ReportWriting-TAR-2008

Document Sample
ReportWriting-TAR-2008 Powered By Docstoc
					       CHFEN 4903
   WRITING THE REPORT




          Terry A. Ring
Department of Chemical Engineering
      November 1 & 3, 2004


                                     1
Why is Writing Important to your
Career?
• This is the only way you directly
 communicate with your bosses boss.
  – He decides your future.
  – He decides your salary raise.




                                      2
Reliance on Data
• Engineering's rhetorical objectivity,
  – Students are told and believe, objectivity rests
    on data; at the same time practical
    experience teaches students that data are
    produced, selected, and presented
    strategically within situational contexts. Data
    are what convince, apparently objectively, but
    engineer's job is to produce in each situation
    the data that convince.

  Writing Like an Engineer: A Rhetorical Education
  Dorothy Winsor
                                                     3
      OVERVIEW
• FIRST DAY
      How to prepare the report
      Suggested Contents
      Sample Formal Report
       Writing Style
      Plagiarism

•SECOND DAY
     Grammar
     Style and Language
     Grading the Report

                                  4
     CHFEN 4903
CONTENTS ARE IMPORTANT




                         5
  CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
Contents of Formal Report (in order of appearance):
   • Letter of Transmittal
   • Title Page
   • Table of contents, List of Figures, List of Tables
   • Summary (Abstract) - must “stand alone”, do not refer to
   a table or figure
   • Introduction - objective, literature, your approach
   • Theory - start with basic principles, write equations using
   an equation editor
   • Apparatus and Procedure
      apparatus and instrumentation diagrams are essential
      discuss accuracy of the instruments and measurements
                                                              6
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I

Contents of Report (in order) - continued:
   • Results - tell the reader what was observed without
               bias or interpretation -
               present and discuss data
   • Discussion of Results
       Tell the reader what you think the results mean
       Error analysis - details in an appendix
       Cite relationships, generalizations
       Agreement with prior work? Values reasonable?
   • Conclusions and Recommendations
      importance of the work- short and sweet
      summarize evidence for every conclusion
      give recommendations - be positive, constructive     7
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I


Contents of Report (in order) - continued:
   • Table of Nomenclature
   • References
   • Appendices
      Raw Data
      Sample calculations
      Calibrations
      Major equipment items (List, Manufacturer, Model)
      Uncertainty (Error) analysis
      Computer Disk(s)
                                                          8
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I


Contents of Report (appendices):
   • Sample Calculations
       Clear enough so someone can check your
       calculations, at least for the sample
       Must be written as English text, sentences
       Indicate the run number for all data used in the
              calculations
       Cite the source of all numbers used in the equations
              and the units used



                                                              9
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report

Materials and Facilities:
   • Word processor, spreadsheet, drawing and graphing
      programs
   • Use spelling and grammar checker, but still proof read.
   Spelling and grammar checkers are not fool-proof. Use
   dictionary if necessary
   • Keep multiple electronic backup copies at every stage
   • Printer - make sure toner cartridge is not on empty and
   leave plenty of time to print your report

                                                               10
 CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
 How To Prepare the Report
Early Preparation:
   • Theory (decide on notation, be consistent)
   • Introduction (start a rough draft, decide what is important to tell)
   • Equipment - decide on drawing/sketch, write down important
   information on major pieces of equipment, i.e. manufacturer, model
   number.
   • Uncertainty analysis
       Can be hand written but use complete sentences
   • Sample calculations
       Can be hand written but use complete sentences
   • Figures and Tables (decide on format)
        Remember -      Figures: Caption at the bottom
                        Tables: Caption at the top

                                                                            11
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report
Writing the Report - suggested order of writing:
   • Introduction section – do a rough draft
   • Theory section – do a rough draft then do sample
   calculations
   • Apparatus and Procedure
      Discuss the apparatus diagram/sketches
      Give a step by step procedure in detail unless very
              complicated, then put in the appendix
   • Write Results and Discussion of Results
      Discuss tables and figures, do not just show them
      Give your interpretation of the data and results
                                                            12
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report

Writing the Report - suggested order of writing (cont’d):
   • Write the Conclusions and Recommendations
   • Complete and write the sample calculations
   • Prepare and write needed appended materials
       Nomenclature
       References
   • Write the final Introduction and Theory Section
      direct toward project results and conclusions
   • Write Summary/Abstract
   • Write Letter of Transmittal
                                                            13
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report

Before Starting the Final Draft:
   • Assemble Figures and Tables in Complete form
   • List Preliminary Conclusions and Supporting Evidence
       discuss with your group members
   • Assemble list of items to be discussed in the report
   • Prepare an outline of the complete report




                                                            14
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report

Tables:
   • Number in text using Arabic numerals
      sequential as referenced
      if in appendix, may use Table A-1, etc.
   • Column and row headings must include
       name of quantity, error in quantity, symbol used, and
   units
   • Organize with thought, don’t just copy spreadsheet
   • Should “stand alone”, self explanatory
   • Descriptive heading should be at the top!!!
                                                               15
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report

Figures:
   • Number using Arabic numerals
      insert after first citation in text
      sequential as referenced
   • Figure captions are required
       descriptive caption at the bottom of each figure
       captions are complete sentences, text-like
   • Axis labels (with units) are required
      name, quantity, dimensions
      legends are usually helpful if plotting several things
                                                               16
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
How To Prepare the Report

 Figures (continued):
    • Correlation Curves and Error Bars
       typically do not draw outside data range
       keep simple, clear, not complicated
    • Plots with theoretical lines
        use data symbols for experimental data
        use lines (solid, dashed, etc.) for theoretical line
        theoretical lines may be drawn to edge of plot
    • Use log-log and semi-log plots when appropriate
    • Flow sheet and piping diagrams, Equipment diagrams,
    control and computer system diagrams are all figures
                                                               17
CHFEN 4903
WRITING STYLE




                18
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing


Writing Style:
   • Usually active voice but can use passive.
      •Passive voice should not be overused
   •active –
      •“The drafter improved upon the line quality”

   •passive –
      •“The line quality was improved upon by the drafter”

   • Avoid editorial “we”
   • Edit frequently - read, revise, read, revise, …
                                                             19
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing

Quotation of Material:
   • Avoid plagiarism - learn to use quoted material
     Refer to the Student Code on cheating
   www.admin.utah.edu/ppmanual/8/8-10.html
   • Short quotations - placed between quotation marks
   and the source cited
   • Long quotations - single spaced and indented on the
   left and right margins. Cite your source.
   • For this class only - you may use copyrighted material
   without permission (copy charts/graphs) but you must
   indicate the source of this material
                                                              20
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing

Symbols and Abbreviations:
   • Define all symbols when first used and/or in a table of
   nomenclature - see sample report
   • Abbreviations are frequently overused. Define
   nonstandard abbreviations in text when first used.

   Examples:
                    30’ = 30 feet
      The new center is called CBI (Center for
   Biopolymers at Interfaces).

                                                               21
SAMPLE FORMAL REPORT

• http://www.che.utah.edu/~geoff/writing/i
 ndex.html




                                         22
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing(Day 2)
Style, Grammar, Punctuation



 Tools/ References:
    • Laboratory Writing Manual by W. M. Learned
    • “Writing for Technicians” book by Marva T. Barnett
    • “The Elements of Style” by William Strunk and E. B.
    White
    • “The ACS (American Chemical Society) Style Guide” by
    Janet S. Dodd, Editor
    • A dictionary, word processor with grammar check
                                                            23
   CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing I
Department Requirements:
   •Final Report-2 copies, 1-CLEAR reader, 1-Instructor
   •Electronic copy should be sent to
      •Instructor
      •CLEAR
   •Final Report will be returned in less than 2 weeks;
    A technical rewrite may be requested.
   •A cover is required - bound
   •The faculty graded copy of the report must be returned to the
   department or an incomplete will be given for the course


                                                              24
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation



Style:
  • Read first section in Learned file, pg. 4-8,
  12-14
  • Review file - Sample Formal Report



                                                   25
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation



Grammar & Punctuation:
 - Read file - “Errors Common to Report Writing
and How to Avoid Them” by W. M. Learned




                                              26
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation



Grammar & Punctuation:
• Voice (Item 1 in Learned Section)
      Use active as much as possible
  Passive: A numerical example is now given to
            illustrate the above example.
 Active: The following numerical example
            illustrates this result.
                                                 27
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Tense (3)
      past tense for procedural, narrative parts,
calculations - present tense for theory, known
facts, and discussing figures, tables and diagrams

 Past:    Early investigations were reviewed.
 Present: The following numerical example
          illustrates this result.

                                                 28
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Dangling Participle (106)




                                 29
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Dangling Participle (106)
     A verbal phrase that does not refer clearly and
logically to another word or phrase in the sentence.

 Incorrect: Using the procedure described previously,
the partition function can be evaluated.
 Correct: The partition function can be evaluated by
using the procedure described previously.


                                                        30
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Wordiness:
      Be brief and concise. Omit phrases like “it was
found that” or “it would appear that”.

 Wordy:                     Better:
 owing to the fact that
 on the order of
 at the present time
 a very limited number of
                                                        31
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Wordiness:
      Be brief and concise. Omit phrases like “it was
found that” or “it would appear that”.

 Wordy:                     Better:
 owing to the fact that     because (since)
 on the order of            about
 at the present time        now
 a very limited number of   few
                                                        32
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Commonly Misused Words:
    Affect, verb, to influence
            Heat affects the surface.
    Effect, verb, to bring about
            A radical change was effected.
    Effect, noun
            The Coriolis effect will be studied
    Comprise, verb, contains or includes
            The text comprises all three modes of transfer.
    Compose, verb, made up of, constituted of
            The mixture is composed of sand and gravel
                                                              33
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Hyphenation (16,17,27):
      When two or more words modify another word, and the
words work as a unit, the hyphen must be used but do not
hyphenate most prefixes added to common nouns.
      Acetic-acid water system
      bubble-cap tray
      liquid-gas interface
      a 20-percent increase
      a two- or three-year study
      precooled not pre-cooled
      nonpolar not non-polar
      Exceptions: co-worker not coworker
                       co-ion not coion                     34
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Nonsexist Language:
       Nonsexist language can be accurate and unbiased, and not
necessarily awkward.
Sexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and man.




                                                             35
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Nonsexist Language:
       Nonsexist language can be accurate and unbiased, and not
necessarily awkward.
Sexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and man.
Nonsexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and humans.




                                                                36
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Nonsexist Language:
       Nonsexist language can be accurate and unbiased, and not
necessarily awkward.
Sexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and man.
Nonsexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and humans.

Sexist
Man’s search for beauty and truth has resulted in some of our greatest
accomplishments.



                                                                         37
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Nonsexist Language:
       Nonsexist language can be accurate and unbiased, and not
necessarily awkward.
Sexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and man.
Nonsexist
The effects of compounds A-B were studied in rats and humans.

Sexist
Man’s search for beauty and truth has resulted in some of our greatest
accomplishments.
Nonsexist
The search for beauty and truth has resulted in some of our greatest
accomplishments.
                                                                         38
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Units of Measure:
     Spell out the unit of measure when no quantity is given
             several milligrams not several mg
     Do not use plurals for abbreviated units of measure
             50 mg not 50 mgs
     In ranges and series, retain only the first unit of measure
             10-12 mg, between 25 and 50 ml
     When a sentence starts with a specific quantity, spell it
     out as well as the unit of measure
             Twenty-five milliliters of acetone was added.
     Use the percent symbol with a number, without a space
             25%      45-50%
                                                                   39
CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
Style, Grammar, Punctuation

• Capitalization (31-39):
     Numbered items should be capitalized when referred to
     in the text of the report. Write the numbers as figures.
              …as shown in Figure 1.
              See Table 2
              … as given in Equation (3).
     But for non-numbered items, do not capitalize
              …as shown in the figures.
     Capitalize only the name of the eponym but not the noun
              Avogadro’s number
              Lewis acid
              Non-Newtonian liquid
                                                                40
How to Do Figures

                            6

                            4
                                                                            Leach
                            2
    Relative Temperature




                            0

                            -2
                                          Wet Air Cycle
                            -4

                            -6

                            -8                                                            Dry Air Cycle


                           -10

                           -12
                                 0       20               40   60      80           100      120          140   160
                                                                    Tim e (hours)


                                 Figure 4.3.5-1 Temperature effects during the typical humidity cell weekly
                                 cycle showing evaporative effects during the dry air cycle with a
                                 temperature drop of 4 C. Note the rise in temperature after most of the
                                 water was evaporated. This experiment used 1 liter/min of total gas flow
                                 through the humidity cell, which consisted of marble (control cell) ground
                                 to the same grain size as the waste rock in this study. The relative
                                 temperature is the difference between the cell temperature and the
                                 ambient temperature.
                                                                                                                      41
How to Do Tables


 Table 1. Chemical Analysis of Selenium-contaminated Wastewater used in the study.

              Species/Property      Concentration        Detection
                                      or Value            Limit
                     pH                 7.25
               Conductivity      2840 micro mho/cm
               Temperature              21 C
                 Alkalinity           303 mg/L            10 mg/L
                 Hardness        557 mg/L as CaCO3         5 mg/L
              Total Dissolved        1670 mg/L            20 mg/L
                   Solids
              Total Suspended        <detection           3 mg/L
                   Solids




                                                                                     42
CONCLUSIONS
• Writing is a learned skill
• Preparing your report takes organization
• Tables, figures, references have to be done
a certain way
• Proofread your reports – grammar,
punctuation, style
• Follow requirements, turn in the report on
time
                                                43
    CHFEN 4903
GRADING THE REPORT




                     44
 CHFEN 4903 - Report Writing II
 Grading
A report is not acceptable and must be revised and turned in again if the
instructor determines that the report does not meet the minimum
standard for senior chemical engineering students

Category                                                  Score
A. Preliminary Oral Quiz, Teamwork                        10

B. Coherence – Does the report tell a                     25
technically coherent story? Are objectives
stated and met?
C. Technical Accuracy                                     45

D. Professional Standards – English, Form,                20
Visuals, Citations, Lab operations, Safety, Use
of equipment, Cleanup
TOTAL                                                     100           45
See Grading Sheet-
Scoring Rubric Explanation




                             46

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:5/18/2012
language:
pages:46
fanzhongqing fanzhongqing http://
About