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Presentation Figurative Language

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									Literal language – Means exactly what you mean.
Allows the reader to see a clear mental picture, or
image. Tree is a literal word. You can see a clear
           picture of a tree in your mind.
                Ex. There is a tree.
Purpose Of this lesson : Today we are going to learn about four kinds of
figurative language. Figurative language is like the artist’s paint brush,
and your paper is like the artist’s canvas. Using a variety of figurative
devices in one’s writing can paint a beautiful picture with words which
makes one’s writing more interesting and colorful. Therefore, knowing
about literary devices improves one’s writing.
Lesson Objective: When we finish this lesson, you will be able to
demonstrate a clear concept of the figurative language devices of
alliteration, metaphor, personification, and simile. You will be able to
recognize examples and demonstrate the use of these four devices in your
writing.
Guided Practice: First, I want you to get out your literary terms note
cards, and using the literary terms booklets, I want you to make cards for
the following words:
Personification
Onomatopoeia
Simile
Metaphor
Alliteration
• Figurative Language – Uses figures of speech such as simile,
  metaphors, and personification. These figures of speech often
  compare unlike things. Writers use figures of speech to express
  ideas they cannot achieve with literal language. In figurative
  speech, the words often have second meanings too. Figurative
  language tries to create a clearer image for the reader. The image
  helps the reader to understand the ideas better.

   •      Ex. Mother Nature is a figurative expression. Nature is
             suggested to be a caring, protective mother.
                                          Try This
       Read the passages below. Two paragraphs use figurative
language, and one uses literal language. See if you can figure out
which two are figurative language.


   Merlin was a mysterious wizard. He was as mysterious
as a dark, foggy night. With his magic, he could make trees
dance and rocks sing.
   Many myths contain stories of wizards. Some wizards,
such as Merlin, were said to be very powerful. Merlin was
the wizard for King Arthur.
   The gentle breeze whispered good morning to the new
day, as the flowers opened their sleepy petals to the rising
sun.
Denotations and Connotations
      •   Denotation of a word is its exact meaning as
          stated in a dictionary. Denotations use literal
          language.
      •   Connotation of a word is a second,
          suggested meaning of a word. This added
          meaning often suggest something positive or
          negative. Connotations use figurative
          language. Think of the word mother. The
          denotation of mother is a “woman who has
          given birth to a child.” The connotation of
          mother is “one who loves, supports, helps,
          and protects.”
      •   Ex. 1 Skinny suggest “too thin.” Skinny has
          a negative connotation.
      •   Ex. 2 Slender suggests “attractively thin.”
          Slender has a positive connotation.
                                            Comparisons
         A comparison shows how things are like. A comparison helps
you to see how things are related. One kind of comparison is called
an analogy. An analogy is a kind of inference. If one set of things are
alike, you can infer that another set of things are also alike in some
way. An analogy is a good way t compare word meanings. An
analogy has two parts. The two parts are linked with the word as. As
means “in some way.
                  How to solve an analogy:

                 1st: Think about how the terms in the first part are
                 related. “perform is to act .
                 2nd: Decide how this relationship works in the
                 second part. “What do spectators do?”


                 Perform is to actors AS observe is to
                 spectators”
                      Practice
                 Use the word box to solve the analogies
                 raincoat   binding    page       observe
                 bicycle    uncle     brother     difficult


1.   Mother is to father as aunt is to ________

2.   Send is to receive AS simple is to _____________

3.   Package is to seal AS book is to ______________

4.   Sweater is to cold AS __________is to wet.

5. Steering wheel is to car AS handlebars are to ____
                        Relationships
              •Analogies help to make relationships easier to
              understand. Many kinds of relationships can be
              expressed using analogies.
Lips are to

              •Some analogies compare parts of thing to the whole
              thing. This type of analogy helps you to see how the
              parts are related to the whole thing.

              •Some analogies compare opposites, or antonyms.

              • Some analogies show a relationship of a general thing
              to a specific thing.

     as       • Some analogies show a cause-and-effect relationship.

                           Toe is to
  Ready To Try On Your Own?
straight   receive   sea   Fall   remember
  Use the words above to fill in the blanks.


  1. Excited is to calm AS forget is to__________
  Relationship:__________________

  2. Drop is to break AS trip is to____________________
  Relationship:__________________

  3. Volcano is to Mount St. Helens AS ocean is to _____________
  Relationship:__________________

  4. Lend is to loan AS get is to________________________
  Relationship:__________________

  5. Steep is to level AS crooked is to__________________
  Relationship:__________________
  Figures of Speech Simile & Metaphor
What does it mean to compare something?

  It means to tell how two or more things are
  alike. Figurative language uses figures of
  speech. These figures of speech are kinds of
  comparisons.

   Two figures of speech are similes and
  metaphors. What two things are compared in
  the following sentence?

The girl ran from the bees like a frightened cat.
                 Figures Of Speech cont…Similes

If you said that the running girl and the frightened cat are being
    compared, YOU ARE RIGHT!

The sentence gives you two images to think about.:

   a frightened cat moving frantically
   and how the girl ran from the bees.

The clue word like is used to make this comparison.

When like or as is used to compare two things, the comparison
 is called a simile.
         Figures Of Speech cont… Metaphor
Sometimes a comparison is made by speaking of one
  thing as if it were another. This is called a
  metaphor.

Metaphors compare things that are not very similar.
  The following sentence is a metaphor:

  Rodger is a racehorse

Rodger is being compared to a racehorse. The
  metaphor doesn’t mean that Rodger is literally a
  racehorse. The metaphor suggest that Rodger has
  some of the same qualities of a racehorse.
        Remember This!
     To recognize Similes and Metaphors in Comparison:

• Read the sentence carefully.
• Think what things are being compared.
• Look for the use of like or as to signal a
  simile.
• Notice if unlike things are compared to
  signal a metaphor.
            Let’s Solve the Puzzle!
•    In each sentence below, there are two things being
     compared. Identify each. Then identify the comparison as
     a simile or metaphor.

1.   The comedian was a barrel of
     laughs.___________________

2.   The orchestra drums rumbled like
     thunder_______________

3.   The cozy kitten was as snug as a bug in a
     rug.____________

4.   My brother is a clown.__________________

5.   The thick grass was like carpet under our
     feet.______________

6. Her wit was as sharp as a tack._____________________
                       Personification
•   Sometimes a writer will give human characteristics to
    nonhuman things. Objects, ideas, places, or animals
    may be given human qualities. They may perform
    human actions. This type of figurative language is
    called personification. Personification helps a writer to
    create an exciting picture in the reader’s mind.
•   Example: The clothes on the line danced in the wind.

What did you decide this sentence means? If you said
  that the wind is blowing the clothes around on the
  clothesline, then you understood the sentence. Did
  you notice that the writer gave the clothes a human
  characteristic? The clothes are dancing. Clothes don’t
  really dance, of course. But their movement on the line
  makes them look as if they are dancing. The writer
  uses this comparison to make the sentence more
  interesting. The reader gets a more vivid mental
  picture, or image, of the clothes on the line.
    Personification makes writing breathe!
How to recognize Personification:
1. Read the sentence carefully.
2. Try to see the meaning of the words in your mind.
3. Notice how personification creates a word picture and makes
     the sentences more interesting.

Read and identify the writer’s use of personification in each
    sentence.
1.  The sailboat danced gracefully past us.
2.  The flames ate hungrily at the burning house.
3.  The once-proud trees bent meekly before the storm.
4.  The broad, flat rock lay sunning itself by the stream.
                                         Poems
Read the following poem. Working individually or in groups of five, each will identify one of the
  following: words that rhyme, alliteration, similes, metaphor, and personification.
  Merlin was a famous wizard,
A ghost who rose fro ancient ground.
He could make the mountains mind him
Or stop the Earth from spinning round.

He could make the wind start singing
Songs of King Arthur and Camelot,
Or he could make the oceans boil
Like magic soup in a golden pot.
Alliteration - repeated consonant sounds in a
line, phrases, or sentence. Alliteration usually appears
at the beginning of words. It sets a rhythm or mood to
sentences or phrases. It is fun and pleasing to the ear.

Example: Harried and hassled, Hanna hurried home.
metaphor –
a comparison between two things that are not ordinarily
alike. Like other figurative language, metaphors make
writing fresh, interesting, moving, humorous, or
touching.
                         Examples:

           Her eyes were deep, purple pools.

       Writing a poem is opening a can of yourself.

                    Your bedroom is a black hole.
3.Personification –
Giving human characteristics to a nonliving object.
Personification compares two dissimilar things by
attributing human thoughts, feelings, appearances,
actions, or attitudes to an object or animal.

                       Example:
 That toaster reached out it fiery fingers and gobbled up
                       my toast.
4.Simile –
A comparison between two unlike things, using
The word like or as to connect them.
Like other figures of speech, similes make writing
fresh, interesting, moving, humorous or touching.
They surprise and delight the reader, and make the
description more real.

                      Example:
   My big brother demolishes his food as fast as a
                  garbage disposal.
• Onomatopoeia - A literary device
  wherein the sound of a word echoes
  the sound it represents. “splash”
  “knock” “roar” “pow!” “Wow!”
  “Bang” “sizzle”
• Example: the buzz of bees; the hiss of
  a goose; the crackle of fire.
• Card # 1

                  The Three Toed Tree Toad
                 A tree-toad loved a she-toad
                      Who lived up in a tree.
                  He was a two-toed tree-toad,
                 But a three-toed toad was she.

             The two-toed tree-toad tried to win
              The three-toed she-toad's heart,
        For the two-toed tree-toad loved the ground
             That the three-toed tree-toad trod.

             But the two-toed tree-toad tried in vain;
                  He couldn't please her whim.
                   From her tree-toad bower,
                   With her three-toed power,
                    The she-toad vetoed him.
Card # 2
                        Morning is
                   A new sheet of paper
                    For you to write on.
            Whatever you want to say, all day,
                         Until night
                        Folds it up
                     and files it away.
           The bright words and the dark words
                         Are gone
                        Until dawn
                      And a new day
                        To write on.
•   Card # 3
                                  The Cloud
            I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers,
                      From the seas and the streams:
               I bear light shade for the leaves when laid
                         In their noonday dreams.
           From my wings are shaken the dews that waken
                        The sweet buds every one.
            When rocked to rest on their mother’s breast,
                       As she dances about the sun.
                    I wield the flail of the lashing hail,
                   And whiten the green plains under,
                   And then again I dissolve it in rain.
                      And laugh as I pass in thunder,
                    Percy Bysshe Shelly
Card # 4
            What happens to a dream deferred?
           Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?
                  Or fester like a sore------
                        And then run?
              Does it stink like rotten meat?
                Or curst and sugar over---
                    like a syrupy sweet---
                      Maybe it just sags
                      Like a heavy load.
Card # 5
                Cafeteria

                   Boom!
               Went the food
                    trays.
                Clap! Clap!
             Goes the teacher.
                     Rip!
                  Went the
                plastic bag.
              Munch! Munch!
             Go the students.
                  Slurp!!!
             Went the straws.
                  Whisper
           Is what half the kids
                in the room
                 are doing.
                  Crunch!
                  Crunch!
                      go
              the candy bars.

                     By: Rachael
       Allusions
• An allusion is another figure of speech used by
  writers. An allusion is a kind of comparison. A
  writer describes one thing by referring to
  another thing. The reference is usually to a
  person, place, or thing. The reference can be
  to things in history, religion, literature , or
  culture. The writer hopes the reader knows the
  reference. If so, the reader can better
  understand what the writer is trying to say. If
  not, the allusion is not effective. For example, a
  writer might say.
“The man was as strong as Hercules.”
• The writer is comparing the strength of the man
  to the strength of Hercules. If the reader does
  not know that Hercules was a very strong man
  in Greek Myths, the allusion does not work.
  Then the reader might have to look up the
  reference.

								
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