program or not. Especially KEMCO
does Market-place inspection and product inspection.

Market-place inspection is for checking up whether all products covered by the law are
correctly labeled and the labels accurately reflect the product's energy efficiency.

Product inspection means checking up whether testing results agree with reported
efficiency and rating through random sampling test.


(5) Manufacturer's and importer's obligations
In accordance with the Article 18 and 19 of The Rational Energy Utilization Act, the
manufacturers or importers of energy efficiency rating labeled appliances should indicate the
certified grade, the energy efficiency and the way of efficient use in the advertisements or the
product manuals. If they do not illustrate these, 5 million won or less (approximately US
$4,170) will be imposed on them as a penalty.

(6) Future Direction
At present, the subject appliances of the energy efficiency-rating label are 8 including passenger
cars. It has been extended step by step since September 1992. Clothes washers are supposed to
be included on July 1, 2000 and other new appliances will be included according to the
potential of energy saving. Appliances considered to be included are microwave ovens, gas
boilers, etc.
Ⅲ. Certification of High efficiency Energy-using Appliance
   Program

1. Background
This program is to certify energy-using product whose energy efficiency is much higher
than that of others as High Efficiency Energy-using Appliance.
To enhance the proportion of energy efficiency appliances in the market, the
government provides long term and low interest loans to certified companies, based on
The Rational Energy Utilization Act. Besides, Government related organizations should
use certified products.

2 Subject Appliances
        Appliances                                   Scope

      Induction motor         for general purpose with three-phase squirrel-cage,
                              whose rated voltage is less than 600V, meeting
                              KSC 4202
        26mm32W               meeting KSC 7601 standards, whose light
     fluorescent lamp         conversion efficiency is higher than the value of
                              light velocity on Annex3 of KSC 7601 divided by
                              rated power consumption
   Ballast for 26mm32W        meeting KSC 8100, KSC 8102, whose BEF is over
     fluorescent lamp         1.09
    Self-ballasted lamp       meeting 7621, using E-type base, whose rated
                              frequency is 60Hz and rated input voltage is less
                              than 300V
       Reflector for          for 1 or 2 lamp, total reflectance is over 90%
     fluorescent lamp
 sensor lighting equipment    sensor or lighting equipment including sensor that
                              control light by sensing human body or ambient
                              light
  Heat recovery ventilator    whose heat recovery efficiency is more than 90%,
                              entalpy efficiency is more than 65%, rated capacity
                              is less than 1,000N ㎥/h
         Window               with more than 0.34 ㎡ h℃/㎉ thermal resistance
                              and less than 5 ㎥/h ㎡ air leakage rate


        Appliances                                   Scope

Industrial gas boiler        whose rated capacity is less than 12 million ㎉/h,
                             maximum allowable working pressure is less than 10
                             ㎏/㎠, heat efficiency is over 91%
Domestic gas boiler         Gas burning hot water boiler, whose heat efficiency is
                            over 95%



Pump                        Centrifugal pump for feeding water into boilers



Centrifugal water chiller   whose chilling capacity is less than 1,500usRT


Energy saving device for controlling monitor power by detecting human body
monitor                  with sensor, whose net power consumption is less than
                         1.8W


Uniterruptible power        controlling its function according to the amount of
system                      loads


         * KSC : Korean Standards for electric appliances
           BEF : Ballast Efficacy Factor

3 Procedure for Certification
(1) When a company applies with a test report

   ① Manufacturers or importers should submit an application with required
      documents including the test report for certification issued by one of the
      authorized test institute.
   ② KEMCO checks up the factory facilities of the company when the documents
     are qualified.
   ③ KEMCO issues a certificate to the company when the facilities were suitable.


(2) When KEMCO supports test fee
 - KEMCO provides test fees for small and medium sized companies within budget

   ① Manufacturers or importers should submit an application with required
      documents for certification
   ② KEMCO checks up the factory facilities of the company and selects test
      products when the documents had no problems
   ③ KEMCO asks one of the authorized test institutes for the test of the products
      which he selected at the factory
   ④ The test institute issues a test report to KEMCO
   ⑤ KEMCO issues a certificate to the company when the test result was suitable
4. Monitoring
KEMCO checks up whether the certified products deserves their quality including
energy efficiency as KEMCO's guideline or not by random sampling tests. When the
test result fails in meeting the requirements, the manufacturer of importer can take one
more test at their request. If, however, the second test fails again, the certification will
be cancelled and it will be notified to the public

5. Future Direction
In the past, government related organizations were recommended to use the certified
appliances. However the recommendation of the use have been reinforced to obligatory
regulation in lighting equipment and it will be enhanced to the all appliances step by
step.


Ⅳ. Energy-saving Office Equipment & Home Electronics
     Program

1. Background
Energy-saving office equipment & home electronics program is a voluntary partnership
between Korea government through KEMCO and manufacturers. This program started
on April 1999, based on MOCIE announcement No. 1998-136.

The objective of this program is to induce manufacturers to voluntarily produce energy-
saving products meeting the energy-efficiency guideline proposed by KEMCO.
Manufacturers producing below items can attach an energy-saving label on their
products certified as energy-saving products by KEMCO

2. Subject appliances
(1) Office equipment
        Appliances                                      Scope
         Computer              desk-top, desk-side, etc. excluding portable
                               computers, manufactured as a fully-operational
                               model
          Monitor              cathode-ray tube(CRT), liquid crystal display(LCD),
                               or other display device
    All-In-One System           single unit excluding portable computers that
                               computer and monitor is combined, not possiblely
                               measured the power consumption of the two
                               components separately and connected to the wall
                               outlet through a single power cable
          Printer            Imaging equipment manufactured as a standard
                             model that serves as a hard-copy output device and is
                             capable of receiving information from single-user or
                             computers
       Fax machine           Imaging equipment manufactured as a standard
                             model that serves as a hard-copy output device
                             whose primary function is sending and receving
                             information
       Combination           Imaging equipment manufactured as a standard
   Printer/Fax Machine       model that serves as both a fully-functional printer
                             and fax machine.
          Copier             A commercial reprographic imaging unit whose sole
                             function is the production of dulicates from a graphic
                             hardcopy original

(2) Home electronics
       Appliances                                    Scope

            TV               Color TV with cathode-ray tube(CRT), liquid crystal
                             display(LCD), or other display device
           VCR               equipment that records image and sound with video-
                             cassette and send them to TV
        TV/VCR               Single unit that TV and VCR are combined, not
     Combination unit        possiblely measured the power consumption of the
                             two components separately


3. Procedure for participation
(1) Requirements
Domestic manufacturers or importers that have their own brand for their products can
participate in this program.

(2) Procedure for participation
   ① Manufacturer or importer should submit an application and a participation
       agreement to join in this program.
   ② KEMCO issues the certificate of participation to the company
   ③ Participants report KEMCO their products with application, test report proving
      that the products meet the requirements, and pictures of the products
   ④ KEMCO notifies the products confirmed as energy-saving products on the
       internet

* The test reports shall be issued by test institutes authorized, manufacturers' or
  importers' own laboratory, if accredited by KEMCO

				
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