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Literal language – Means exactly what you mean. Allows the reader to see a clear mental picture, or image. Tree is a literal word. You can see a clear picture of a tree in your mind. Ex. There is a tree. Purpose Of this lesson : Today we are going to learn about four kinds of figurative language. Figurative language is like the artist’s paint brush, and your paper is like the artist’s canvas. Using a variety of figurative devices in one’s writing can paint a beautiful picture with words which makes one’s writing more interesting and colorful. Therefore, knowing about literary devices improves one’s writing. Lesson Objective: When we finish this lesson, you will be able to demonstrate a clear concept of the figurative language devices of alliteration, metaphor, personification, and simile. You will be able to recognize examples and demonstrate the use of these four devices in your writing. Guided Practice: First, I want you to get out your literary terms note cards, and using the literary terms booklets, I want you to make cards for the following words: Personification Onomatopoeia Simile Metaphor Alliteration • Figurative Language – Uses figures of speech such as simile, metaphors, and personification. These figures of speech often compare unlike things. Writers use figures of speech to express ideas they cannot achieve with literal language. In figurative speech, the words often have second meanings too. Figurative language tries to create a clearer image for the reader. The image helps the reader to understand the ideas better. • Ex. Mother Nature is a figurative expression. Nature is suggested to be a caring, protective mother. Try This Read the passages below. Two paragraphs use figurative language, and one uses literal language. See if you can figure out which two are figurative language. Merlin was a mysterious wizard. He was as mysterious as a dark, foggy night. With his magic, he could make trees dance and rocks sing. Many myths contain stories of wizards. Some wizards, such as Merlin, were said to be very powerful. Merlin was the wizard for King Arthur. The gentle breeze whispered good morning to the new day, as the flowers opened their sleepy petals to the rising sun. Denotations and Connotations • Denotation of a word is its exact meaning as stated in a dictionary. Denotations use literal language. • Connotation of a word is a second, suggested meaning of a word. This added meaning often suggest something positive or negative. Connotations use figurative language. Think of the word mother. The denotation of mother is a “woman who has given birth to a child.” The connotation of mother is “one who loves, supports, helps, and protects.” • Ex. 1 Skinny suggest “too thin.” Skinny has a negative connotation. • Ex. 2 Slender suggests “attractively thin.” Slender has a positive connotation. Comparisons A comparison shows how things are like. A comparison helps you to see how things are related. One kind of comparison is called an analogy. An analogy is a kind of inference. If one set of things are alike, you can infer that another set of things are also alike in some way. An analogy is a good way t compare word meanings. An analogy has two parts. The two parts are linked with the word as. As means “in some way. How to solve an analogy: 1st: Think about how the terms in the first part are related. “perform is to act . 2nd: Decide how this relationship works in the second part. “What do spectators do?” Perform is to actors AS observe is to spectators” Practice Use the word box to solve the analogies raincoat binding page observe bicycle uncle brother difficult 1. Mother is to father as aunt is to ________ 2. Send is to receive AS simple is to _____________ 3. Package is to seal AS book is to ______________ 4. Sweater is to cold AS __________is to wet. 5. Steering wheel is to car AS handlebars are to ____ Relationships •Analogies help to make relationships easier to understand. Many kinds of relationships can be expressed using analogies. Lips are to •Some analogies compare parts of thing to the whole thing. This type of analogy helps you to see how the parts are related to the whole thing. •Some analogies compare opposites, or antonyms. • Some analogies show a relationship of a general thing to a specific thing. as • Some analogies show a cause-and-effect relationship. Toe is to Ready To Try On Your Own? straight receive sea Fall remember Use the words above to fill in the blanks. 1. Excited is to calm AS forget is to__________ Relationship:__________________ 2. Drop is to break AS trip is to____________________ Relationship:__________________ 3. Volcano is to Mount St. Helens AS ocean is to _____________ Relationship:__________________ 4. Lend is to loan AS get is to________________________ Relationship:__________________ 5. Steep is to level AS crooked is to__________________ Relationship:__________________ Figures of Speech Simile & Metaphor What does it mean to compare something? It means to tell how two or more things are alike. Figurative language uses figures of speech. These figures of speech are kinds of comparisons. Two figures of speech are similes and metaphors. What two things are compared in the following sentence? The girl ran from the bees like a frightened cat. Figures Of Speech cont…Similes If you said that the running girl and the frightened cat are being compared, YOU ARE RIGHT! The sentence gives you two images to think about.: a frightened cat moving frantically and how the girl ran from the bees. The clue word like is used to make this comparison. When like or as is used to compare two things, the comparison is called a simile. Figures Of Speech cont… Metaphor Sometimes a comparison is made by speaking of one thing as if it were another. This is called a metaphor. Metaphors compare things that are not very similar. The following sentence is a metaphor: Rodger is a racehorse Rodger is being compared to a racehorse. The metaphor doesn’t mean that Rodger is literally a racehorse. The metaphor suggest that Rodger has some of the same qualities of a racehorse. Remember This! To recognize Similes and Metaphors in Comparison: • Read the sentence carefully. • Think what things are being compared. • Look for the use of like or as to signal a simile. • Notice if unlike things are compared to signal a metaphor. Let’s Solve the Puzzle! • In each sentence below, there are two things being compared. Identify each. Then identify the comparison as a simile or metaphor. 1. The comedian was a barrel of laughs.___________________ 2. The orchestra drums rumbled like thunder_______________ 3. The cozy kitten was as snug as a bug in a rug.____________ 4. My brother is a clown.__________________ 5. The thick grass was like carpet under our feet.______________ 6. Her wit was as sharp as a tack._____________________ Personification • Sometimes a writer will give human characteristics to nonhuman things. Objects, ideas, places, or animals may be given human qualities. They may perform human actions. This type of figurative language is called personification. Personification helps a writer to create an exciting picture in the reader’s mind. • Example: The clothes on the line danced in the wind. What did you decide this sentence means? If you said that the wind is blowing the clothes around on the clothesline, then you understood the sentence. Did you notice that the writer gave the clothes a human characteristic? The clothes are dancing. Clothes don’t really dance, of course. But their movement on the line makes them look as if they are dancing. The writer uses this comparison to make the sentence more interesting. The reader gets a more vivid mental picture, or image, of the clothes on the line. Personification makes writing breathe! How to recognize Personification: 1. Read the sentence carefully. 2. Try to see the meaning of the words in your mind. 3. Notice how personification creates a word picture and makes the sentences more interesting. Read and identify the writer’s use of personification in each sentence. 1. The sailboat danced gracefully past us. 2. The flames ate hungrily at the burning house. 3. The once-proud trees bent meekly before the storm. 4. The broad, flat rock lay sunning itself by the stream. Poems Read the following poem. Working individually or in groups of five, each will identify one of the following: words that rhyme, alliteration, similes, metaphor, and personification. Merlin was a famous wizard, A ghost who rose fro ancient ground. He could make the mountains mind him Or stop the Earth from spinning round. He could make the wind start singing Songs of King Arthur and Camelot, Or he could make the oceans boil Like magic soup in a golden pot. Alliteration - repeated consonant sounds in a line, phrases, or sentence. Alliteration usually appears at the beginning of words. It sets a rhythm or mood to sentences or phrases. It is fun and pleasing to the ear. Example: Harried and hassled, Hanna hurried home. metaphor – a comparison between two things that are not ordinarily alike. Like other figurative language, metaphors make writing fresh, interesting, moving, humorous, or touching. Examples: Her eyes were deep, purple pools. Writing a poem is opening a can of yourself. Your bedroom is a black hole. 3.Personification – Giving human characteristics to a nonliving object. Personification compares two dissimilar things by attributing human thoughts, feelings, appearances, actions, or attitudes to an object or animal. Example: That toaster reached out it fiery fingers and gobbled up my toast. 4.Simile – A comparison between two unlike things, using The word like or as to connect them. Like other figures of speech, similes make writing fresh, interesting, moving, humorous or touching. They surprise and delight the reader, and make the description more real. Example: My big brother demolishes his food as fast as a garbage disposal. • Onomatopoeia - A literary device wherein the sound of a word echoes the sound it represents. “splash” “knock” “roar” “pow!” “Wow!” “Bang” “sizzle” • Example: the buzz of bees; the hiss of a goose; the crackle of fire. • Card # 1 The Three Toed Tree Toad A tree-toad loved a she-toad Who lived up in a tree. He was a two-toed tree-toad, But a three-toed toad was she. The two-toed tree-toad tried to win The three-toed she-toad's heart, For the two-toed tree-toad loved the ground That the three-toed tree-toad trod. But the two-toed tree-toad tried in vain; He couldn't please her whim. From her tree-toad bower, With her three-toed power, The she-toad vetoed him. Card # 2 Morning is A new sheet of paper For you to write on. Whatever you want to say, all day, Until night Folds it up and files it away. The bright words and the dark words Are gone Until dawn And a new day To write on. • Card # 3 The Cloud I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers, From the seas and the streams: I bear light shade for the leaves when laid In their noonday dreams. From my wings are shaken the dews that waken The sweet buds every one. When rocked to rest on their mother’s breast, As she dances about the sun. I wield the flail of the lashing hail, And whiten the green plains under, And then again I dissolve it in rain. And laugh as I pass in thunder, Percy Bysshe Shelly Card # 4 What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore------ And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or curst and sugar over--- like a syrupy sweet--- Maybe it just sags Like a heavy load. Card # 5 Cafeteria Boom! Went the food trays. Clap! Clap! Goes the teacher. Rip! Went the plastic bag. Munch! Munch! Go the students. Slurp!!! Went the straws. Whisper Is what half the kids in the room are doing. Crunch! Crunch! go the candy bars. By: Rachael Allusions • An allusion is another figure of speech used by writers. An allusion is a kind of comparison. A writer describes one thing by referring to another thing. The reference is usually to a person, place, or thing. The reference can be to things in history, religion, literature , or culture. The writer hopes the reader knows the reference. If so, the reader can better understand what the writer is trying to say. If not, the allusion is not effective. For example, a writer might say. “The man was as strong as Hercules.” • The writer is comparing the strength of the man to the strength of Hercules. If the reader does not know that Hercules was a very strong man in Greek Myths, the allusion does not work. Then the reader might have to look up the reference.
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