Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C, and D on ANSWER
A study of art history might be a good way to learn more about a culture than that is possible to learn in
general history classes. Most (1) history courses concentrate on politics, economics, and war. (2) , art
history (3) on much more than this because art reflects not only the political values of a people, but also
religious (4) , emotions, and psychology. (5) , information about the daily activities of our own can be
provided by art. In short, art expresses the (6) qualities of a time and a place, and a study of it clearly offers us
a deeper understanding than what can be found in most history books.
In history books, objective information about the political life of a country is (7) ; that is, facts about
political are given, but (8) are not expressed. Art, on the other hand, is (9) : it reflects emotions and
impressions. The great Spanish painter Francisco Goya severely criticized the Spanish government for its (10)
of power over people. Over a hundred years later, symbolic (11) were used in Pablo Picasso's Guemica to
express the (12) of War. (13) , on another continent, the powerful paintings of Diego Rivera depicted
these Mexican artists' concealed (14) and sadness about social problems.
In the same way, art can (15) a culture's religious beliefs. For hundreds of years in Europe, religious art
was (16) the only type of art that existed. Churches and other religious buildings were filled with paintings
that depicted people and stories from the Bible. (17) most people couldn't read, they could still understand
biblical stories in the pictures on church walls. (18) , one of the main characteristics of art in the Middle East
was (and still is) its (19) of human and animal images. This reflects the Islamic belief that statues are (20) .
1. [A] interesting [B] plausible [C] superior [D] typical
2. [A] Indeed [B] Hence [C] However [D] Therefore
3. [A] comments [B] focuses [C] depends [D] centers
4. [A] belief [B] faith [C] trust [D] credibility
5. [A] In addition [B] In summary [C] In any case [D] In effect
6. [A] equivalent [B] temporary [C] essential [D] effective
7. [A] subscribed [B] presented [C] delivered [D] manifested
8. [A] perspectives [B] counsels [C] arguments [D] opinions
9. [A] implied [B] displayed [C] biased [D] created
10. [A] misuse [B] control [C] advantage [D] triumph
11. [A] images [B] signs [C] stimuli [D] messages
12. [A] awe [B] shock [C] horror [D] grief
13. [A] Nevertheless [B] Consequently [C] Simultaneously [D] Meanwhile
14. [A] guard [B] anger [C] content [D] assault.
15. [A] contain [B] mirror [C] involve [D] include
16. [A] alone [B] barely [C] almost [D] scarcely
17. [A] Although [B] Since [C] Suppose [D] Provided
18. [A] With [B] For [C] By [D] On
19. [A] relevance [B] presence [C] existence [D] absence
20. [A] ineligible [B] unholy [C] mistaken [D] disloyal
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your
answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
When it comes to suing doctors, Philadelphia is hardly the city of brotherly love. A combination of sprightly
lawyers and sympathetic juries has made Philadelphia a hotspot for medical-malpractice lawsuits. Since 1995,
Pennsylvania state courts have awarded an average of ＄ 2m in such cases, according to Jury Verdict Research, a
survey firm. Some medical specialists have seen their malpractice insurance premiums nearly double over the past
year. Obstetricians are now paying up to ＄104,000 a year to protect themselves.
The insurance industry is largely to blame. Carol Golin, the Monitor's editor, argues that in the 1990s insurers
tried to grab market share by offering artificially low rates (betting that any losses would be covered by gains on
their investments). The stock-market correction, coupled with the large legal awards, has eroded the insurers'
reserves. Three in Pennsylvania alone have gone bust.
A few doctors--particularly older ones--will quit. The rest are adapting. Some are abandoning litigation-prone
procedures, such as delivering babies. Others are moving parts of their practice to neighboring states where
insurance rates are lower. Some from Pennsylvania have opened offices in New Jersey. New doctors may also be
deterred from setting up shop in litigation havens, however prestigious.
Despite a Republican president, tort reform has got nowhere at the federal level. Indeed doctors could get
clobbered indirectly by a Patients' Bill of Rights, which would further expose managed care companies to lawsuits.
This prospect has fuelled interest among doctors in Pennsylvania's new medical malpractice reform bill, which
was signed into law on March 20th. It will, among other things, give doctors ＄ 40m of state funds to offset their
insurance premiums, spread the payment of awards out over time and prohibit individuals from double2
dipping--that is, suing a doctor for damages that have already been paid by their health insurer.
But will it really help? Randall Bovbjerg, a health policy expert at the Urban Institute, argues that the only
proper way to slow down the litigation machine would be to limit the compensation for pain and suffering,
so-called "non-monetary damages". Needless to say, a fixed cap on such awards is resisted by most trial lawyers.
But Mr Bovbjerg reckons a more nuanced approach, with a sliding scale of payments based on well-defined
measures of injury, is a better way forward. In the meantime, doctors and insurers are bracing themselves for a
couple more rough years before the insurance cycle turns.
Nobody disputes that hospital staff make mistakes: a 1999 Institute of Medicine report claimed that errors
kill at least 44,000 patients a year. But there is little evidence that malpractice lawsuits on their own will solve the
21. We can learn from the beginning of the text that doctors in Philadelphia
[A] are often overcharged.
[B] flee out of the hot city.
[C] are likely to be sued.
[D] enjoy a high prestige.
22. By mentioning "double-dipping" (Paragraph 4), the author is talking about
[C] stock shares.
23. According to the text, what encourages doctors and insurers is that
[A] a new reform bill is coming into force.
[B] insurance premiums could be balanced.
[C] new medical offices have been opened up.
[D] injuries will be precisely measured.
24. To which of the following is the author most likely to agree?
[A] The proper way is to slow down payments for injuries.
[B] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations paid.
[C] Low insurance rates are to blame for the potential trouble.
[D] Legal procedures alone may not solve the rough problem.
25. It seems that the author is most critical of
[A] negligent doctors.
[B] unfriendly patients.
[C] insurance companies.
[D] sympathetic lawyers.
In the end, a degree of sanity prevailed. The militant Hindus who had vowed to breach a police cordon and
start the work of building a temple to the god Ram at the disputed site of Ayodhya decided to respect a Supreme
Court decision barring them from the area. So charged have Hindu-Muslim relations in India become in recent
weeks, as the declared deadline of March 15th neared, that a clash at Ram's supposed birthplace might well have
provoked bloodshed on an appalling scale across the nation. It has, unfortunately, happened often enough before.
But the threat has not vanished. The court's decision is only an interim one, and the main Hindu groups have
not given up on their quest to build their temple. Extreme religious violence, which seemed in recent years to have
faded after the Ayodhya-related explosion of 1992--1993, is again a feature of the political landscape. Though
faults lie on both sides (it was a Muslim attack On Hindus in a train in Gujarat that started the recent slaughter),
the great bulk of victims were, as always, Muslims. Once again, educated Hindus are to be heard inveighing
against the "appeasing" of Muslims through such concessions as separate constitutional status for Kashmir or the
right to practice Islamic civil law. Once again, the police are being accused of doing little or nothing to help
Muslim victims of rampaging Hindu mobs. Once again, India's 130m Muslims feel unequal and unsafe in their
own country. Far too many Hindus would refuse to accept that it is "their own country" at all.
The wonder of it, perhaps, is that things are not worse. While the world applauds Pakistan for at last locking
up the leaders of its extreme religious groups, in India the zealots still support, sustain and to a degree constitute
the government. The BJP, which leads the ruling coalition, was founded as a political front for the Hindu
movement. It is simply one, and by no means the dominant, member of what is called the Sangh Pariwar, the
"family of organizations". Other members of the family are much less savoury. There is the VHP, the World Hindu
Organization, which led the movement to build the Ram temple. There is the Bajrang Dal, the brutalist "youth
wing" of the VHP. There is substantial evidence that members of the VHP and the Bajrang Dal helped to organize
the slaughter of hundreds of Muslims in Gujarat after 58 Hindus were killed on a train as they returned from
26. According to the text, the Supreme Court ruled that
[A] Muslims are denied the right to civil laws.
[B] Hindu-Muslim clashes are an issue of religion.
[C] it is illegal to seek to build the Ram temple.
[D] religious groups are in the charge of their leaders.
27. What does the writer wants to illustrate with "a Muslim attack on Hindus on a train in Gujarat"?
[A] The brutality of extreme Indian policemen.
[B] Frequent clashes between Hindus and Muslims.
[C] The cruelty as shown by Hindus to Muslims.
[D] The disappearance of extreme religious violence.
28. The word "rampaging" (Para 2) denotes
29. According to the text, now the world would praise Hindus and Muslims mainly for their
30. Towards the issue of Hindu-Muslim relations, the writer's attitude can be said to be
For Tony Blair, home is a messy sort of place, where the prime minister's job is not to uphold eternal values
but to force through some unpopular changes that may make the country work a bit better. The area where this is
most obvious, and where it matters most, is the public services. Mr Blair faces a difficulty here which is partly of
his own making. By focusing his last election campaign on the need to improve hospitals, schools, transport and
policing, he built up expectations. Mr Blair has said many times that reforms in the way the public services work
need to go alongside increases in cash.
Mr Blair has made his task harder by committing a classic negotiating error. Instead of extracting
concessions from the other side before promising his own, he has pledged himself to higher spending on public
services without getting a commitment to change from the unions. Why, given that this pledge has been made,
should the health unions give ground in return? In a speech on March 20th, Gordon Brown, the chancellor of the
exchequer, said that "the something-for-nothing days are over in our public services and there can be no blank
cheques." But the government already seems to have given health workers a blank cheque.
Nor are other ministries conveying quite the same message as the treasury. On March 19th, John Hutton, a
health minister, announced that cleaners and catering staff in new privately-funded hospitals working for the
National Health service will still be government employees, entitled to the same pay and conditions as other
health-service workers. Since one of the main ways in which the government hopes to reform the public sector is
by using private providers, and since one of the main ways in which private providers are likely to be able to save
money is by cutting labor costs, this move seems to undermine the government's strategy.
Now the government faces its hardest fight. The police need reforming more than any other public service.
Half of them, for instance, retire early, at a cost of ￡1 billion (＄1.4% billion) a year to the taxpayer. The police
have voted 10--1 against proposals from the home secretary, David Blunkett, to reform their working practices.
This is a fight the government has to win. If the police get away with it, other public-service workers will
reckon they can too. And, if they all get away it, Mr Blair's domestic policy--which is what voters are most likely
to judge him on a the next election--will be a failure.
31. In Britain, Tony Blair's chief task is to
[A] deal with disorders.
[B] see to public services.
[C] attend to reforms.
[D] live up to expectations.
32. What does the author mean by "a classic negotiating error" (Paragraph 2)?
[A] "keeping to endless bargains."
[B] "avoiding financial challenges."
[C] "making solemn promises."
[D] "offering unnecessary pledges."
33. The views of Gordon Brown and John Hutton on public services reforms are
34. It can be inferred from that text that Tony Blair
[A] might have been caught in his own trap.
[B] is more likely to win the next election.
[C] gets away with his negotiating strategies.
[D] is bound to encounter financial troubles.
35. The conclusion can be drawn from the text that Britain's public services may be
[A] on the verge of collapse.
[B] at a crucial stage.
[C] in pursuit of popularity.
[D] beyond repairs.
Europe is desperate to succeed in business. Two years ago, the European Union's Lisbon summit set a goal of
becoming the world's leading economy by 2010. But success, as any new- age executive coach might tell you,
requires confronting the fear of failure. That is why Europe's approach to bankruptcy urgently needs reform.
In Europe, as in the United States, many heavily indebted companies are shutting up shop just as the
economy begins to recover. Ironically, the upturn is often the moment when weak firms finally fail. But America's
failures have a big advantage over Europe's weaklings: their country's more relaxed approach to bankruptcy.
In the United States the Chapter 11 law makes going bust an orderly and even routine process. Firms in
trouble simply apply for breathing space from creditors. Managers submit a plan of reorganization to a judge, and
creditors decide whether to give it a go or to come up with one of their own. Creditors have a say in whether to
keep the firm running, or to liquidate it. If they keep it running, they often end up with a big chunk of equity, if not
But shutting a bust European company is harder in two other ways. First, with no equivalent of Chapter 11,
bankruptcy forces companies to stop trading abruptly. That damages the value of the creditors' potential assets,
and may also cause havoc for customers. Second, a company that trades across the European Union will find that
it has to abide by different bankruptcy laws in the 15 member states, whose courts and administrators may make
conflicting and sometimes incompatible stipulations.
The absence of provision for negotiations between companies and creditors increases the temptation for
government to step in. When governments do not come to the rescue, the lack of clear rules can lead to chaos. As
a result of all this, Europe's teetering firms miss the chance to become more competitive by selling assets to others
who might manage them more efficiently. Their sickly American rivals survive, transformed, to sweep the field.
An opportunity now exists to think again about Europe's approach to bankruptcy. The European Union is
expected to issue a new directive on the subject in May. Germany has begun to update its insolvency law. And last
year Britain produced a white paper saying that a rigid approach to bankruptcy could stifle the growth needed to
meet Lisbon's goals.
36. One of goals set by the European Union's Lisbon summit is to
[A] strive for the lead in the world's economy.
[B] achieve great success in business.
[C] come up with a plan for reorganization.
[D] prevent excessive economic growth.
37. According to text, what is beyond the ability of Europe's failing firms now is
[A] to defect American competitive rivals.
[B] to comply with different laws.
[C] to escape the control of governments.
[D] to negotiate with their creditors.
38. Besides applying for breathing space from creditors, managers in American firms can also
[A] damage the creditors' potential assets.
[B] request the government's interventions.
[C] take advantage of legal procedures.
[D] talk with their stern debtors abroad.
39. It can be concluded from the text that the absence of relevant laws concerning bankruptcy may more often
than not result in
[A] dangerous confusion.
[B] desperate conflicts.
[C] abrupt reforms.
[D] potential threats.
40. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text?
[A] The achievement of Lisbon's goals would precede the elimination of chaos.
[B] The best way to help European firms may be to make it easier for them to fail.
[C] It is high time that the rigid bankruptcy laws in the U.S. were radically changed.
[D] Shutting a weak American company means ending up with a big chunk of assets.
You are going to read a text about Gold-Medal Workouts, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example
from the list A--F for each numbered subheading (41--45). There is one extra example which you do not need to
use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
Drawing on biomechanics and other sports science, Olympic hopefuls target just the right muscles and moves.
Olympians of yesteryear shared the same goal, but they would hardly recognize today's training techniques. To
achieve to Olympian ideal of "faster, higher, stronger," coaches now realize, athletes don't have to train more but
they do have to, train smarter. That's why, these days, cross-country (Nordic) skiers kneel on skateboards and tug
on pulleys to haul themselves up a ramp.
By analyzing every motion that goes into a ski jump or a luge run, the science of biomechanics breaks down
events into their component parts and determines which movements of which muscles are the key to a superlative
performance. Knowing that is crucial for a simple but, to many coaches and trainers, unexpected reason: it turns
out that although training for general conditioning improves fitness, the best way to boost performance is by
working the muscles and practicing the moves that will be used in competition. It's called sport-specific training.
41. Ways to work the right muscles and train the right patterns of movement.
Sport-specific training doesn't have to mean running the actual course or performing the exact event. There
are other ways to work the right muscles and train the right pattern of movement. Doing situps on a Swiss ball, for
instance, develops torso control as well as strength. The Finnish ice-hockey team recently added acrobatics to its
training regime because it helps players to balance on the ice, says head coach Raimo Summanen.
The advances in physiology that have revolutionized training are giving sports scientists a better
under-standing of how to improve strength, power, speed and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness:
42. Training the start-up.
Speed is partly genetic. A star sprinter is probably born with a preponderance of fast-twitch muscle fibers,
which fire repeatedly with only microsecond rests in between. Speed training therefore aims to recruit more
fast-twitch fibers and increase the speed of nerve signals that command muscles to move.
43. Strength reflects the percentage of muscle fibers the body can recruit for a given movement.
"Someone with pure strength can recruit 90 percent of these fibers, while someone else recruits only 50
percent," says the USOC's Davis.
44. Developing anaerobic fitness.
Anaerobic fitness keeps the muscles moving even when the heart can't provide enough oxygen. To postpone
the point when acid begins to accumulate, or at least train the body to tolerate it, Jim Walker has the speed skaters
he works with push themselves beyond what they need to do in competition.
Power is strength with speed.
"One of the biggest changes in strength training is that we're getting away from pure strength and
emphasizing power, or explosive strength," says USOC strength-and- conditioning coordinator Kevin Ebel.
45. Difficulties under way.
It's still difficult to persuade coaches to let sports scientists mess with their athletes.
To overcome such resistance, the USOC's Peter Davis has set up "performance-enhancing teams" where
coaches and scientists put their heads together and apply the best science to training. Come February, the world
will see how science fared in its attempt to mold athletic excellence.
[A] Zach Lund races skeleton (a head-first, belly-down sled race), in which the start is crucial. He has to sprint in
a bent-over position (pushing his sled along the track), then hop in without slowing the sled. "You have to go from
a hard sprint to being really calm in order to go down the track well," says Lund. To improve his speed he does leg
presses while lying on his back, or leg curls on his stomach (bringing his foot to his backside).
[B] Despite the finding that drafting reduces the demand on the heart of a speed skater and generally improves
performance, for instance, most skaters still prefer to go out fast and first.
[C] Sprinters who skate 500 meters in the Olympics, for instance, power through multiple 300 meters, and do it
faster than they Skate the 500. By raising the anaerobic threshold, the training gives skaters a better shot at
exploding with a sprint at the finish.
[D] Luge, for instance, requires precise control of infinitesimal muscle movements: "Overcorrect on a turn," says
driver Mark Grimmette, "and you're dead." To achieve that precise control, he and his doubles partner, Brian
Martin, devote a good chunk of their training time to exercises on those squishy rubber spheres called Swiss balls.
[E] Aerobic fitness is hockey star Cammi Granato's goal one autumn morning as she pedals a stationary bike with
sweaty fury at the USOC training center in Lake Placid, New York. When Granato finally staggers off the bike
and crumples onto the padded platform, she's had a tougher workout than in any hockey period which is exactly
[F] The thigh's quadriceps, for instance, consist of millions of fibers organized into what are called motor units.
When a speed skater pushes off the ice, he recruits a certain percentage of them to fire; the others are relaxing and
so do not contribute to the movement.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should
be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
One of the strangest aspects of the mechanical approach to life is the widespread lack of concern about the
danger of total destruction by nuclear weapons; a possibility people are consciously aware of. The explanation, I
believe, is that they are more proud of than frightened by the gadgets of mass destruction. (46) Also they are so
frightened of their personal failure and humiliation that their anxiety about personal matters prevents them from
feeling anxiety about the possibility that everybody and everything maybe destroyed. Perhaps total destruction is
even more attractive than total insecurity and never ending personal anxiety.
Am I suggesting that modern man is doomed and that we should return to the pre-industrial mode of
production or to nineteenth century "free enterprise" capitalism? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by
returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. (47)I suggest transforming our social system from a
bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves
into a humanist industrialism in which man and the full development of his potentialities--those of love and of
reason--are the aims of all social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this
end, and should be prevented from ruling man.
To attain this goal we need to create a Renaissance of Enlightenment and of Humanism. It must be an
Enlightenment, however, more radically realistic and critical than that of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
It must be a Humanism that aims at the full development of the total man, not the gadget man, not the consumer
man, not the organization man. The aim of a humanist society is the man who loves life, who has faith in life, who
is productive and independent. (48) Such a transformation is possible if we recognize that our present way of life
makes us sterile and eventually destroys the vitality necessary for survival.
(49) Whether such transformation is likely is another matter. But we will not be able to succeed unless we see
the alternatives clearly and realize that the choice is still ours. Dissatisfaction with our way of life is the first step
toward changing it. As to these changes, one thing is certain: They must take place in all spheres
simultaneously--in the economic, the social, the political and the spiritual. (50) Change in only one sphere will
lead into blind alleys, as did the purely political French Revolution and the purely economic Russian Revolution.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Yesterday you were told that there was going to be a seminar sponsored by a newspaper. The discussion is
centered upon juvenile psychology. You want to make your presentation during the seminar, and now write a letter
to the editor-in-chief of the paper. Your writing should be based upon the following outline:
1) inquiry about relevant information,
2) a brief account of your expertise,
3) and expression of your interest.
Write your letter in no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, use "Li Ming" instead;
Do not write the address.
A. Study the following picture carefully and write an essay of about 160--200 words.
B. Your essay must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET 2.
C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
1. Describe the drawing and interpret its meaning,
2. And give your comments.
Section Ⅰ Use of English
1. D 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. B 8. D 9. C 10. A 11. A 12. C
13. D 14. B 15. B 16. C 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. B
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
21. C 22. A 23. A 24. D 25. C 26. C 27. B
28. B 29. D 30. A 31. A 32. D 33. C 34. A
35. B 36. A 37. D 38. C 39. A 40. B
41. D 42. A 43. F 44. C 45. B
[D] 例如，仰卧滑行小雪橇要求精确地控制肌肉的微小运动——负责操纵雪橇的马克·格瑞默特说： “在
[C] 例如，在奥运会上滑 500 米的短道速滑运动员，要训练做大量的 300 米速滑，而且要比滑 500 米的速
度快。 能过提高无氧适应能力的门槛， 这种训练使滑冰运动员在赛程的最后阶段能爆发出力量， 进行冲刺。
Section Ⅲ Writing
To whom it may concern,
I take the liberty to inquire about some info as regards the seminar held by your newspaper. I want to know
the place and date of the discussion, so I can arrange my schedule for the meeting. Once a social worker, I've had
great experience with kids and teenagers, and I've a sound knowledge of juvenile psychology. Besides, I've written
dozens of papers about how to raise their creativity and motivation. Sure enough, I also helped prevent lots of
juvenile delinquencies. I'm much interested in the discussion because I intend to share my opinions with other
experts. I'll be pretty grateful if you can give me a reply at your earliest convenience.
主题: Learn the Art of Giving up
The art of life consists in the art of learning to give up. In other words, if we learn this art, we will come to
appreciate the true value of what we can possess. Then we will discover the undeniable fact that what we gain will
definitely far more valuable than what we lose.
As is depicted in the thought-provoking picture, our pursuit for material gains must result in unforeseeable
tragedies in the days to come. If the man persisted in his action of cutting the tree of economic returns, his work
will inevitably bring about great disasters to the environment--acid rains, sandstorms, deforestations, and
desertifications, just to name a few. How crucial it is that, aware of the art of giving up, the man decided to stop
hunting for economic rewards for the sake of ecological health.
The decision is wise and rewarding, though painful and costly. More often than not, great rewards will follow
in the long run if we resolutely give up what now we are apparently in possession of.