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LIFE and resource efficiency
	 	 Decoupling	growth	from	resource	use	
LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



EuropEan Commission
EnvironmEnt DirECtoratE-GEnEral

LIFE (“The Financial Instrument for the Environment”) is a programme launched �y the European Commission and co-ordinated �y
the Environment Directorate-General �L�FE Units - E.3. and E.4.).


The contents of the pu�lication “L�FE and Resource Efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use” do not necessarily reflect the
opinions of the institutions of the European Union.


Authors: Ga�riella Camarsa �Environment expert), Justin Toland, Eamon O’Hara, Tim Hudson, Wendy Jones, Ed Thorpe, Christophe
Thévignot �AE�DL, Communications Team Coordinator). Managing Editor: Hervé Martin, European Commission, Environment DG,
L�FE E.4 – BU-9, 02/1, 200 rue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels. LIFE Focus series coordination: Simon Goss �L�FE Communications
Coordinator), Evelyne Jussiant �DG Environment Communications Coordinator). Technical assistance: Audrey Thénard, Nicolas
Tavitian, Agnese Roccato �Astrale GE�E). The following people also worked on this issue: Al�an De Villepin, Federico Nogara,
Simona Bacchereti, Santiago Urquijo-Zamora, Sylvie Ludain �Environment DG, L�FE Environment and Eco-innovation Unit), Carina
Vopel, Jonathan Murphy �Environment DG, Communication Unit), Ro�in Miege �Environment DG, Green Week Task Force).
Production: Monique Braem �AE�DL). Graphic design: Daniel Renders, Anita Cortés �AE�DL). Photos database: Sophie Brynart.
Acknowledgements: Thanks to all L�FE project �eneficiaries who contri�uted comments, photos and other useful material for this
report. Photos: Unless otherwise specified; photos are from the respective projects.




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Cataloguing data can �e found at the end of this pu�lication.


Luxem�ourg: Pu�lications Office of the European Union, 2011


�SBN 978-92-79-19764-2
�SSN 1725-5619
doi:10.2779/74370


© European Union, 2011
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.


Printed in Belgium


Printed on recycled paper awarded the EU Ecola�el
                                                                                                                                                    


                                           LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                 FOREWORD
                                  R        esource efficiency is a cross-cutting issue that affects our daily lives and economy. We rely
                                           on natural resources to provide us with shelter, food, employment, quality of life and a host of
                                  other services. �n order to protect the long-term availa�ility of these resources, we need to take care
                                  to use them wisely in sustaina�le ways. For this to happen, new approaches are required, approaches
                                  that need to involve long-term considerations aimed at achieving a �etter �alance �etween economic,
                                  environmental and social interests.
Hervé Martin
                                  The L�FE Programme has �een at the forefront of such moves to promote more resource efficient
Head of Unit – LIFE Environment
and Eco-innovation                solutions for today’s environmental challenges, and a large portfolio of good practices in this area has
Directorate-General for
                                  �een gathered �y L�FE since its launch in 1992. A sample of some of these approaches is highlighted
the Environment,
European Commission               in the following L�FE Focus �rochure, which presents some of the practical actions �eing implemented
                                  throughout the EU.

                                  Topics featured in the �rochure span the full sustaina�le development spectrum and aim to illustrate
                                  how L�FE’s �road remit is a�le to assist a multitude of different environmental activities in a variety of
                                  different contexts. Pu�lic, private and voluntary sector organisations throughout Europe have all used
                                  L�FE co-finance for good effect and the results of their efforts are explained in the following articles.
                                  Over 120 L�FE projects are featured, which demonstrates the critical mass of knowledge that is held
                                  �y the Programme in key fields such as waste management techniques, water conservation methods,
                                  energy efficiency options, and lower impact transport. Between them, the L�FE projects that are spot-
                                  lighted in this �rochure offer many opportunities for readers to �uild their own capacity for helping to
                                  shape and safeguard a more resource efficient future for Europe.




                                  R        esource efficiency has a central part to play in Europe’s 2020 strategy for growth and jo�s, and
                                           accordingly the European Commission is launching a num�er of far-reaching new initiatives
                                  in this area. But for many of Europe’s front-runners, greening our society is already a reality: not only
                                  governments and large companies, �ut local actors and small innovative companies too are commit-
                                  ted to the idea, whose strength often comes from the grassroots level. Businesses and organisations
                                  have understood that improving efficiency and innovative products, processes and �usiness models
Robin Miège                       affords valua�le opportunities for increased productivity and growth.
Green Week Task Force
Directorate-General for           While individual companies and organisations can often achieve simple gains in efficiency without
the Environment
                                  massive investment, making sure that good innovative ideas actually reach the market can require
European Commission
                                  su�stantial funds. The L�FE+ programme can play a key role here, helping ensure that a shift to a
                                  resource efficient Europe �ecomes a reality, and acting to relieve or prevent future scarcities of essential
                                  resources such as energy and water. � am pleased to �e a�le to say that �y providing real-life solutions
                                  to real-world pro�lems, the �est L�FE practices featured in this �rochure are an important inspiration
                                  for policymakers, and that moreover, these examples reflect areas where we are considering future
                                  policy action.

                                  A solution to a pro�lem is merely anecdotal, unless the message can �e shared. But when �est prac-
                                  tices �ecome �etter known, major changes can result. That’s why communication has always had a key
                                  role to play in L�FE – and why pu�lications such as this are so important for policymakers and actors
                                  on the ground. This L�FE Focus pu�lication is only one part of L�FE outreach – check out the 2011
                                  Green Week conference and exhi�ition, and the L�FE and Green Week we�sites for more examples of
                                  good practices �eing shared.
 


           LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
CONTENTS




           introduction ........................ 3      Water efficiency ................ 29        Food and beverage
                                                                                                    resource efficiency ............ 51
             Building a resource                          Water - an essential
             efficient Europe ....................3       component of L�FE ............ 29           L�FE turns food for
                                                                                                      thought into action .............51
           production processes .......... 5            sustainable transport ........ 33
                                                                                                    agriculture and ecosystem
             L�FE producing resource                      A cleaner and more
                                                                                                    services ............................. 55
             efficient industrial growth .....5           efficient transport system ...33
                                                                                                      L�FE aids agriculture to pre-
             ME�GLASS �rings
                                                        Energy efficient buildings .. 37              serve resources .................55
             new L�FE to waste glass ....10
                                                          L�FE helps �oosts the                       Conservation agriculture
                                                          energy efficiency of EU                     reduces soil erosion in
           Eco-products and
                                                          �uilding stock .....................37      Andalusian wetlands ..........59
           eco-design ........................ 13
                                                          Taking the risk out of
             L�FE conserving resources in
                                                          resource efficiency                       Green public procurement
             product design, production,
                                                          investments ........................41    and Green skills ................ 62
             use and disposal ................13
                                                                                                      L�FE shows the
             L�FE helps drive greener                   Fish and marine                               environmental �enefits
             tyre making .........................18    resources ........................... 43      of GPP ................................62
                                                          Protecting Europe’s fisheries
           lifecycle thinking .............. 21                                                     project list ......................... 64
                                                          and marine resources ........43
             Lifecycle thinking - a key
                                                          No discards, zero waste .....46
             thought of L�FE ...................21
                                                                                                    available liFE Environment
             ACADEMY: managing                          land use and planning ...... 49             publications ...................... 69
             the lifecycle of complex
                                                          Planning for a more resource
             products .............................26
                                                          efficient European
                                                          landscape ...........................49
                                                                                                                                                    


                                                   LIFE Focus   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




Building a resource




                                                                                                                                                INTRODUCTION
     efficient Europe

                        The concept of resource efficiency emphasises a need to use the Earth’s limited

                        resources in a sustainable manner. For Europe to have a vibrant economy and a high

                        quality of life, we need a sustainable base of raw materials and resources. However,

                        our economic growth patterns continue to exert increasing pressures on EU resource

                        bases. As such it is becoming more and more important that we improve our ability to

                        live, produce and consume within the limits of our ecosystem.




T    he EU’s Europe 2020 Strategy1 for
     growth sets the priority of moving
to a more resource efficient, green and
                                                      affects all aspects of our daily lives.
                                                      Hence, coordination is needed at EU
                                                      level as well as in Mem�er States at
                                                                                                    taina�le resource use ha�its. Resource
                                                                                                    efficiency is as relevant for Europe’s
                                                                                                    ur�an areas as it is to rural communities
competitive economy. Under the Europe                 national, regional and local levels. Prac-    and the wider countryside. Everyone is
2020 strategy, the Flagship �nitiative for a          tical action at Mem�er State level will �e    affected �y the environmental challenges
resource efficient Europe2 has �een intro-            particularly important and the su�sidiarity   that we face and everyone can make
duced to help the EU achieve sustaina�le              principle remains essential to ensure that    their own positive contri�utions to help
growth �y ‘decoupling’ economic growth                appropriate solutions are put in place at     achieve the Flagship’s goals.
from increasing resource use.                         appropriate times, in appropriate ways,
                                                      in appropriate places.                        Uptake of these resource efficient
The Flagship �nitiative sets out a vision                                                           approaches can �e assisted �y raising
for a more resource-efficient economy �y              Empowering the participation of private       awareness of the long-term �enefits that
2050. �t proposes new policy initiatives3             sector stakeholders, citizens, consumers      are possi�le from adopting sustaina�le
that will stimulate greater innovation for            and NGOs is also fundamental for turn-        approaches. There are many examples
short-term and long-term economic and                 ing around Europe’s increasingly unsus-       of how the wise use of environmental
environmental �enefits4. �t also allows
for the development of a set of tools
                                                      The LIFE programme has a long track record of innovative approaches for building
for policymakers to drive and monitor                 a resource efficient Europe
progress.


The Flagship recognises that resource
efficiency is a cross-cutting issue that


 COM (200) 2020 Communication from the
Commissions Europe 2020 – A strategy for
smart, sustainable and inclusive growth
2 COM (20) 2 final A resource-efficient
Europe – Flagship Initiative under the Europe
2020 strategy
 The proposals that have been adopted
are: Energy 2020: A strategy for competitive,
sustainable and secure energy, Energy infra-
structure priorities for 2020 and beyond – A
Blueprint for an integrated European energy
network and Tackling the challenges in com-
modity markets and on raw materials
 The Flagship Initiative for a resource effi-
cient Europe provides a long-term framework
for actions in many policy areas, supporting
policy agendas for climate change, energy,
transport, industry, raw materials, agriculture,
fisheries, biodiversity and regional develop-
ment. Links to the key proposals can be
found at http://ec.europa.eu/resource-effi-
cient-europe/
  


               LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



               assets can strengthen the resilience of       This will require a mix of instruments that    energy, transport, industry and agricul-
INTRODUCTION




               our economies and secure growth and           act together in complementary ways to          ture are all also needed to facilitate the
               jo�s �y �oosting competitiveness. At          help increase the sta�ility and security       resource efficiency Flagship o�jectives.
               the same time, resource efficiency has        of energy supplies whilst halting energy       Eco-innovations not only come from
               �een shown to help drive down costs,          production systems that impact most            technological advances, �ut �y apply-
               improve productivity, stimulate innova-       negatively on the environment. Waste           ing new �usiness models and novel
               tion, and support employment, espe-           minimisation is also seen as central to        ways of thinking.
               cially in growth areas such as the ‘green     the EU’s resource efficiency agenda. By
               technology’ sector.                           increasing recycling rates the pressure        �ncentives can further assist a speedy
                                                             on primary raw materials will reduce.          uptake of these multi-level structural
               Timing for wider adoption of resource         Furthermore, improved waste manage-            changes in consumer �ehaviour and pro-
               efficient principles is important as pres-    ment systems can ensure that valua�le          duction patterns. �ncentives can come in
               sures on our resources rise in line with      materials are reused, there�y reduc-           different forms and more policy empha-
               increases in wealth and population            ing energy consumption and green-              sis on measures that ensure commodity
               growth in an ever industrialising world.      house gas emissions from extraction            prices reflect the “full cost of resource
               This is one of the core glo�al challenges     and processing.                                use to society” will help market forces
               that must �e faced now. �f we do not act                                                     promote resource efficiency.
               assertively in the present the pro�lems       Other pieces of the resource efficiency
               will �e exacer�ated and tackling them         jigsaw relate to industry and consumers.       rEsourCE EFFiCiEnt liFE
               will �ecome even more difficult in the        These primary stakeholders need to �e          projECts
               future.                                       mo�ilised to make them less dependant
                                                             on the availa�ility of certain resources       The L�FE programme has a long track
               aCtion on all lEvEls                          and so less vulnera�le to supply con-          record of pioneering effective approaches
                                                             straints and volatile market prices. Attrac-   for �uilding a resource efficient Europe.
               Recognising the multi-level complex-          tive alternatives are required to convert      L�FE has generated a vast portfolio of
               ity of resource efficiency, the Flagship’s    this rhetoric into reality and stakeholders    know-how in resource efficiency meth-
               mandate stretches across a far reaching       need to possess the capacity to make           ods for a diverse range of �eneficiaries.
               remit of material resources, including        the necessary changes.
               metals, minerals, food and feed, air, soil,                                                  LCA approaches, skills transfers and
               water, �iomass and ecosystems.                Lifecycle analysis �LCA) can help make         eco-innovations feature prominently in
                                                             products and services more ‘material           L�FE’s wide-ranging portfolio, which con-
               Some of the main o�jectives refer to          efficient’ �y reducing energy demands          tinues to find new ways of lightening and
               enhanced energy efficiency. Here the          and lowering raw material inputs. Tech-        lessening our environmental footprints
               Flagship aims to achieve a transition to      nological improvements, via eco-inno-          in order to achieve a more resource effi-
               a resource and car�on efficient society.      vations, in high impact sectors such as        cient Europe.


               LIFE projects have developed techniques that increase recycling rates, thereby reducing pressure on primary raw materials                 Photo: Justin Toland and L�FE06 ENV/�T/000332
                                                                                                                                                                       


                                          LIFE Focus                                  I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




LIFE	producing	resource
      efficient industrial
      growth

                     Policy on resources needs to take account of the value chain and the full lifecycle of

                     resource use. How products are produced is a key part of this. The LIFE programme

                     has been at the forefront of efforts to implement resource efficient and innovative pro-

                     duction processes at all stages of the lifecycle, from extraction to end-of-life.




O        ver the past 10 years resource
         productivity has improved 2.2%
per year. This is largely due to efficiency
                                                                            include actions to address resource
                                                                            efficiency.
                                                                                                                          WatEr EFFiCiEnt
                                                                                                                          manuFaCturinG

improvements in production, as well as                                      Effective planning of production proc-        For instance, tightening water supply,
the increasing role of services in the                                      esses can ensure that a range of              caused �y competition for water, could
economy. However, market rewards for                                        resources are used more effectively.          mean disruption of production processes
production changes and further impetus                                      Resource efficient production is not          or higher input costs, with severe eco-
to resource efficient and eco-innova-                                       merely desira�le, however: it is �ecom-       nomic damage. This highlights the vital
tive production processes are needed                                        ing increasingly essential.                   importance of water efficiency in produc-
to reduce dependency on raw materials                                                                                     tion processes, something that the L�FE
and to encourage optimal resource use                                       LIFE funding has helped resource efficiency
                                                                                                                          programme has helped implement across
and recycling1.                                                             in production processes across a wide         a wide range of industrial sectors.
                                                                            range of industrial sectors
The European Commission proposes a                                                                                        The ‘wet process’ stages of textiles pro-
                                              Photo: L�FE99 ENV/�T/000034




fresh approach to industrial policy that                                                                                  duction are extremely water intensive
puts competitiveness and sustaina�il-                                                                                     �typically requiring 4 litres/kg of fa�ric
ity centre stage. “The whole value and                                                                                    produced2) and generating large volumes
supply chain must �e considered, from                                                                                     of discharged wastewater. Treatment and
access to energy and raw materials to                                                                                     reuse of this water would not only reduce
after-sale services and the recycling                                                                                     stress on water resources for industry,
of materials.” The upcoming review                                                                                        it could also increase the availa�ility of
of the Sustaina�le Consumption and                                                                                        drinking water in some areas. Since most
Production and Sustaina�le �ndustry                                                                                       textiles producers are small and medium-
Policy Action Plan foreseen in 2012 will                                                                                  sized enterprises, they often lack the


 COM(2008) 97 final on the Sustainable                                                                                  2 Water Conservation in Textile Industry,
Consumption and Production and Sustainable                                                                                Muhammad Ayaz Shaikh, Assistant Profes-
Industrial Policy Action Plan                                                                                             sor, College of Textile Engineering, SFDAC
  


                       LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                       resources to implement state-of-the-art
PRODUCTION PROCESSES




                       environmental procedures. However,
                       several L�FE projects have shown how
                       this can �e achieved.


                       �n �taly, the PROWATER project �LIFE04
                       ENV/IT/000583) developed prototypes
                       for effluent treatment and reuse in pilot
                       sites at four textiles plants. Wastewa-
                       ter was treated using physical-chemi-
                       cal processes �coagulation and lamel-
                       lar sedimentation or flotation) and
                       innovative mem�rane technologies.
                       These techniques exceeded targets for
                       removal of surfactants �62%, against a
                       target of 50%) and colour �98%, against
                       a target of 85%), whilst also meeting
                       targets for the removal of other pollut-
                                                                   Photo: L�FE05 ENV/E/000285




                       ants, such as chemical oxygen demand
                       �COD) and total suspended solids
                       �TSS). The treated wastewater was then
                       reused in production processes includ-
                       ing fa�rics softening, reducing overall
                       water consumption �y 40%. �f imple-                                 The LIFE RESITEX project demonstrated how water savings can be achieved in the
                       mented across Europe on an industrial                               textile sector
                       scale, the PROWATER team calculates
                       potential water savings of 44 million                               A su�sequent �talian textiles sec-                                         ried out to ascertain which effluents were
                       m3/yr. The technology can also reduce                               tor project, BATTLE �LIFE05 ENV/                                           potentially reusa�le and which were not.
                       costs and has a pay�ack time of five                                IT/000846), attempted to design and                                        Based on this analysis, the most cost-
                       years. Enhanced cost effectiveness will                             demonstrate a new �est availa�le tech-                                     efficient technology for water reclamation
                       help generate new employment oppor-                                 nique �BAT) for efficient wastewater                                       was selected and different water reuse
                       tunities for European industries and                                reuse in the textile industry. An analysis                                 schemes were designed for cost/�enefit
                       also improve competitiveness against                                of production processes at Stamperia                                       comparisons. A pilot plant was then con-
                       low-wage textile producing countries                                di Martinengo, a medium-sized textile                                      structed to demonstrate the applica�ility
                       and enhance green credentials.                                      finishing factory in Lom�ardy, was car-                                    of the technologies in practice. This plant
                                                                                                                                                                      treated some 500 m3/day of process efflu-
                                                                                                                                                                      ents, producing 374 m3/day of recovered
                       The HAGAR project reduced consumption of high-quality water for the marble extraction
                                                                                                                                                                      water on average. Most significantly, the
                       industry in Hebron
                                                                                                                                                                      project’s findings also fed into the proc-
                                                                                                                                        Photo: L�FE05 TCY/GA/000115




                                                                                                                                                                      ess for developing new BREF reference
                                                                                                                                                                      guidelines for the textiles sector, helping
                                                                                                                                                                      improve water efficiency across the EU.


                                                                                                                                                                      Efficient water use was just one aspect of
                                                                                                                                                                      L�FE RES�TEX �LIFE05 ENV/E/000285),
                                                                                                                                                                      a Spanish textiles industry project that
                                                                                                                                                                      developed and tested �est availa�le
                                                                                                                                                                      techniques �BAT) for waste management
                                                                                                                                                                      that could �e applied to all textiles su�-
                                                                                                                                                                      sectors. The key output of the project
                                                                                                                                                                      was a guide�ook: “Procedure for Waste
                                                                                                                                                                      Management in the Textile Sector”, which
                                                                                                                                                                      provided advice on good management
                                                                                                                                                                      practices �e.g. how water savings can �e
                                                                                                                                                                      made �y moving from light to dark colours
                                                                                                                                                                      during a production cycle); selection and
                                                                                                                                                                      su�stitution of chemicals; equipment and
                                                                                                                                                                      new technologies; and ways of minimis-
                                                                                                                                                                              


                                                                        LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                                           PRODUCTION PROCESSES
Photo: L�FE04 ENV/�T/000414




                              Significant reductions in the use of chemicals, water and energy were achieved in the tanning sector thanks to the N.E.S.S project


                              ing resources and making use of recycling       The plant now discharges 8 000 m3/day           aims to demonstrate the effectiveness
                              opportunities �including guidance on how        of wastewater that can �e recycled and          of replacing polluting and potentially
                              to recover and reuse printing pastes or         used in agriculture and industry.               carcinogenic chrome tannage with an
                              rinsing water and how to use �iological                                                         environmentally friendly ‘oxazolidine’
                              sludge on agricultural land).                   The N.E.S.S. project �LIFE04 ENV/               tanning agent com�ined with other veg-
                                                                              IT/000414) implemented process                  eta�le or synthetic agents. The project
                              The guide�ook developed �y the RES�-            improvements at a factory in �taly spe-         will promote its ‘chrome-free’ leathers to
                              TEX project will help Europe’s textiles         cialising in the skin finishing stage of the    tanning, footwear and upholstery com-
                              SMEs reduce their waste, and keep               tanning production cycle, drawing on the        panies in Spain, �taly and Slovenia.
                              costs down while complying with envi-           BAT developed �y the earlier L�FE G�ADA
                              ronmental legislation, something that will      project �LIFE00 ENV/IT/000184). The             rEsourCE EFFiCiEnCy From
                              �e increasingly important as the sector         redesigned finishing line achieved signifi-     bEGinninG to EnD-oF-liFE
                              faces greater competition from low-wage         cant reductions in the use of chemicals
                              producers in China and �ndia.                   �95% - and consequently a 28% reduc-            There is a window of opportunity for
                                                                              tion in emissions of volatile organic com-      the EU to influence production and
                              HElpinG lEatHEr look                            pounds), water �up to 75%) and electric-        resource standards in developing coun-
                              bEttEr                                          ity �up to 95%), as well as in the amount       tries through EU market compliance
                                                                              of waste sludge generated �up to 98%).          standards. This o�liges countries aim-
                              The same could also �e said of the              Working conditions were also improved           ing to enter the EU market to comply
                              leather/tanneries industry which, with          thanks to noise a�atement measures              with these standards. L�FE, through its
                              L�FE’s assistance, has �egun taking             �cutting acoustic pollution �y 85%) and         Third Countries strand, has provided an
                              steps to decouple its resource use from         the introduction of water-�ased, rather         impetus towards this goal. For instance,
                              its economic growth. �mproving water            than solvent-�ased colours. Finally, the        the HAGAR project in Gaza �LIFE05
                              efficiency was again the goal of a L�FE         process improvements also reduced               TCY/GA/000115) worked closely with
                              project in Lorca, Murcia �LIFE02 ENV/           operating costs and the time required           the �talian mar�le industry to esta�-
                              E/000216), where some 40% of Spanish            for skin finishing.                             lish new environmental procedures in
                              leather production takes place. L�FE sup-                                                       He�ron municipality and address pro�-
                              port ena�led the construction of a �io-         A current L�FE Environment project in           lems associated with the treatment of
                              logical water treatment plant that used         Spain �LIFE08 ENV/E/000140) is simi-            de�ris, sludge and water from mar�le
                              ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis tech-      larly implementing process improve-             extraction. Measures such as the con-
                              niques to �ring tannery effluent within         ments that should make more efficient           struction of a prototype plant for recy-
                              legal limits and ena�le its safe disposal.      use of resources. The OXATAN project            cling industrial wastewater and separat-
  


                       LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
PRODUCTION PROCESSES




                                                                                                                                                                                          Photo: L�FE02 ENV/UK/000140
                       The INWATCO project developed innovative techniques and a Good Practice Guide for integrated management of groundwater, which
                       are important tools for implementing the EU Water Framework Directive


                       ing calcium car�onate have contri�uted                                    regions of Europe where coalfield drain-    gains at the initial phase of production
                       to a reduction in the consumption of                                      age is a major consideration and has        �extraction). Yet, equally L�FE is playing
                       high-quality water, as well as limiting                                   attracted widespread interest.              its part in the development of a resource
                       pollution in soil and underground reser-                                                                              efficient economy �ased around recy-
                       voirs from the stone sludge.                                              Poor materials management leads to          cling and reuse of end-of-life products.
                                                                                                 significant wastage in the economy,         The OXATAN project is one good exam-
                       Another L�FE project that tackled the                                     with great economic cost. �mproving         ple of this; another is ELVES �LIFE05
                       environmental impacts of extraction                                       material efficiency requires lifecycle      ENV/E/000317), a Spanish project
                       industries was �NWATCO in the UK                                          and value chain perspectives. We have       that developed a system for separat-
                       �LIFE02 ENV/UK/000140), which dem-                                        already seen how the L�FE programme         ing metal alloys from end-of-life vehi-
                       onstrated and evaluated innovative                                        is helping to realise resource efficiency   cle �ELV) engines and reusing them in
                       techniques and procedures for inte-
                       grated management of groundwater                                          INWATCO demonstrated that groundwater systems that interact with mine workings can
                       resources in former coal mining areas.                                    be managed to ensure good water quality
                       A river �asin catchment-scale demon-
                                                                   Photo: L�FE02 ENV/UK/000140




                       stration project took place in Wake-
                       field �UK), with supporting activities in
                       Romania, to assess the applica�ility of
                       the project methodology to all major
                       European coal mining regions. Data
                       from �NWATCO’s comprehensive water
                       sampling and analysis programme were
                       used to evaluate potential minewater
                       management options and the relation-
                       ship �etween minewater systems and
                       the wider surface water and groundwa-
                       ter content. This information fed into
                       a Good Practice Guide on integrated
                       water resource management in former
                       coal mining regions. The guide is an
                       important tool for implementing the EU
                       Water Framework Directive in the many
                                                                                                                                                                                                 


                                          LIFE Focus                                I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                                                kcal/tonne of product, a massive con-




                                                                                                                                                                                              PRODUCTION PROCESSES
                                                                                                                                                tri�ution to resource efficiency.


                                                                                                                                                L�FE continues to work to improve the
                                                                                                                                                energy efficiency of other areas of the
                                                                                                                                                metals industry and elsewhere, for
                                                                                                                                                instance, �y helping companies develop
                                                                                                                                                new, energy and resource efficient prod-
                                                                                                                                                ucts that could lead to widespread proc-
                                                                                                                                                ess improvements. The L�FE Green Bear-
                                                                                                                                                ings project �LIFE06 ENV/NL/000176)
                                                                                                                                                is just one example. An estimated 50
                                                                                                                                                �illion �earings3 are installed in machin-




                                                                                                                   Photo: L�FE08 ENV/E/000140
                                                                                                                                                ery worldwide. This means that even
                                                                                                                                                small frictional power savings per �ear-
                                                                                                                                                ing amount to enormous glo�al - and
                                                                                                                                                European - power savings. L�FE Green
                                                                                                                                                Bearings introduced thin film lu�rication,
                                                                                                                                                lightweight polymers and improved seal
‘Chrome-free’ leathers for tanning, footwear and upholstery companies in Spain, Italy and                                                       technologies �e.g. hard seal coating) to
Slovenia will be produced by the OXATAN project                                                                                                 deliver energy reductions of 30-70%,
                                                                                                                                                depending on the �earing and load.
new auto parts and engines. A facility                                     an innovative cold-drawing system for                                Project �eneficiary SKF calculates that
capa�le of treating 33 000 tonnes/yr of                                    the production of steel wire rod that has                            a 50% implementation of its Energy
ELV engines with 99% efficiency was                                        drastically cut energy consumption and                               Efficient Bearings among existing cus-
�uilt, kickstarting a new market in the                                    the production of dangerous chemical                                 tomers would reduce energy consump-
process. The L�FE co-funded factory is                                     wastes. �f the techniques developed �y                               tion �y 4 000 GWh/yr and disposal of
a�le to recover more than 5 100 tonnes                                     this L�FE Environment “Best of the Best”                             waste lu�ricants �y 4 million tonnes/yr in
of aluminium per year, decreasing EU                                       project 2008-2009 were implemented                                   Europe. The su�stantial energy savings,
dependence on foreign raw material                                         throughout �taly, a country that proc-                               reduction of lu�ricant use and increase
imports as a result.                                                       esses 1.7 million tonnes/yr of steel wire                            of product longevity are also calculated
                                                                           rod, it would lead to environmental sav-                             to �ring economic �enefits to customers
tHE bEnEFits oF EnErGy                                                     ings of 72 000 tonnes/yr of water con-                               in less than five years.
EFFiCiEnCy                                                                 sumption; 6 400 tonnes/yr of sulphuric
                                                                           acid and 1 900 tonnes/yr of hydrochlo-
                                                                                                                                                 A part of a machine designed to reduce
�mproving the energy efficiency of pro-                                    ric acid production, and a reduction in                              friction between moving parts or to support
duction processes has �een one of the                                      energy consumption of some 430 000                                   moving loads.
success stories of the L�FE programme,
particularly for the most energy-inten-                                    Energy Efficient Bearings could reduce energy consumption by  000 GWh/yr and disposal
sive sectors such as the metals indus-                                     of waste lubricants by  million tonnes/yr in Europe
try. For instance �NCOCAST �LIFE05
                                             Photo: L�FE06 ENV/NL/000176




ENV/D/000185), a “Best” L�FE Envi-
ronment project for 2007-2008, sought
to demonstrate the effectiveness of
an alternative process to the cold-�ox
technique used �y most foundries for
casting aluminium. The project signifi-
cantly reduced energy consumption,
emissions, deposits and wastewater
through its ‘inorganic warm �ox’ cast-
ing technique and laid the foundations
for the future use of this method in the
mass production of more resource effi-
cient aluminium engine �locks and cyl-
inder heads.


The �talian New ESD project �LIFE04
ENV/IT/000598) developed and tested
  0


                       LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
PRODUCTION PROCESSES




                       MEIGLASS	brings	new LIFE
                           to waste glass
                                             This groundbreaking Italian LIFE project has established the first factory in Europe tur-

                                             ning the unwanted waste fraction of recycled glass bottles into raw materials for the

                                             glass container, ceramics and bricks industries.




                       R       ecycling of glass �ottles is now
                               a long-esta�lished practice in
                       Europe. Yet the average citizen is pro�-
                                                                      centage is likely to increase as the hollow
                                                                      glass industry demands oven-ready cullet
                                                                      that will ena�le it to produce containers
                                                                                                                                         ence processing mined minerals, in 2003
                                                                                                                                         the �talian company SAS�L SpA �egan
                                                                                                                                         trials of a new process that promised to
                       a�ly unaware that recycled glass produc-       with even greater resistance to thermal                            revolutionise the raw material use of the
                       ers also generate significant waste. Some      shock and mechanical stresses. “�f the                             glass container industry, with significant
                       23-25% of glass from pu�lic collection         glass industry wants �etter quality cullet it                      resource efficiencies all round.
                       points is rejected �y the glass container      has to reject more,” says Dr. Piero Ercole,
                       industry and sent to landfill �ecause of       scientific and technical director of the                           As project manager Paolo Bertuzzi
                       impurities in the cullet �the technical name   ME�GLASS project and president of AT�V,                            explains, SAS�L’s aim was to clean the
                       for crushed waste glass that is ready to �e    the �talian technical association of glass                         reject cullet and then grind and sieve it
                       remelted into new �ottles etc). This per-      producers. Drawing on its long experi-                             into pieces of 70-800 microns �0.07-0.8
                                                                                                                                         mm) – so called ‘glassy sand’ – which
                       Project manager Paolo Bertuzzi explains more about LIFE MEIGLASS                                                  could �e melted without pro�lems during
                                                                                                                                         glass container manufacturing.
                                                                                                                  Photo: Justin Toland




                                                                                                                                         With the support of L�FE, SAS�L was
                                                                                                                                         a�le to invest in upgrades to its facility in
                                                                                                                                         Brusnengo, Piedmont, that would allow
                                                                                                                                         it to implement its new process on an
                                                                                                                                         industrial scale. L�FE co-funding was to
                                                                                                                                         �e invested in three areas: a wastewater
                                                                                                                                         treatment plant; a pyrolysis plant gener-
                                                                                                                                         ating heat and power from waste plastic
                                                                                                                                         separated from the dirty cullet during
                                                                                                                                         glassy sand manufacturing; and in prod-
                                                                                                                                         uct development and testing.


                                                                                                                                         SAS�L’s new water purification plant
                                                                                                                                         offers significant resource efficiencies,
                                                                                                                                                                       


                                            LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                        lEss rEsourCEs, morE




                                                                                                                                                                       PRODUCTION PROCESSES
                                                                                                                        quality

                                                                                                                        L�FE ME�GLASS has generated sig-
                                                                                                                        nificant environmental �enefits. These
                                                                                                                        include a reduction in the amount of
                                                                                                                        cullet going to landfill of some 20 truck
                                                                                                                        loads per day �from 25% to 2%). The
                                                                                                                        180 000 tonnes/yr of waste cullet now
                                                                                                                        reused �y SAS�L means that 300 000




                                                                                                 Photo: Justin Toland
                                                                                                                        tonnes/yr less material needs to �e
                                                                                                                        mined for the glass container industry, a
                                                                                                                        significant raw material saving. Further-
                                                                                                                        more, every tonne of glassy sand used
Washing is one part of the process of turning reject cullet into glassy sand
                                                                                                                        in the furnace saves 300 kg of CO2. This
                                                                                                                        means in 2008, SAS�L helped the con-
as it allows the company to recycle 90%          another example of the resource effi-                                  tainer industry avoid generating 43 500
of its process water, greatly reducing           ciency of the ME�GLASS process, since                                  tonnes of CO2, equivalent to taking 26
the need for fresh water during glassy           it is made up of pieces of less than 70                                000 cars with a Euro 4 engine off the
sand manufacturing �just 10% of the              microns which would float on the surface                               road for a year.
process water - lost through evapora-            and reflect heat if melted in a furnace for
tion - must �e replaced).                        glassmaking. �nstead, these fine gran-                                 Other �enefits of using glassy sand
                                                 ules are separated �y an air stream and                                include the fact that it has a chemical
Following teething pro�lems with the             mixed with feldspar for sale to the ceram-                             oxygen demand �COD) 10 times lower
initial design, SAS�L plans to start up its      ics industry, where they are used as an                                than standard furnace-ready cullet �a
pyrolysis plant in 2011. The oil and the gas     alkali carrier. A further 5% of production, a                          COD of 100 mg/l as opposed to 1 000
generated �y the low temperature plant           water suspension of very fine sand mixed                               mg/l) and 25 times lower than that of the
�450-500° C ) will feed a tur�ine that will      with clay, is sold to the �rick industry.                              cullet rejects.
generate 2 MW of heat for SAS�L’s drying
processes and 1 MW of electric power.            The process is very flexi�le, allowing                                 �ncreasing the quantity of glassy sand
                                                 SAS�L to change the ratios of glassy and                               has also �een found to reduce the energy
Most significantly though, L�FE support          ceramic sand in line with market needs.                                consumption in the furnace per kilo of
has �een used to optimise the technical          The company is also �uilding on the L�FE                               glass produced �y some 5%. “The melt-
quality not only of glassy sand, �ut also        ME�GLASS project �y investigating the                                  ing furnace’s specific energy consump-
of two other products generated �y the           possi�ility of mixing the fine particles                               tion is reduced �y a�out 0.67% for each
process of cleaning and grinding of dirty        �under 70 microns) with larger granules                                percentage of glassy sand used instead
cullet - ‘ceramic sand’ and ‘�rick sand’.        to allow even more cullet to �e returned                               of natural raw materials,” notes Dr. Ercole.
Ceramic sand, which accounts for some            to the glass industry. The first test results                          Furthermore, as Mr. Bertuzzi indicates,
25% of the output of SAS�L’s plant, is           are “very promising” says Dr. Ercole.                                  “decreasing the amount of ceramic
                                                                                                                        stones is a �ig challenge for glass fac-
Project beneficiary SASIL SpA is capable of producing up to 200 000 tonnes/yr of glassy                                 tories - with glassy sand they o�tain this
sand for the glass bottle industry                                                                                      effect.” Trials show that with 3% glassy
                                                                                                                        sand and 47% furnace-ready cullet,
                                                                                                 Photo: Justin Toland




                                                                                                                        there were an average of 0.24 ceramic
                                                                                                                        stones/tonne of glass pulled; when the
                                                                                                                        mix was changed to 18% glassy sand
                                                                                                                        and 32% furnace-ready cullet, the ratio
                                                                                                                        of stones dropped to 0.09/tonne of glass
                                                                                                                        pulled.


                                                                                                                        Significantly, tests have shown that
                                                                                                                        glassy sand can also improve the quality
                                                                                                                        of glass containers. Results from the field
                                                                                                                        indicate that when 25% glassy sand is
                                                                                                                        used in the �atch, the internal pressure
                                                                                                                        resistance of �ottles is 9% higher under
                                                                                                                        the same thermal and forming condi-
                                                                                                                        tions. “Glassy sand also ena�les �etter
  


                       LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                                         let to improve its properties and allow
PRODUCTION PROCESSES




                                                                                                                                         colour separation of glass �which does
                                                                                                                                         not happen at source in �taly). �n addi-
                                                                                                                                         tion, one of SAS�L’s existing customers
                                                                                                                                         is now aiming to recover civil demolition
                                                                                                                                         waste glass and car windscreens and
                                                                                                                                         use glassy sand to produce flat glass.
                                                                                                                                         “This is a very important development,”
                                                                                                                                         says Dr Ercole. “Very little flat glass is
                                                                                                                                         recycled today.”


                                                                                                                                         SAS�L is looking to develop other, new,




                                                                                                                  Photo: Justin Toland
                                                                                                                                         resource efficient products and proc-
                                                                                                                                         esses from waste glass. Now, with
                                                                                                                                         further support from L�FE, the NOVED�
                                                                                                                                         project �LIFE07 ENV/IT/000361) sees
                       With LIFE support, SASIL SpA has established the first plant in Europe capable of                                 the company in the process of devel-
                       generating new raw materials from waste cullet                                                                    oping a lightweight insulation material
                                                                                                                                         made from art and mosaic glass, light
                       control of oxy-reduction reactions and         at events in Croatia, Finland and even                             �ul�s, cathode ray tu�es and compu-
                       consequent higher consistency �oth in          Vietnam ��y project partner Joanneum                               ter screens, all forms of glass that can-
                       colour and in infrared light a�sorption,”      Research), as well as in �taly. “Other                             not �e used to make glass containers
                       explains Dr. Ercole. The result, he says, is   firms can learn from how SAS�L per-                                �ecause of their high lead and fluorine
                       that “there is more consistent �ehaviour       suaded the glass industry of the �enefits                          content.
                       of the glass in forming processes thanks       of glassy sand,” �elieves Dr. Ercole.
                       to the improved chemical and thermal                                                                              With the VAL�RE project to recycle
                       homogeneity.”                                  As a sign of its success, sales of glassy                          incinerator residues into high-value
                                                                      sand have increased from 6 235 tonnes                              �uilding materials �LIFE08 ENV/
                       sprEaDinG tHE mEssaGE                          in 2003 to 144 337 tonnes in 2008, and                             IT/000421) also in the pipeline, SAS�L
                                                                      SAS�L’s factory is today capa�le of pro-                           is showing just how far it is possi�le to
                       Results of the ME�GLASS project have           ducing 200 000 tonnes/yr. The company                              take resource efficiency in manufactur-
                       �een widely disseminated, with sev-            is also looking to extend its resource                             ing. As CEO Lodovico Ramon is keen
                       eral articles in technical journals and        efficient process into new areas, includ-                          to stress: “Waste is the raw material of
                       local newspapers, and presentations            ing the washing of furnace-ready cul-                              the future.”


                       After MEIGLASS, NOVEDI: Paolo Bertuzzi shows off a display about SASIL’s latest LIFE
                       project
                                                                                                                  Photo: Justin Toland




                                                                                                                                                              ITALY
                                                                                                                                            Project number: L�FE06 ENV/�T/000332
                                                                                                                                            Title: Minimising the Environmental �mpact
                                                                                                                                            of GLASS recycling and glass container
                                                                                                                                            production
                                                                                                                                            Beneficiary: SAS�L SpA
                                                                                                                                            Contact: Paolo Bertuzzi
                                                                                                                                            Email: c�ertuzzi@sasil-life.com
                                                                                                                                            Website: http://www.sasil-life.com/
                                                                                                                                            Period: Dec-2005 to Dec-2009
                                                                                                                                            Total budget: e6 065 000
                                                                                                                                            LIFE contribution: e1 144 000
                                                                                                                                          


                                          LIFE Focus    I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




LIFE	conserving	resources
     in product design,
      production, use and
      disposal
                     Current patterns of consumption and production have significant environmental

                     impacts, including the emission of greenhouse gases, pollution and the depletion of

                     natural resources. Much can be done to make consumption and production in Europe

                     more resource efficient. LIFE has an important role to play in supporting EU actions

                     and proposals to improve the environmental performance of products and to stimulate

                     demand for more sustainable goods and production technologies.




I   t is estimated that over 80% of
    all product-related environmen-
tal impacts are determined during the
                                              Plan �July 2008) provides a framework to
                                              improve the energy and environmental
                                              performance of products and to help
                                                                                             As many of the following L�FE project
                                                                                             examples show, the efficient use of
                                                                                             resources �whether for production, use
design phase of a product. Against this       consumers make �etter choices. Build-          or disposal) can �e good for �usiness
�ackground, eco-design aims to reduce         ing on earlier EU policies and initiatives,    as well as for the environment, particu-
the environmental impacts of products,        it includes extensions to the scope of the     larly as the glo�al market for environ-
including energy consumption, through-        Eco-design and La�elling directives and        mental industries is expected to grow
out their entire lifecycle.                   Ecola�el Regulation, as well as significant    to €200 �illion �y 20201.
                                              revisions to the voluntary eco-manage-
Apart from changing the user’s �ehaviour,     ment and audit scheme �EMAS ��).               savinG EnErGy … anD
there are two ways of reducing the energy                                                    valuablE rEsourCEs
consumed in products: la�elling to raise      A European Commission review of the
consumer awareness of the real energy         Action Plan is expected in 2012, includ-       L�FE has provided financial support to
use in order to influence �uying decisions,   ing assessment of the new Eco-design           enterprises across Europe seeking to
such as la�elling schemes for domestic        Directive �2009/125/EC), which has �een        explore more energy and resource efficient
appliances; and energy-efficiency require-    extended so that it covers not only energy-    production methods and processes.
ments imposed on products from the            using products �EuPs) on the EU market,
early stage of the design phase.              such as computers, televisions, �oilers,
                                              and industrial fans; �ut also energy-related
Eu aCtion                                     products �adding products that don’t con-
                                              sume energy during use, �ut have an indi-       http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleases
                                                                                             Action.do?reference=MEMO/08/
The EU’s Sustaina�le Consumption and          rect impact on energy consumption, such        507&format=HTML&aged=0&language=
Production / Sustaina�le �ndustries Action    as taps and window frames).                    EN&guiLanguage=en
   


                              LIFE Focus       I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                                                                                         strated that small quantities �1-10%) of
ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN




                                                                                                                                                                                         sludge from wastewater treatment plants
                                                                                                                                                                                         could �e mixed with the clay material
                                                                                                                                                                                         traditionally used to produce �ricks.
                                                                                                                                                                                         According to the project �eneficiary, the
                                                                                                                                                                                         concept, which replaces conventional
                                                                                                                                                                                         gas-fired �oilers with �iomass heaters,
                                                                                                                                                                                         could result in 6% potential net energy
                                                                                                                                                                                         savings for the ceramics sector.


                                                                                                                                                                                         Two other ongoing projects targeting,
                                                                                                                                                                                         respectively, the greening of window-
                                                                                                                                                                                         making and the cleaning sector, are




                                                                                                                                                           Photo: L�FE04 ENV/�T/000589
                                                                                                                                                                                         also looking to su�stantially reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                         their use of natural resources. The Slov-
                                                                                                                                                                                         enian UN�SASH project �LIFE07 ENV/
                                                                                                                                                                                         SLO/000710) is aiming to develop a new
                                                                                                                                                                                         type of environmentally friendly manu-
                              An Italian LIFE project, EWG, developed a technology to decorate ceramic tiles that                                                                        facturing process suita�le for PVC, wood
                              reduces wasted glaze and energy consumption                                                                                                                and aluminium windows. �t is aiming to
                                                                                                                                                                                         reduce consumption of raw materials �y
                                                                                                                                                                                         20-35% per unit. This should equate to
                              The ceramics sector, where the finish-                                         ceramic tiles that cut energy consumption                                   energy savings of 20-40% per unit. Cost
                              ing process in particular is associated                                        in half, eliminated the need for water and                                  savings from these environmental �en-
                              with significant environmental damage,                                         reduced to zero any resultant pollution.                                    efits are also expected through reduced
                              has �een the focus of several successful                                                                                                                   production costs.
                              L�FE projects. The �talian EWG project,                                        Energy efficiencies were also shown �y
                              �LIFE04 ENV/IT/000589) demonstrated                                            Eco-Ceramics, �LIFE05 ENV/E/000301),                                        The French C�SDP project �LIFE08 ENV/
                              a new clean technology for the decora-                                         as part of its innovative waste manage-                                     F/000481) is promoting the implementa-
                              tion of ceramics on flat and textured sur-                                     ment concept targeting the re-use of                                        tion of a sustaina�le development pro-
                              faces using a soft roll that is a�le to adapt                                  sludge as a raw material for the structural                                 gramme for the country’s cleaning com-
                              itself to the surface’s shape. A pilot plant                                   ceramics industry. The project demon-                                       panies. The programme contains more
                              reduced wasted glazes �y 98% and
                              waste caused �y printing faults �y 8%.                                         A manufacturing process for PVC, wood and aluminium windows that reduces raw materials
                              �ts implementation generated a reduction                                       consumption is currently being demonstrated by the Slovenian UNISASH project
                              in energy consumption of up to 76%.
                                                                              Photo: L�FE07 ENV/SLO/007100




                              Another cleantech project in this sector,
                              Microfinishing �LIFE02 ENV/IT/000052)2
                              developed a new, dry finishing process for


                              2 A Best LIFE Environment Project winner
                              2006-07
                                                                                                                                                                                


                                           LIFE Focus                                           I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



than 50 concrete actions targeting the




                                                                                                                                                                                ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN
conservation of natural resources and
preservation of the environment through
reduced water consumption and pollu-
tion, less waste and improved recycling.
Furthermore, 50% of all employees will
receive training thus creating green skills
in this sector.


EnErGy-EFFiCiEnCiEs
in rEFriGEration

Domestic fridges and freezers have
increased in energy efficiency �y more
than 40% in the past decade or so,
thanks in part to the introduction of the
Energy La�el Directive �92/75/EEC).
                                              Photo: L�FE05 ENV/DK/000156




However, the commercial world has �een
slow to make the same advances.


The Austrian PROCOOL project, �LIFE03
ENV/A/000002)3 organised a Europe-
wide competition among manufacturers
to promote innovation and show that
                                                                       With CO2REF, energy consumption of refrigeration units is % lower than with an HFC
hydrofluorocar�ons �HFC)-free, energy-
                                                                       system
efficient and cost-effective commercial
appliances can �e successfully pro-
duced. Entrants were set strict criteria,                                   which included recycling potential and                rEDuCinG WastE
                                                                            repair-orientated designs.                            anD Emissions
 A Best LIFE Environment project winner
2007-08                                                                     Eight leading manufacturers, repre-                   As well as demonstrating resource and
                                                                            senting 30% of the European market,                   energy efficiencies, many innovative L�FE
                                                                             entered the competition. Seven prod-                 projects have also shown important reduc-
                                                                             ucts finally met the competition’s tough             tions in emissions and waste. A num�er
                                                                             stipulations. The winning entries incor-             have also reported significant economic
                                                                             porated enterprising solutions that                  �enefits from the more efficient manage-
                                                             Photo: L�FE03 ENV/A/000002




                                                                               found immediate markets for their                  ment of resources previously wasted.
                                                                               new designs. All showed an energy
                                                                               saving of up to 50% compared with                  A particular focus has �een the metal
                                                                               standard products, and also avoided                industries, traditionally associated with
                                                                               harmful refrigerants and insulation                very high environmental impacts. For
                                                                               materials, while comforta�ly meeting               example, the �talian Clean-Deco project
                                                                               standards on noise levels.                         �LIFE00 ENV/IT/000213)4 developed a
                                                                                                                                  cleantech solution for the replacement of
                                                                                          Meanwhile, the Danish CO 2 REF          the highly polluting process of galvanising
                                                                                          project, �LIFE05 ENV/DK/000156)         metals using physical vapour deposition
                                                                                          investigated the use of CO2 as a        �PVD) technology. This has resulted in the
                                                                                          greener refrigerant alternative to      elimination of chromium wastes and a su�-
                                                                                          HFCs and then successfully intro-       stantial reduction in the use of dangerous
                                                                                          duced it in a pilot supermarket sys-    chemicals: chromium trioxide �CrO3) �y
                                                                                          tem. �nitial results showed reduced     100%; hydrogen chloride �HCl) �y 30%;
                                                                                          energy consumption of around 4%,        and sulphuric acid �H2SO4) �y 90%.
                                                                                          as well as service cost savings of
                                                                                          15%. Significantly, the system has      Europe’s aeronautics sector was the
                                                                                          proved to �e a commercial, as well      focus of a high-profile French project,
                                                                                          as a technical success, with 26 units
                                                                                          in operation and a further seven on      A Best LIFE Environment project winner
                                                                                          order �2008).                           2005-06
   


                              LIFE Focus       I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                                                                             that all vehicles must contain the high-
ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN




                                                                                                                                                                             est-possi�le proportion of recycla�le
                                                                                                                                                                             materials.


                                                                                                                                                                             An earlier L�FE project in �taly, Use
                                                                                                                                                                             and… re-use �LIFE99 ENV/IT/000034)
                                                                                                                                                                             developed an innovative system to
                                                                                                                                                                             avoid the su�stantial amounts of waste
                                                                                                                                                                             generated in the packaging of fruit
                                                                                                                                                                             and vegeta�les. The project designed
                                                                                                                                                                             recycla�le plastic �oxes, which can �e
                                                                                                                                                                             folded and re-used up to 30 times. The
                                                                                                                                                                             scheme included a processing centre




                                                                                                                                                Photo: L�FE03 ENV/E/000106
                                                                                                                                                                             to handle the cleaning, re-use and
                                                                                                                                                                             recycling of the �oxes, and computer
                                                                                                                                                                             software to track their journeys. At the
                                                                                                                                                                             �eginning of the L�FE project in 1999,
                                                                                                                                                                             the �eneficiary �CPR system) was a
                              Packaging producers have made better use of raw materials by recycling plastic from                                                            small cooperative with 900 000 �oxes,
                              vehicle factory waste                                                                                                                          47 mem�ers and a handful of staff.
                                                                                                                                                                             By the end of the project, the coop-
                              �LIFE05 ENV/F/000062)5, targeting the                                ENV/E/000106)6 successfully recycled                                      erative had 355 mem�ers, �etween
                              development of a less polluting tech-                                plastic from vehicle factory waste to                                     them using over 5 million �oxes, sav-
                              nology for aircraft panel manufactur-                                produce pallets. The recovered mate-                                      ing not only 50 000 tonnes/yr of pack-
                              ing. �mplemented �y Dufieux �ndus-                                   rial is a highly transfera�le process,                                    aging waste �ut also €6.5 million/yr in
                              tries, a new Green Advanced Panels                                   which has ena�led the �eneficiary, a                                      waste disposal costs. �mportantly, the
                              �GAP) mechanical milling process was                                 manufacturer of linings for car interiors,                                scheme has continued to grow. Today
                              designed to replace the chemical milling                             to turn its waste �previously all sent to                                 it has over 950 mem�ers and 12 mil-
                              processes conventionally used for the                                landfill) into a 100% recovera�le, re-                                    lion �oxes that are used a total of 110
                              machining of complex-shaped panels,                                  usa�le and recycla�le high-quality                                        million times/yr. This saves more than
                              a process that produces large volumes                                plastic. The success of the scheme                                        100 000 tonnes/yr of waste, 100 Mwh/
                              of toxic sludge. �ndependent analysis                                also has particular relevance within the                                  yr of energy and €13 million/yr in waste
                              suggests this project could generate                                 motor industry, where EU directives                                       disposal costs. The company is now
                              significant water and chemicals sav-                                 concerning end-of-life vehicles require                                   present in all �talian regions and tens of
                              ings, a 57% decrease in electricity                                                                                                            jo�s have �een created. Yet the project
                              consumption, and cuts in emissions of                                6 A Best LIFE Environment project winner                                  cost only €1.5 million �with €600 000 of
                              greenhouse gases �6 200 tonnes/yr of                                 2007-08                                                                   EU co-financing).
                              CO 2) and volatile organic compounds
                              �850 tonnes/yr). Together with a 16                                  The results of the RECIPLAS project will help the motor industry comply with
                              000-tonne/yr reduction in the amount                                 EU directives on end-of-life vehicles
                              of waste produced, the project makes
                                                                          Photo: L�FE03 ENV/E/000106




                              an important contri�ution towards the
                              implementation of the integrated pol-
                              lution prevention and control ��PPC)
                              Directive �91/61/EC).


                              paCkaGinG, WooD anD
                              papEr solutions

                              Two L�FE projects have focused
                              their activities on helping packaging
                              producers make �etter use of their
                              resources and raw materials. The
                              REC�PLAS project in Spain �LIFE03



                              5 A Best LIFE Environment project winner
                              2007-08
                                                                                                                                                                                               


                                        LIFE Focus   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                      ance with environmental legislation, the




                                                                                                                                                                                               ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN
                                                                                                                      overall goal is to help manufacturers in
                                                                                                                      this sector reduce their environmen-
                                                                                                                      tal footprint through awareness of the
                                                                                                                      legal requirements they need to meet.
                                                                                                                      An alert system will �e set up to inform
                                                                                                                      companies of relevant environmental




                                                                                        Photo: L�FE09 ENV/ES/000454
                                                                                                                      legislation.


                                                                                                                      a liFECyClE approaCH

                                                                                                                      Finally, the �ntegrated Product Policy
                                                                                                                      ��PP) approach has contri�uted signifi-
Construction materials will be produced from household waste wood products, such as                                   cantly to the development of environ-
furniture, doors and floors with the WOODRUB project                                                                  mental policies in Europe in the areas of
                                                                                                                      product design, use of natural resources
Another innovative project aiming to        �el scheme in its early days. When the                                    and management of waste.
show significant resource savings is        project was launched in 2003, only a
the ongoing WOODRUB project in              handful of Hellenic textile firms had                                     Reflecting this lifecycle approach is
Spain �LIFE09 ENV/ES/000454), which         �een awarded an Ecola�el in recog-                                        the Luxem�ourg L�FE+ ECO2 Tyre Tech
is looking to develop construction          nition of the good environmental per-                                     project �LIFE09 ENV/LU/000390) just
materials from household waste wood         formance of their product or service.                                     underway, led �y European and world-
products �furniture, doors, windows,        The project was particularly successful                                   wide tyre producer, Goodyear �see
floors, etc) and used tyres. This re-use    in promoting the �enefits of the Eco-                                     pages 18-20). Another important �PP
initiative will provide wood/tyre pro-      la�el to an audience that was largely                                     project targeting the automo�ile indus-
ducers with a new ‘end-of-life’ route,      sceptical �mainly due to a lack of infor-                                 try was the French ED�T project �LIFE00
and offer pu�lic and private construc-      mation and knowledge on how to par-                                       ENV/F/000593). The project success-
tion firms with a more environmentally      ticipate). �t produced a �est practice                                    fully developed lifecycle assessment
friendly product option. Moreover, the      guide, esta�lished an eco-consultancy                                     �LCA) methodologies and support
planned new products will operate as        and successfully guided four textiles                                     software tools for the management of
car�on sinks – increasing the car�on        companies through the process. �ts                                        vehicle components. The approach
storage in �uildings using the products     main achievement, however, was to                                         involved key stakeholders: carmakers,
and replacing other, less green, �uilding   show how the Ecola�el with its guar-                                      parts’ manufacturers, and raw material
materials.                                  antee of greener credentials, can pro-                                    suppliers; and covered all stages of the
                                            vide a competitive edge to Greek, and                                     product lifecycle, including end-of-life
The manufacture of paper has a sig-         other European textile manufacturers,                                     issues.
nificant environmental footprint �oth       who are increasingly under pressure
upstream �where raw materials are           from lower-cost garments imported                                         90% of European footwear companies
acquired and processed) and down-           from China, and cheaper raw materials                                     will be involved in the SHOELAW project
                                                                                                                      to improve their environmental perform-
stream �waste-disposal impacts). Recy-      from countries such as Turkey.
                                                                                                                      ance and compliance with environmental
cling o�viously reduces this impact.
                                                                                                                      legislation
One of the earliest L�FE projects to tar-   Another voluntary initiative is currently
get this sector �LIFE95 ENV/IT/000393)      �eing investigated �y a Spanish-led
was implemented �y �talian specialist       project to encourage more environ-
paper manufacturer, Favini. The com-        mentally friendly practices among
pany tested the use of various �io-         Europe’s footwear manufacturers.
waste materials �e.g. pomace, algae,        SHOELAW �LIFE08 ENV/E/000147) is
                                                                                                                                                                  Photo: L�FE08 ENV/E/000147




apple peel) to develop 100% recycla-        seeking to develop an e-platform for
�le paper of the same high quality as       environmental self-diagnosis among
its other products. Results included a      50 companies in five European
10% saving in trees and a 12% saving        countries: Spain, �taly, Portu-
in energy consumption.                      gal, Greece and Slovenia.
                                            These countries jointly
voluntary aCtions                           represent 90% of Euro-
                                            pean footwear companies.
A Greek L�FE project, ECO-TEXT�LE           Focusing on improvements
�LIFE03 ENV/GR/000204) helped               in environmental standards
spread awareness of the EU’s Ecola-         and the promotion of compli-
   


                              LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                    There is growing awareness among Europe’s man-
ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN




                                                    ufacturers that opportunities for greater resource

                                                    efficiencies can bring both economic as well as

                                                    environmental gains. Two LIFE projects demon-

                                                    strate opportunities for sustainable growth through

                                                    the development of greener materials for tyres.

                                                    These materials will help to reduce the environ-

                                                    mental impact of tyres, could avoid or mitigate

                                                    problems of ever-scarcer resources and costly

                                                    raw materials and also contribute to improved con-

                                                    sumer safety.




                                  LIFE	helps	drive
                                      greener tyre making

                              R         oad transport generates over
                                        20% of all CO2 emissions in the
                              EU, with passenger cars responsi�le for
                                                                            traditional non-renewa�le fillers, such
                                                                            as petroleum-�ased car�on �lack or
                                                                            mineral-�ased silica, used in tyres for
                                                                                                                        project’s second component consisted
                                                                                                                        of an in-depth analysis and modification
                                                                                                                        of the tyre structure, aimed at minimis-
                              more than half these emissions. Further-      their reinforcement properties. The new     ing energy loss through rolling resistance
                              more, �ecause of a significant increase       �iofiller would �e made from renewa�le      while the vehicle is in motion.
                              in traffic, CO2 emissions from road trans-    resources �a new starch-�ased mate-
                              port have risen �y more than 20% since        rial), there�y reducing its environmental   A final phase was to incorporate the
                              1990. This represents a major concern to      impact and allowing reductions in CO2       developed new material and use the
                              the EU, which aims to achieve an aver-        emissions during its production. The        results of the optimisation of the tyre
                              age CO2 emission for new cars of 120                                                      structure to develop prototype tyres to
                              g/km �y 2012 and 95 g/km �y 2020. The         Fuel consumption was reduced by 5-6%        �e tested at the �eneficiary’s technical
                              contact of rolling vehicle tyres with road    thanks to the environmentally friendly      facilities in Luxem�ourg. After this, the
                                                                            tyre design
                              surfaces creates a drag force known as                                                    �est prototypes were sent to BMW for
                              the ‘rolling resistance’. Any reduction                                                   further testing under real life conditions.
                              achieved in rolling resistance means
                              lower fuel consumption and related CO2                                                    The project successfully achieved all its
                              emissions.                                                                                goals over the 42 month project period.
                                                                                                                        A new Bio Tyre with a ‘BioTRED’ com-
                              Thus the overall aim of the 2005-09 L�FE                                                  pound was developed �see �ox), and
                              BioTyre project �LIFE06 ENV/L/000118)                                                     the tyre structure optimised. Thanks
                              was to demonstrate the technical and                                                      to these actions, the project was a�le
                              economic via�ility of an environmentally                                                  to gain a higher than targeted - 34%
                              friendly tyre design that achieves a su�-                                                 - reduction in rolling resistance, with-
                              stantial reduction in rolling resistance of                                               out any loss in safety, vehicle handling
                              up to 30%.                                                                                performance or longevity.


                              Coordinated �y Goodyear Luxem�ourg                                                        A major difficulty for the project team,
                              SA, the partnership project also involved                                                 according to principal engineer, Chris-
                              �talian company, Novamont, and German                                                     tian Kaes, was to achieve this ultralow
                              car manufacturer BMW. �ts first compo-                                                    rolling resistance in the two-year time
                              nent was to develop an alternative to                                                     period for prototype optimisation and
                                                                                                                                                           


                                         LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                           ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN
Partner BMW expects to use BioTyres in new car models, and there is considerable interest from other vehicle manufacturers


technological validation. From a tech-        cars and in use. The �eneficiary estimates                     eration: the a�sorption capacity through
nical point of view, this was a “�ig          that a 30% decrease in rolling resistance                      photosynthesis of the corn starch �eing
challenge… �t was very, very difficult        corresponds to a 5%-6% decrease in                             greater than the CO2 rejected during its
to reduce the rolling resistance, while       fuel consumption. Considering a typi-                          transformation process into a �iofiller. �n
keeping all the other performance             cal average run distance in Europe of 40                       contrast, the production of car�on �lack
parameters expected �y our custom-            000 km/yr run �y 1 million BioTyres, this                      is a significant source of greenhouse gas
ers,” he explains.                            would mean a saving of the equivalent of                       emissions.
                                              80 000 tonnes/yr of CO2. Moreover, the
rEDuCinG Co2 Emissions                        production process of the second gen-                          An additional �enefit is that BioTyres
                                              eration of �iofiller developed in the L�FE                     incorporate the �eneficiary’s ‘run on flat’
The main environmental �enefit of Bio-        project has an even more positive CO2                          �ROF) technology, which means vehi-
Tyres will come once they are fitted to       �alance, compared with the first gen-                          cles only require four tyres �no spare)
                                                                                                             – another resource saving and weight
Italian partner Novamont used nano-particles of corn starch to produce the new biofiller                     reduction that should help to keep costs
to reinforce tyres                                                                                           down for motorists, as well as improving
                                                                                                             safety ��y maintaining car control after
                                                                                           Photo: Novamont




                                                                                                             sudden air loss).


                                                                                                             �mportantly, since the project finished,
                                                                                                             Goodyear has moved from pilot phase
                                                                                                             into production. Partner BMW currently
                                                                                                             foresees using BioTyres in new car mod-
                                                                                                             els �e.g. for the 2012 BMW 3-Series) and
                                                                                                             there has �een considera�le interest
                                                                                                             from other vehicle manufacturers.


                                                                                                             Project manager Georges Thielen says
                                                                                                             the close cooperation of the partners
                                                                                                             played an important part in its suc-
                                                                                                             cessful outcome. �n addition, European
                                                                                                             Commission support via the L�FE pro-
                                                                                                             gramme was “very important”, he says,
   0


                              LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                              as it provided a European platform for
ECO PRODUCTS AND ECO DESIGN




                              the product. For BMW, it demonstrated                   DEVELOPING THE ‘BIOTRED’ FILLER
                              the carmaker’s commitment to sustaina-
                                                                                      Italian partner, Novamont, a specialist in the production of bioplastics
                              �le technologies via its ‘EfficientDynam-
                                                                             from renewable raw materials of agricultural origin, was responsible for the
                              ics Programme’. And for all partners,
                              it will help meet the policy o�jectives        development of the new industrial biofiller. Made from nano-particles of corn
                              highlighted in the EU’s 6th Environment        starch, it is designed to partially replace the non-renewable fillers such as
                              Action Programme and the Flagship �ni-         carbon black and silica.
                              tiative under the Europe 2020 Strategy.
                                                                             As well as producing and testing experimental grades of biofiller (more than
                                                                             80 new materials in total), Novamont was also responsible for validating the
                              Building on the experience of the first
                              project, a new L�FE+ ECO 2 Tyre Tech           second generation of BioTRED filler, in order to provide the project beneficiary
                              project �LIFE09 ENV/L/000390) is               with sufficient materials to produce the first tyres for testing. The aim with
                              underway, coordinated once again �y            these new grades was to significantly improve the tyres’ rolling resistance while
                              Goodyear Luxem�ourg. The 2010-14
                                                                             maximising the renewable raw material content in the biofiller, thereby improv-
                              project �rings together three partners
                              of the tyre supply chain from material
                                                                             ing interface properties, reducing weight and minimising costs.
                              supply �Ru��er Resources - The Neth-
                              erlands), tyre production �Goodyear) to
                              car manufacturing �BMW).                    �mportantly, all the targets concern-            The project also seeks to improve tyre
                                                                          ing improvements to the tyres �rolling           performance during use, and is targeting
                              �ts aim is to develop environmentally       resistance, noise, etc) are well a�ove           a 40% rolling resistance reduction; 25%
                              sustaina�le tyres incorporating innova-     the upcoming EU regulations concern-             weight reduction; 25% mileage improve-
                              tive green materials from recycling or      ing safety and environmental efficiency          ment; and a 3dBA noise reduction.
                              renewa�le origin and weight-reducing        of tyres and as such are also likely to
                              tyre designs. All lifecycle stages of the   ena�le suppliers to �enefit from the             The expected improved environmental
                              activities involved during the manufac-     new rules governing tyre la�elling1 i.e.         tyre performance will �e tested on �oth
                              turing, as well as the use and recycling    a system of A-G grading information              conventional and electric cars under
                              of tyres will �e improved and further       for customers �along the lines of the EU         various driving conditions. Finally, the
                              developed. A lifecycle assessment �LCA)     Energy La�el).                                   project is also expected to contri�ute
                              study will �e carried out with a targeted                                                    to the end-of-life phase �y providing
                              reduction of 35% over all life stages       As with the L�FE BioTyre project, the new        new processes for the recycling of large
                                                                          consortium will work jointly towards the         quantities of used ru��er goods.
                                                                          validation and first industrialisation of
                                                                          the tyres. Furthermore, the project will
                                                                          also contri�ute to the main o�jectives
                                                                          of the EU REACH legislation �y reduc-
                                                                          ing emissions and exposure risks during
                                                                          fa�rication into soil, water and air, while
                                                                          maintaining principle climate change
                                                                          o�jectives.


                                                                          The goals in relation to tyre manufactur-
                                                                          ing are to introduce:
                                                                          • Recycla�le materials �derived from
                                                                                                                                         LUXEMBURG
                                                                            used ru��er articles);
                                                                          • New renewa�le source materials from               Project number: L�FE06 ENV/L/000118
                                                                            wood �e.g. lignin, cellulose); and
                                                                                                                              Title: Development and validation of ultra
                                                                          • New chemicals for tyre vulcanisation              low rolling resistance tyres with environ-
                                                                            and ageing protection with low envi-              mentally friendly resources
                                                                            ronmental impacts and improved tyre               Beneficiary: Goodyear Luxem�ourg SA
                                                                            mileage.
                                                                                                                              Contact: Georges Thielen
                                                                                                                              Email: georges.thielen@goodyear.com
                                                                           Regulation (EC) No 222/2009 of the Euro-         Period: Dec-2005 to May-2009
                                                                          pean Parliament and of the Council of 25
                                                                          November 2009 on the labelling of tyres with        Total budget: e12 393 000
                                                                          respect to fuel efficiency and other essential
                                                                                                                              LIFE contribution: e3 120 000
                                                                          parameters
                                                                                                                                                                     


                                            LIFE Focus                                 I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




Lifecycle thinking
    -	a	key	thought	of	LIFE

                      The resource efficiency of a product or process can only truly be understood by con-

                      sidering its whole lifecycle. LIFE projects have raised awareness of this, produced

                      improved tools for implementing lifecycle assessments and demonstrated the impor-

                      tance of eco-design and end-of-life management to resource efficiency over the life-

                      cycle.




W          hether a process or product
           uses resources efficiently can-
not �e assessed �y looking at the natu-
                                                                              mental analysis. �mportantly, LCAs seek
                                                                              not only to highlight where resource
                                                                              efficiency gains can �e made, �ut also
                                                                                                                        another stage. Similarly, LCAs seek to
                                                                                                                        ensure that impact �urden is not simply
                                                                                                                        shifted from one form of environmental
ral resources consumed during operation                                       ensure that apparent environmental        impact to another. �t is the overall envi-
alone. Natural resources are used as raw                                      gains at one stage of a product’s life-   ronmental �alance of the whole lifecycle
materials in the production of the origi-                                     cycle do not create greater costs at      that is important.
nal parts and are consumed during their
collection, treatment and transportation.                                Lifecycle assessments, eco-design and end-of-life management have also been the focus
Further down the chain, marketing and                                    of LIFE funding
distri�ution, and the treatment and dis-
                                                Photo: L�FE00 ENV/NL/000808




posal of products at the end of their life,
all consume natural resources.


To improve resource efficiency, policies
and practices therefore need to take
account of the value chain and the full life-
cycle of resource use for any process and
product, considering upstream and down-
stream activities. Evaluating the impact
and costs of products and processes from
cradle to grave in this way is the concept
of lifecycle thinking. Yet, the complexity
of this and the num�er of actors involved
can �e a major o�stacle.


Lifecycle Assessment �LCA) is a meth-
odological tool that applies lifecycle
thinking to create a quantitative environ-
  


                     LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                     There are clear theoretical resource effi-
LIFECYCLE THINKING




                     ciency �enefits to �e had from apply-
                     ing a lifecycle approach to material and
                     product management. �t can help identify
                     synergies and trade-offs within intercon-
                     nected elements of a product’s lifecycle.
                     �t can also highlight which element of a
                     product’s lifecycle is the most inefficient,
                     or draw attention to previously over-
                     looked resource use associated with a
                     product. A lifecycle approach can thus
                     inform changes in policy or practice that
                     make a real difference to overall environ-
                                                                    Photo: L�FE04 ENV/DE/000047




                     mental impact and �e a key to the trans-
                     formation towards a resource efficient
                     economy.


                     liFECyClE tHinkinG
                     in poliCy
                                                                                                  The RESOLVED project demonstrated new recycling methodologies for thin film photo-
                                                                                                  voltaic panels to produce valuable raw materials with a purity of 99.99%
                     LCA is increasingly used in sustaina�le
                     �usiness decision-making and environ-
                     mental policymaking, already playing a                                       authoritative guidance for policymakers         tion and production, with particular focus
                     key role in EU policies in areas such as                                     and �usinesses on how to conduct an             on the de-coupling of environmental
                     �ntegrated Product Policy ��PP), sustain-                                    LCA to quantify the emissions, resource         impacts from economic growth.
                     a�le consumption and production and                                          consumption and environmental impact
                     waste legislation.                                                           of a product. These documents provide           �ndicators of resource efficiency,
                                                                                                  detailed technical guidance on all steps of     resource productivity and consumption
                     �SO 14040 provides a standardisation                                         LCA. The EU, through the Joint Research         – ‘�askets-of-products’ - can �e used
                     framework for LCA that covers the defini-                                    Centre �JRC), is currently developing           to monitor the environmental impacts of
                     tion of the goals and assessment param-                                      lifecycle-�ased indicators to measure           relevant goods and services consumed
                     eters of an LCA, lifecycle inventories                                       progress towards sustaina�le consump-           �y EU citizens as well as the transition
                     �LC�), assessment of the inventory data
                     in LC�A and interpretation of results.
                                                                                                  One of the 2 different strategies that the DANTES project produced using existing tools
                                                                                                  and methods for environmental assessment, such as LCA
                     The Commission communication on
                     European �PP �COM�2003)302) recog-                                                                                                                                        Photo: L�FE02 ENV/S/000351

                     nises that the lifecycle of a product is
                     often long and complicated and that                                                  Identify information                                        Information for
                     there cannot �e one simple policy meas-                                              required for decision                                      decision-making
                     ure for everything. A range of measures
                     are needed to encourage and stimulate
                     actors as diverse as designers, manu-                                                             Information                            Comprehensible
                     facturers, retailers and consumers to                                                            requirements                              information
                     improve their environmental perform-
                     ance. These include o�ligatory measures,
                                                                                                      Break down
                     such as su�stance �ans and voluntary                                                                                                                       Interpret
                                                                                                      the information
                     ones, such as environmental la�elling.                                                                                                                 the acquired
                                                                                                      requirements into
                                                                                                                                                                             information
                                                                                                      tools & methods
                     The EU has created and developed an                                                                     Tools &
                     important information source for LCA                                                                    Methods                          Info
                     practitioners, providing lifecycle inventory
                     data from a range of European �usiness
                     sectors. The first edition of the �nterna-
                                                                                                                                                Basic
                     tional Reference Life Cycle Data System                                                                                    information
                     ��LCD) hand�ook was pu�lished in March
                     2010. The hand�ook consists of a series
                     of technical documents that provide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      


                                                                         LIFE Focus                                 I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                          L�FE projects have �een at the forefront      use and developing understanding of the




                                                                                                                                                                                                      LIFECYCLE THINKING
                                                                                                          of challenging these o�stacles, raising       tools amongst municipalities and other
                                                                                                          awareness, developing tools to facilitate     decision-makers. Over 100 sustaina�le
                                                                                                          implementation and carrying out ground-       �uilding projects were then assessed and
                                                                                                          �reaking lifecycle assessments.               improvements identified with designers,
                                                                                                                                                        architects and developers. Environmen-
                                                                                                          liFE anD liFECyClE tHinkinG                   tal performance improvements of 15%
                                                                                                          tools                                         were achieved, particularly �y facilitating


                                                                            Photo: L�FE00 ENV/NL/000808
                                                                                                                                                        improvements in the preliminary design
                                                                                                          L�FE projects have worked to raise            stage.
                                                                                                          awareness of lifecycle thinking and pro-
                                                                                                          vide practical tools and guidance on how      The Spanish project FEN�X �LIFE08
                                                                                                          LCA can �e used to make real resource         ENV/E/000135) has �een working since
                                                                                                          efficiency gains in often complex sectors     2008 to develop an easy-to-use tool for
                             LIFE EQuation used LCA tools in the                                          of the economy.                               o�taining LCA results for the specific
                             construction industry with over 00 sus-                                                                                   context of packaging waste. The project
                             tainable building projects being assessed                                    The Swedish DANTES project �LIFE02            expects to provide pu�lic authorities with
                             and improvements identified
                                                                                                          ENV/S/000351) demonstrated and                tools for tackling waste management and
                                                                                                          assessed new tools for environmental          to create an ��erian network of experts
                             towards more sustaina�le consumption                                         sustaina�ility, including lifecycle assess-   in LCA and waste management. The
                             �ehaviour. They can also help assess the                                     ment and lifecycle cost. As well as aware-    project highlights the need to ensure that
                             impact of policy measures with regard to                                     ness, the project provided analysis of        measures to improve the management
                             more environmentally sound goods and                                         how to use the methods and tools within       of waste do not consume more natural
                             services.                                                                    companies to assess resource efficiency       resources than they save, a key principle
                                                                                                          and other environmental information. The      of the lifecycle approach. LCA is impor-
                             Waste management indicators, covering                                        project we�site also provides �usinesses      tant to make sure that there is an over-
                             the entire waste management chain, are                                       with a guide to the lifecycle information     all resource efficiency �enefit from any
                             designed to help the EU monitor how                                          they need to make improved environ-           waste management system, as well as
                             technological progress and changes in                                        mental decisions.                             ensuring positive overall economic and
                             the amount of waste result in reduced                                                                                      social outcomes. Data from the project
                             environmental impacts. They will also                                        The L�FE EQuation project �LIFE00             will also �e fed into the ELCD to help
                             highlight material and energy resources                                      ENV/NL/000808) optimised innovative           complete this European data�ase.
                             saved via �etter waste management.                                           LCA tools for the construction industry
                                                                                                          in the Netherlands, Belgium and the UK.       An interesting tool for encouraging life-
                             However, there are still some gaps in                                        Through practical application, the project    cycle thinking is the use of eco-la�els
                             understanding and lack of expertise in                                       team optimised an advanced computer           awarded for environmental performance
                             the implementation of LCAs and �PP,                                          model for calculating environmental           of the whole value chain. The �talian
                             which limit the impact of the lifecycle con-                                 impact and an environmental assessment        L�FE project Aquala�el �LIFE03 ENV/
                             cept on resource efficiency. A num�er of                                     method for homes, making them easy to         IT/000333) sought to develop such a


                             The FENIX project aims to provide public authorities with tools for tackling waste management and to create a network of experts in LCA
Photo: L�FE08 ENV/E/000135
  


                                                   LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
LIFECYCLE THINKING

                     Photo: L�FE04 ENV/GR/000110




                                                   The ECOIL project developed a groundbreaking LCA for the olive oil industry providing an analysis of the whole olive oil lifecycle, from tree
                                                   cultivation to waste management


                                                   quality and environmental management                                        providing tools for future LCAs. �t also        mental success stories within the pro-
                                                   la�el for water distri�uted in waterworks                                   esta�lished Product Category Rules              duction chain. The project thus helped
                                                   systems, according to �SO14024 stand-                                       �PCR) and Environmental Product Dec-            stakeholders identify where they could
                                                   ards. The project identified wastewater                                     larations �EPD) for �oth office desks and       provide improved environmental perfor-
                                                   treatment, water sanitisation and pump-                                     cooker hoods, showing how lifecycle             mance and where they could demand it
                                                   ing operations as the processes in the                                      thinking can promote improved resource          from others, particularly from their sup-
                                                   water supply cycle with the greatest                                        efficiency for these specific products in       pliers.
                                                   environmental impact. �t produced a                                         the furniture industry.
                                                   manual outlining the measures nec-                                                                                          At the opposite end of Europe, L�FE
                                                   essary for overall certification with an                                    A Greek L�FE project, ECO�L �LIFE04             OSELCA in Estonia explored LCA for
                                                   eco-la�el from the relevant environ-                                        ENV/GR/000110), developed a ground-             oil-shale electricity production and
                                                   mental �odies. The project thus pro-                                        �reaking LCA for the olive oil industry in      energy intensive products �LIFE03
                                                   vided awareness and practical under-                                        Spain, Cyprus and Greece. �t provided           ENV/EE/000194). �t was the first large-
                                                   standing of how water supply systems                                        analysis of the whole olive oil lifecycle,      scale application of LCA in Estonia and
                                                   can improve their resource efficiency                                       from tree cultivation to waste manage-          has �een a �enchmark for other indus-
                                                   throughout the lifecycle of the water.                                      ment, ena�ling comparisons of resource          tries in the country to follow. Led �y a
                                                                                                                               use at different stages of the lifecycle.       major energy company, it compared the
                                                   liFE anD lCa in spECiFiC                                                    This showed where optimisation could            resource use of electricity generated
                                                   ContExts                                                                    �e possi�le and highlighted environ-            from oil-shale with that produced from


                                                   L�FE projects have �een particularly                                        The LCA for oil-shale electricity production and energy intensive products used by the
                                                   instrumental in showing how LCA tools                                       OSELCA project has set a benchmark for other industries in Estonia
                                                   can �e used in specific �usiness con-
                                                                                                 Photo: L�FE03 ENV/EE/000194




                                                   texts and sectors.


                                                   Linking with European �ntegrated Prod-
                                                   uct Policy ��PP), the �talian project LA�PP
                                                   �LIFE04 ENV/IT/000588) worked to
                                                   show how LCA could �e implemented
                                                   in the furniture industry. �t ran pilot
                                                   actions including LCAs and Product-
                                                   Oriented Environmental Management
                                                   Systems �POEMS), aiming towards �SO
                                                   certification, in six companies. �t suc-
                                                   cessfully optimised three LCA software
                                                   programmes for different types of user,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  


                                         LIFE Focus                                 I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



hard coal and �iomass. �t also looked




                                                                                                                                                                                                  LIFECYCLE THINKING
at the significant impact of the energy
source used on the total resource effi-
ciency of a random product - in this case
a wooden weather�oard. �t successfully
demonstrated that energy production
will often �e one of the most significant




                                             Photo: L�FE07 ENV/P/000639
factors of a product’s overall resource
efficiency.


L�FE projects such as ECO�L and
OSELCA have used lifecycle thinking
to show how stakeholders can improve
the resource efficiency of their industry,                                Electrovalue is looking at effectively extracting and exploiting raw materials from waste
                                                                          electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
not just �y improving their own perform-
ance, �ut through their choice of sup-
pliers. Energy-intensive products can                                     lifecycle. Some of the greatest efficiency                                 of possi�le products and developed
transform their resource efficiency �y                                    gains can �e achieved �y extracting                                        pilot eco-�rands and eco-marketing
using green energy. Such modification                                     resources from a product at the end of                                     with four rural enterprises. The project
of purchasing decisions �ased on sup-                                     its life for re-use rather than sending                                    showed how successful grassroots
pliers’ environmental performance could                                   them to landfill or incineration. Equally,                                 rural entrepreneurship can �e encour-
�e crucial in implementing Europe’s �PP                                   environmentally aware design can avoid                                     aged using LCA to identify opportuni-
�y creating market pressure for more                                      all manner of inefficiencies downstream,                                   ties for resource-efficient products that
resource efficiency throughout the sup-                                   such as high resource use from transpor-                                   can �e marketed as such. Thinking from
ply chain without the need for prohi�i-                                   tation and waste management. A num�er                                      the design stage through the lifecycle
tive legislation.                                                         of L�FE projects have looked at how to                                     of a product can raise the awareness of
                                                                          implement eco-design and effective end-                                    designers, investors and consumers to
liFE, ECo-DEsiGn anD EnD-                                                 of-life strategies to improve a product’s                                  promote resource-efficient products.
oF-liFE                                                                   resource efficiency over its lifecycle.
                                                                                                                                                     �PP TEL in Greece �LIFE04 ENV/
One of the key messages of the lifecycle                                  The Rural L�FE Design project �LIFE00                                      GR/000138) conducted LCAs and car-
approach is that particular consideration                                 ENV/FIN/000656) implemented �PP in                                         ried out tests on telecommunications
needs to �e given to resource efficiency                                  rural SMEs �y promoting tools for eco-                                     products to identify the major costs
at the �eginning and end of a product’s                                   design. The project conducted LCAs                                         and challenges of efficient end-of-
                                                                                                                                                     life management. �t used its analysis
IPP TEL used LCAs to demonstrate how eco-design of a modem could avoid some of the                                                                   to demonstrate how eco-design of a
challenges of its end-of-life management                                                                                                             modem could significantly improve its
                                                                                                                                                     overall resource efficiency. �t proposed
                                                                                                                       Photo: L�FE04 ENV/GR/000138




                                                                                                                                                     eco-la�el criteria for modems �ased on
                                                                                                                                                     these findings.


                                                                                                                                                     �mproved end-of-life management for
                                                                                                                                                     high-technology products could have a
                                                                                                                                                     �ig impact on overall resource efficiency.
                                                                                                                                                     The German project, Resolved �LIFE04
                                                                                                                                                     ENV/DE/000047), demonstrated an
                                                                                                                                                     environmentally friendly process for
                                                                                                                                                     extracting the valua�le raw materi-
                                                                                                                                                     als from thin film photovoltaic panels.
                                                                                                                                                     �n Portugal, L�FE Electrovalue �LIFE07
                                                                                                                                                     ENV/P/000639) is looking at effectively
                                                                                                                                                     extracting and exploiting raw materi-
                                                                                                                                                     als from waste electrical and electronic
                                                                                                                                                     equipment. Both projects are demon-
                                                                                                                                                     strating how high-tech practical meas-
                                                                                                                                                     ures taken at the end-of-life of certain
                                                                                                                                                     products can make a major contri�ution
                                                                                                                                                     to improving resource efficiency overall.
  


                     LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
LIFECYCLE THINKING




                     ACADEMY:	managing the life-
                     cycle of complex products

                                           Environmental management systems (EMS) have improved the environmental perform-

                                           ance of many companies. However, their benefits can be limited by the complexity of

                                           products’ production and lifecycles. The LIFE ACADEMY project has demonstrated how

                                           EMS can be successfully applied over the lifecycle of an extremely complex product

                                           - aircraft.




                     E       nvironmental Management Sys-
                             tems are typically applied at site
                     level. This means that an installation is
                                                                  the impact of practices at one site on
                                                                  environmental performance elsewhere
                                                                  in the production chain. For example,
                                                                                                                 limitations of its existing environmental
                                                                                                                 efforts at achieving EMAS certification
                                                                                                                 at its sites. “�mproved management was
                     assessed for the environmental impact        an aircraft could �e �uilt with a material     essential to put environmental perform-
                     of all the activities taking place there.    that is resource efficient in its extraction   ance at the core of Air�us’s strategy. Yet,
                     However, in complex industries such as       and treatment, �ut which implies high          traditional approaches were not enough;
                     the aeronautical sector, many sites are      resource use in its maintenance or end-        we needed to look at the full lifecycle
                     involved in the lifecycle of the product.    of-life treatment downstream.                  of the product,” explains ACADEMY
                     �t is possi�le to achieve high environ-                                                     project manager Bruno Costes.
                     mental standards at each site and still      DEvElopinG a nEW
                     fail to optimise overall product resource    approaCH - spoEms                              �sa�elle Delay, one of the project leaders
                     efficiency.                                                                                 within Air�us, highlights the importance
                                                                  The major European aeronautical                of the lifecycle approach for a complex
                     Applying environmental assessments           company Air�us - with around 52 500            product: “Environmental assessment at
                     at site level fails to take into account     employees worldwide - recognised the           one site revealed that volatile organic
                                                                                                                                           


                                            LIFE Focus   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                             �e acquired and shared �etween sites.




                                                                                                                                           LIFECYCLE THINKING
                                                                                             “�mportantly, this meant that the sites
                                                                                             were now speaking a common environ-
                                                                                             mental language and developing consist-
                                                                                             ent ways of reporting,” notes Ms. Delay.
                                                                                             This was an essential precondition for
                                                                                             ena�ling the company to calculate the
                                                                                             overall environmental impacts and costs
                                                                                             of a product across its various sites.


                                                                                             ACADEMY then carried out two pilot
                                                                                             Lifecycle Assessments on aircraft within
                                                                                             the Air�us fleet. To make the process
                                                                                             managea�le, these used a customised
                                                                                             and streamlined approach to LCA, cov-
                                                                                             ering the more important aspects of
                                                                                             the aircraft’s production and lifecycle
                                                                                             - design, procurement, manufacturing,
                                                                                             transport, in service operations �includ-
                                                                                             ing maintenance), end-of-life and recy-
Eco-design is crucial for resource efficiency
                                                                                             cling and collating the data from the site-
                                                                                             specific monitoring processes. What it
compound �VOC) emissions were a key             Site and Product Oriented Environmen-        provided was a new understanding of
environmental concern. However, there           tal Management System. This aimed to         the environmental impact of the aircraft
was only so much that could �e done             tackle the complexity of carrying out        throughout the company and through-
to tackle this at that site. The �est way       the Lifecycle Assessment �LCA) of an         out its life, �eyond traditional addressed
to reduce VOC emissions is to choose            aircraft �y involving as many sites as       challenges such as noise and in-flight
materials in the design phase that do           possi�le in an integrated environmental      emissions.
not create the pro�lem.”                        assessment of the product’s lifecycle.
                                                                                             tHE impaCt oF tHE spoEms
Air�us applied for L�FE funding to run          Air�us expanded the internal application     approaCH
the ACADEMY project �LIFE04 ENV/                of EMS to cover an impressive 93% of
FR/000353) and set a�out creating a             its network of 16 production sites, pro-     �mplementing SPOEMS did not sud-
new tool, which it named SPOEMS -               gressing in stages so that learning could    denly solve all Air�us’s environmental


Assessments were carried out throughout 6 Airbus production sites, covering 9% of its network
  


                     LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                     challenges. However, it has provided         environmental certification �SO 14001        Space Company �EADS), of which Air�us
LIFECYCLE THINKING




                     the means to implement an ongoing            following a company-wide audit �y            is a part, has made a firm pu�lic commit-
                     process of environmental review and          DNV in Decem�er 2006. This was �oth          ment to “a continuous assessment of its
                     improvement. According to Ms Delay,          an aerospace industry first and one of       environmental performance throughout
                     “SPOEMS has �een a real catalyst for         the �roadest environmental manage-           the lifecycle of its products, so as to find
                     the identification of possi�le improve-      ment certifications ever made, covering      out the �est way to improve it.”
                     ments in the production chain.” �t allows    the whole company, including design,
                     the company to have a vision of the          procurement, manufacturing, transport,       The L�FE ACADEMY project lives on in
                     overall production process and �etter        and in-service operations �maintenance,      Air�us through its strategic commitment
                     identify where and how the most sig-         aircraft end-of-life and recycling). “What   to use SPOEMS to �ecome a leader in
                     nificant efficiencies could �e accom-        we have achieved is unique,” �elieves        the aeronautical sector on eco-effi-
                     plished.                                     Mr Costes. “�t is the first demonstration    ciency, com�ining environmental and
                                                                  of how �ntegrated Product Policy ��PP)       economic o�jectives. The company has
                     One of the key achievements of the           can �e implemented at this scale.”           gone on to use SPOEMS to enhance
                     L�FE ACADEMY project was to suc-                                                          resource efficiency in its production
                     cessfully engage all levels of Air�us in     Another major achievement of ACAD-           processes �y developing environmental
                     the SPOEMS approach and create new           EMY has �een to create momentum for          innovations. These include the use of a
                     internal momentum for environmental          improved environmental management in         greener, chemical-free milling process
                     improvement. Right up to the highest         the wider aeronautical industry. �mpor-      for fuselage panels; more environmen-
                     levels of management, this has improved      tantly, the SPOEMS approach to lifecy-       tally friendly painting processes; and
                     the a�ility of the company to communi-       cle thinking was widely disseminated �y      steps to minimise energy and water con-
                     cate on environmental issues, helping        the national aerospace trade associa-        sumption during the production cycle.
                     to identify synergies and spread good        tions of France, Spain and the UK, and       For its aircraft product line, Air�us con-
                     practice. Additionally, SPOEMS has had       the cham�er of commerce in the French        tinues to work on quieter and more fuel
                     an impact �eyond the company �y help-        region of Midi-Pyrenees.                     efficient jetliners, and on clearly defined
                     ing the procurement team identify where                                                   and targeted short and long-term envi-
                     changes to contracts with suppliers can      There is increasing recognition in inter-    ronmental targets and has renewed its
                     su�stantially improve overall resource       national aeronautical companies of the       EMS certification with Bureau Veritas.
                     efficiency for a product.                    importance of environmental issues as        Air�us also complemented ACADEMY
                                                                  a driver towards sustaina�le develop-        with another L�FE project - PAMELA -
                     The achievements and ongoing com-            ment and how SPOEMS can anticipate           looking at a Process for Advanced Man-
                     mitment of Air�us to improved environ-       environmental trends and regulations.        agement of End-of-Life Aircraft �LIFE05
                     mental management was recognised �y          The European Aeronautic Defence and          ENV/F/000059).


                     The LIFE ACADEMY project has helped AIRBUS improve the overall resource efficiency of
                     its product




                                                                                                                                   FRANCE
                                                                                                                  Project number: L�FE04 ENV/FR/000353
                                                                                                                  Title: ACADEMY - Air�us Corporate
                                                                                                                  Answer to Disseminate �ntegrated
                                                                                                                  Environmental Management System
                                                                                                                  Beneficiary: Air�us S.A.S.
                                                                                                                  Contact: Bruno Costes
                                                                                                                  Email: �runo.costes@air�us.com
                                                                                                                  Website: http://www.air�us.com/
                                                                                                                  innovation/eco-efficiency/
                                                                                                                  Period: Sept-2004 to Aug-2007
                                                                                                                  Total budget: e4 518 000
                                                                                                                  LIFE contribution: e2 245 000
                                                                                                                                                               


                                          LIFE Focus                             I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




Water	-	an essential
    component of LIFE

                     Water is one of the most crucial natural resources - for both human activities and eco-

                     systems. Yet pressures on clean water supplies in Europe are only increasing. More

                     efficient use of available water is a major policy challenge. LIFE has shown ways for-

                     ward with pioneering projects on reducing demand for water and making better use of

                     existing supplies.




W           ater is life, sustaining eco-
            systems and regulating our
climate. But it’s a finite resource, and
                                                                        strain on our resources. �n a ‘�usiness
                                                                        as usual’ scenario, water consumption
                                                                        �y the pu�lic, industry and agriculture
                                                                                                                    A variety of approaches are �eing used
                                                                                                                    at EU level to preserve Europe’s waters.
                                                                                                                    Legislation, market instruments, moni-
less than 1% of the world’s freshwa-                                    would increase �y 16% �y 2030. Cli-         toring, research and awareness raising
ter is accessi�le for direct human use.                                 mate change will add to the pro�lems        can all make a contri�ution.
Competition for water poses a growing                                   of water scarcity and droughts. On the
risk to the economy, communities and                                    other hand, it is estimated that some       �n 2000, the EU introduced the Water
the ecosystems they rely on. �f climate                                 20-40% of Europe’s availa�le water is       Framework Directive �WFD), the most
change keeps raising average tempera-                                   �eing wasted �through leaks in the sup-     am�itious and comprehensive piece of
tures across Europe, water is expected                                  ply system, dripping taps, unnecessary      EU legislation ever approved in water
to �ecome even scarcer in many areas,                                   irrigation etc.).                           policy. Taking a genuinely European
so it is vital to find solutions to protect
this resource.                                                         LIFE has contributed to preserve Europe’s waters with innovative approaches
                                                                       and technologies
An adequate supply of good-quality
                                              Photo: L�FE03 ENV/NL/000467




water is a pre-requisite for economic
and social progress, so we need to save
water, and also to manage our availa�le
resources more efficiently.


Water scarcity in the EU is most acute
in the south, �ut �y no means limited to
these areas: most Mem�er States have
suffered episodes of drought since 1976,
and many now report frequent water
scarcity pro�lems and over-exploited
aquifers. But demand for water con-
tinues to rise across Europe, putting a
 0


                   LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                                             2012. The Blueprint will foster a move
WATER EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                                                             towards prevention and preparedness
                                                                                                                                             with a view to ensuring a sustaina�le
                                                                                                                                             �alance �etween water demand and
                                                                                                                                             the supply of clean water, taking into
                                                                                                                                             account the needs of �oth human activ-
                                                                                                                                             ities and of natural ecosystems.


                                                                                                                                             As the importance of water efficiency
                                                                                                                                             �ecomes increasingly apparent, les-




                                                                                                               Photo: L�FE07 ENV/�T/000475
                                                                                                                                             sons and knowledge can �e drawn
                                                                                                                                             from the innovative approaches taken
                                                                                                                                             �y numerous L�FE projects. These
                                                                                                                                             have already �een at the forefront of
                                                                                                                                             investigating and developing new and
                   Measuring the river flow using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)                                                effective means of reducing water loss,
                                                                                                                                             improving natural recharge of ground-
                   approach, it esta�lishes a management          demand-side measures, e.g. water-sav-                                      water supplies, reducing demand and
                   system �ased on natural river �asin dis-       ing, water efficiency improvements and                                     reducing waste.
                   tricts rather than regional and national       water-pricing, have �een exhausted.
                   �oundaries. The aim is to �ring together                                                                                  liFE improvinG tHE supply
                   all water managers – from governments          A 2009 EU policy paper on adapting to                                      oF ClEan WatEr
                   to local communities – the pu�lic and          climate change highlights the need for
                   all affected sectors to safeguard ground       further measures to enhance water effi-                                    As much as 50% of water wastage in
                   and surface waters, and achieve good           ciency and to increase resilience to cli-                                  some areas of Europe is the result of
                   ecological status �y 2015.                     mate change. This approach reinforces                                      leaky infrastructure. �n addition to the
                                                                  the consistency of measures taken at                                       waste of resources and economic cost,
                   �n 2007, the EU put forward a Com-             �oth EU and national level, and sets the                                   leaks can have additional impacts on
                   munication addressing the challenge            scene for further European action.                                         groundwater quality. L�FE projects have
                   of water scarcity and droughts. The                                                                                       specifically tackled water loss from the
                   Communication identified seven policy          The policy on water scarcity and                                           supply infrastructure in different con-
                   initiatives that had to �e addressed if        droughts will �e reviewed �y 2012,                                         texts through the introduction of tech-
                   Europe was to move towards a water-            together with the assessment of the                                        nologies to detect leaks more rapidly
                   efficient and water-saving economy.            Mem�er States’ plans for managing                                          and �etter regulate water flow, cost-
                                                                  Europe’s river �asins, as required �y                                      effectively increasing the effective sup-
                   EU policy related to water scarcity and        the Water Framework Directive, and                                         ply of clean water to households and
                   droughts is �ased on the principle of a        the review of the vulnera�ility of water                                   �usinesses without having to explore
                   ‘water hierarchy’. This means that addi-       resources to climate impacts and other                                     new sources of water.
                   tional water supply infrastructure, such       man-made pressures. These evalua-
                   as water transfers or desalination plants,     tions will contri�ute to the Blueprint to                                  The RAKWANET project �LIFE00 ENV/
                   should �e considered only when all             Safeguard Europe’s Waters planned for                                      EE/000922) in Rakvere, Estonia showed
                                                                                                                                             that significant water savings could �e
                   Water losses were decreased by introducing an innovative detection system in Estonia                                      achieved in ageing Soviet-era infra-
                                                                                                                                             structure with a moderate investment.
                                                                                                              Photo: L�FE00 ENV/EE/000922




                                                                                                                                             The new system reduced the time taken
                                                                                                                                             to detect leaks from around six days to
                                                                                                                                             three and introduced a computerised
                                                                                                                                             cali�rated hydraulic model of the water
                                                                                                                                             network. By ena�ling quicker interven-
                                                                                                                                             tion, water losses were decreased from
                                                                                                                                             37% to 21% of total extraction.


                                                                                                                                             The Pump And Leakage Management
                                                                                                                                             project PALM �LIFE09 ENV/IT/000136)
                                                                                                                                             is a new �talian project taking a similar
                                                                                                                                             approach. �t is introducing the latest
                                                                                                                                             acoustic technologies to detect leaks
                                                                                                                                             and a cali�rated hydraulic model to
                                                                                                                                                                                               


                                          LIFE Focus                                  I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



optimise water flow and close valves to




                                                                                                                                                                                               WATER EFFICIENCY
control leaks.


Another �talian project, TRUST �LIFE07
ENV/IT/000475) has directly tackled the
challenge of over-exploited groundwa-
ter, which threatens the long-term sup-
ply of clean water. �t is working at river
�asin level to coordinate macro-actions
for artificial aquifer recharge using
excess surface waters, nota�ly caused
�y floods. The project is demonstrating
a cost-effective means of maintaining
natural water sources over time to meet
usage needs. �t is also introducing cli-
mate change predictions into river �asin
management to meet future, as well as
existing, challenges.


A different approach to making �et-
ter use of availa�le water resources is
to find cost-effective and environmen-
                                              Photo: L�FE07 ENV/�T/000475




tally friendly means of cleaning water
sources to a sufficient standard for their
use or re-use. The Dutch project VER-
BAL �LIFE03 ENV/NL/000467) success-
fully tested innovative vertical-flow reed
�eds for filtering surface water. �t demon-
strated that, in a closed system of mildly                                  The TRUST project is introducing climate change predictions in river basin management
polluted ur�an surface water, it could
reduce phosphate levels to �elow 0.05                                       ter �ackwash water from the process                                     liFE rEDuCinG DEmanD
mg/l, making the water not only suita�le                                    of cleaning frequently used filters in                                  For ClEan WatEr
for swimming and water sports, �ut also                                     groundwater treatment. The project was
providing a cleaner source for drinking                                     a�le to recover 99.85% of the water in                                  Dealing with limited water resources
water production.                                                           drinka�le form through the use of su�-                                  does not necessarily require dramatic
                                                                            merged mem�rane modules, effectively                                    solutions. As a num�er of L�FE projects
An earlier German L�FE project �LIFE98                                      increasing the remaining supply of clean                                have shown, significant progress can
ENV/D/000509) looked at re-use of fil-                                      fresh water and reducing waste.                                         �e made �y encouraging and ena�ling
                                                                                                                                                    households, �usinesses, farms and
A German project demonstrated a process to recover 99% of backwash water and use it                                                                 pu�lic �odies to use only the water
as drinking water                                                                                                                                   that they need, saving this valua�le
                                                                                                                       Photo: L�FE98 ENV/D/000509




                                                                                                                                                    resource and saving money and, in
                                                                                                                                                    agriculture, often leading to �etter end
                                                                                                                                                    results.


                                                                                                                                                    The least technical means of reducing
                                                                                                                                                    demand is increasing pu�lic aware-
                                                                                                                                                    ness of the need to save water and of
                                                                                                                                                    how small gestures, such as turning
                                                                                                                                                    taps off when not in use and taking a
                                                                                                                                                    shower rather than a �ath, can reduce
                                                                                                                                                    water consumption considera�ly. The
                                                                                                                                                    Eco-Animation project �LIFE07 INF/
                                                                                                                                                    UK/000950) has produced a series
                                                                                                                                                    of cartoons aimed at teaching young
                                                                                                                                                    children a�out key environmental mes-
                                                                                                                                                    sages including the importance of pre-
                                                                                                                                                    venting water wastage.
 


                   LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                   The city of Zaragoza in Spain has used
WATER EFFICIENCY




                   L�FE funding to turn itself into a demon-
                   stration ‘Water Saving City’, particularly
                   for other countries in southern Europe.
                   The city applied for L�FE funding
                   �LIFE96 ENV/E/000509) to run a mas-
                   sive awareness campaign. This used
                   the full range of media and promotional
                   tools to encourage households, �usi-
                   nesses and pu�lic authorities to reduce
                   their water consumption.


                   The project gave practical guidance
                   on how to save water and persuaded
                   more than 140 companies to market
                   and/or give discounts on water-saving
                   products. �t increased the sale of exist-
                                                                                               Photo: L�FE03 ENV/E/000164




                   ing domestic appliances with �uilt-in
                   water savers �y 15% and saw use of
                   water meters and water-saving taps
                   increase 400% and 600% respectively.
                   The num�er of households practising
                   water-saving measures dou�led and
                   over 1 �illion litres of water were saved                                                           An innovative watering system developed by the OPTIMIZAGUA project has brought great
                                                                                                                       efficiencies in the irrigation of crops and parks
                   in 1998 alone.


                   A num�er of partners in Zaragoza                                                                    Such approaches demonstrate how              tems for using non-drinking water in
                   sought to �uild on the progress made                                                                water efficiency policies can �e imple-      appropriate applications, such as street
                   �y the L�FE project and further initiatives                                                         mented without negative side-effects.        cleaning and watering gardens.
                   followed. A second L�FE project, OPT�-
                   M�ZAGUA �LIFE03 ENV/E/000164),                                                                      An innovative Dutch project, Maas-           WatEr EFFiCiEnCy
                   used sensors to detect moisture in soil                                                             tricht Water �LIFE00 ENV/NL/000790),         in aGriCulturE
                   and weather conditions, and com�ined                                                                worked to introduce a system of inte-
                   it with knowledge of the water needs                                                                grated water management for a cluster        We have already seen how L�FE fund-
                   of different crops and grass. This ena-                                                             of eight industries. �t sought to meet       ing has helped reduce water a�straction
                   �led an automated watering system to                                                                existing demand using less total water.      for agriculture. Another Spanish project
                   provide only the amount of water nec-                                                               Although una�le to achieve all its o�jec-    HAGAR �LIFE02 ENV/E/000210) also
                   essary on any given day, replacing the                                                              tives, it found synergies �etween indus-     introduced modern technologies into
                   previous safety-first approach of erring                                                            tries - for example one industry using the   irrigation systems to calculate the real-
                   on the side of too much water �for fur-                                                             wastewater of another - which reduced        time water requirements of plants and
                   ther details see pp 43-45).                                                                         overall water consumption. �t favoured       thus avoid over-watering. The project
                                                                                                                       use of water from the River Maas rather      extrapolated the results from 12 pilot
                   The EcoAnimation project worked with                                                                than already stressed groundwater sup-       fields and concluded that this optimisa-
                   children across several European countries                                                          plies and prevented the discharge of         tion of water use throughout the river
                   to evaluate the content of cartoons con-
                                                                                                                       nitrates into the water system.              �asin could restore natural aquifers and
                   cerning water
                                                                                                                                                                    wetland areas in its catchment, there�y
                                                                 Photo: L�FE07 �NF/UK/000950




                                                                                                                       The Dropawater project �LIFE02 ENV/          contri�uting to European �iodiversity
                                                                                                                       E/000183) sought to tackle all sides         o�jectives and international commit-
                                                                                                                       of the water efficiency question in the      ments such as the Ramsar Convention
                                                                                                                       water-stressed Spanish exclave of Ceuta      on Wetlands.
                                                                                                                       �North Africa). Demand in 3 800 houses
                                                                                                                       was reduced �y 10% through the intro-        The experiences of these and other L�FE
                                                                                                                       duction of state-of-the-art water meters.    projects point the way to achieving water
                                                                                                                       Water supply efficiencies were achieved      efficiency improvements and implement-
                                                                                                                       �y checking pipes metre-�y-metre for         ing the EU’s water hierarchy, as well as
                                                                                                                       leaks, a process which saved more than       achieving complementary European
                                                                                                                       dou�le the money it cost, through saved      o�jectives around water quality and
                                                                                                                       water. The project also introduced sys-      water-�ased ecosystems.
                                                                                                                                                                          


                                         LIFE Focus                                 I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




A	cleaner	and	more
     efficient transport
     system
                     LIFE projects are at the forefront of demonstrating successful approaches to imple-

                     menting EU legislation on sustainable transport. LIFE innovations contribute directly to

                     efforts to promote cleaner and more resource efficient transport systems, as well as

                     to reducing transport demand.




T      he transport sector is a major con-
       tri�utor to resource use in the EU,
not only in term of the significant use of
                                                                      improving the efficiency of transport
                                                                      systems, vehicles, mo�ility and logis-
                                                                      tics, and �y promoting a modal shift to
                                                                                                                         cient, secure and competitive transport
                                                                                                                         system �y 2050 that removes all o�sta-
                                                                                                                         cles to the internal market for transport,
non-renewa�le fossil fuels, �ut also in                               more sustaina�le transport options and             promotes clean technologies and mod-
terms of the environmental impact of                                  the transition to clean technologies and           ernises transport networks”.1
emissions from the com�ustion of these                                renewa�le energy sources. This is under-
fuels and the impact on ha�itats and the                              lined in the “Flagship initiative under the        EU transport policy currently addresses
landscape of transport infrastructure.                                Europe 2020 strategy”, which foresees a            some of these issues. A �inding target of
                                                                      reform of the trans-European networks
�n contrast to other sectors of the econ-                             for transport and states that the future
                                                                                                                          See COM (20) 2 Communication on
omy, progress in reducing these envi-                                 Transport White Paper will “present a              A resource-efficient Europe – Flagship initia-
ronmental impacts has �een slow. The                                  vision for a low-car�on, resource-effi-            tive under the Europe 2020 Strategy
transport sector still depends on fossil
fuel for around 97% of its total energy                                   LIFE projects have contributed towards a low-carbon, resource efficient and competitive
requirement and improvements in the                                       transport system
sector’s energy and emissions intensity
                                             Photo: L�FE06 ENV/D/000479




have not �een sufficient to offset growth
in transport volumes. The development
of new transport infrastructure, particu-
larly in the newer Mem�er States, also
continues to put pressure on ha�itats
and �iodiversity.

Technological improvements need to �e
made to transport systems to achieve a
more resource efficient Europe. Transport
is important to Europe’s economy, �ut
its environmental performance has to �e
improved �y reducing transport demand,
    


                                         LIFE Focus       I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                         a 10% share of renewa�le energy sources
S U S TA I N A B L E T R A N S P O R T




                                         in transport �y 2020 has �een agreed
                                         as part of the EU’s Climate and Energy
                                         package, which also sets targets for a
                                         20% reduction in greenhouse gas �GHG)
                                         emissions ��elow 1990 levels) and a 20%
                                         reduction in primary energy use �y 20202.
                                         �n addition, a �inding target was set to
                                         reduce transport fuel GHG intensity �car-


                                                                                          Photo: L�FE06 ENV/D/000477
                                         �on per unit energy) �y 6% �y 20203


                                         Legislation setting energy and emission
                                         performance standards for new pas-
                                         senger cars4, heavy vehicles and rail-
                                         way transport6 has also �een adopted.                                     The PARFUM project combined innovative technologies for clean vehicles for city logistics
                                         On the demand side, this is supported                                     and public transport
                                         �y initiatives to promote the market for
                                         clean and energy-efficient vehicles. EU                                   sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and                                      ENV/GR/000359), a project that tested
                                         air quality directives �in particular Direc-                              oxides of nitrogen, particulate mat-                                       the potential �enefits, and �arriers to
                                         tive 2008/50/EC), which set limits for                                    ter and lead concentrations in am�ient                                     market uptake, of cleaner and more effi-
                                                                                                                   air, provide further impetus to efforts                                    cient engine technologies.
                                                                                                                   to improve the environmental perform-
                                         2 Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of
                                         the use of energy from renewable sources                                  ance of the transport sector. Promoting a                                  Monitoring the energy performance of
                                          Directive 2009/0/EC on fuel quality                                    ‘modal shift’ from roads and air transport                                 hy�rid vehicles in the city of Thessa-
                                          Regulation (EC) No /2009 setting
                                         emission performance standards for new                                    towards more sustaina�le travel modes                                      loniki �Greece), the project showed that
                                         passenger cars as part of the Community’s                                 is also an important component of EU                                       fuel consumption was 52% lower in a
                                         integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions
                                                                                                                   transport policy7.                                                         hy�rid car than in a compara�le con-
                                         from light-duty vehicles
                                         5 Directive 88/77/EEC On the approximation                                                                                                           ventional car during use in ur�an areas
                                         of the laws of the Member States relating to                              mappinG tHE routE aHEaD                                                    and 27% lower on the motorway. Similar
                                         the measures to be taken against the emis-
                                         sion of gaseous pollutants from diesel engines                                                                                                       reductions in CO2 emissions were also
                                         for use in vehicles On the approximation of                               A good example of how L�FE Environ-                                        o�served. A survey of users of the test
                                         the laws of the Member States relating to the
                                         measures to be taken against the emission
                                                                                                                   ment has demonstrated successful                                           vehicles found that while most would �e
                                         of gaseous pollutants from diesel engines for                             approaches to improving transport effi-                                    willing to use a hy�rid car, the vast major-
                                         use in vehicles                                                           ciency is L�FE �MMACULATE �LIFE02                                          ity would only �uy one if it was the same
                                         6 Directive 97/68/EC on the approximation
                                         of the laws of the Member States relating to                                                                                                         price or cheaper than a conventional car
                                         measures against the emission of gaseous                                                                                                             in the same category. The project su�-
                                         and particulate pollutants from internal com-                             7 Regulation (EC) No 82/200 on the pro-
                                         bustion engines to be installed in non-road                               motion of clean and energy-efficient road                                  sequently carried out a detailed cost-
                                         mobile machinery                                                          transport vehicles                                                         �enefit analysis of different measures to
                                                                                                                                                                                              provide financial and non-financial incen-
                                                                                                                                                                                              tives to help �oost the market.
                                         The MHyBus LIFE project aims to develop and test a first prototype hydro-methane bus
                                                                                                                                                                Photo: L�FE07 ENV/�T/000434




                                                                                                                                                                                              L�FE PARFUM �LIFE06 ENV/D/000477)
                                                                                                                                                                                              looked at the potential of different clean
                                                                                                                                                                                              vehicle technologies �electric, hy�rid,
                                                                                                                                                                                              natural gas, methane) for city logistics
                                                                                                                                                                                              and pu�lic transport, focusing in partic-
                                                                                                                                                                                              ular on the cities of Bremen �Germany),
                                                                                                                                                                                              Padova ��taly) and Rotterdam �Nether-
                                                                                                                                                                                              lands). Modelling and monitoring car-
                                                                                                                                                                                              ried out during the project showed the
                                                                                                                                                                                              disproportionate environmental impact
                                                                                                                                                                                              of heavy duty vehicles �HDV), which only
                                                                                                                                                                                              represent some 10% of city traffic, �ut
                                                                                                                                                                                              can contri�ute up to 50% of harmful
                                                                                                                                                                                              emissions.


                                                                                                                                                                                              The project demonstrated the potential
                                                                                                                                                                                              of the different technologies to reduce air
                                                                                                                                                                                                     


                                            LIFE Focus                                 I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                                                        tovoltaic electric recharging su�-stations




                                                                                                                                                                                                     S U S TA I N A B L E T R A N S P O R T
                                                                                                                                                        and two �iodiesel processing plants,
                                                                                                                                                        which together will provide sufficient
                                                                                                                                                        energy to power the two �uses.


                                                                                                                                                        EnCouraGinG bEHavioural
                                                                                                                                                        CHanGE




                                                                                                                           Photo: L�FE02 ENV/E/000253
                                                                                                                                                        Encouraging a shift to more sustaina�le
                                                                                                                                                        modes of transport is a key component of
                                                                                                                                                        EU transport policy. The L�FE S�DDHARTA
                                                                                                                                                        project �LIFE03 ENV/IT/000319), suc-
                                                                                                                                                        cessfully demonstrated the �enefits of
                                                                                                                                                        introducing a ‘demand responsive’ pu�-
The ECOBUS project collected cooking oil to produce some 2 000 litres of bio-diesel to                                                                lic transport service on two ur�an �us
fuel 26 buses in Valencia                                                                                                                              routes in the city of Genoa ��taly). The
                                                                                                                                                        existing diesel-powered �uses on these
pollution, especially in ur�an hot spots,                                 �n Portugal, the O�L PROD�ESEL project                                        routes were replaced with methane-run
�ut it also highlighted the importance                                    �LIFE05 ENV/P/000369) also successfully                                       vehicles, which were then operated “on-
of support measures and incentives to                                     developed an integrated system for the                                        demand” �i.e. the passenger would enter
encourage the wider uptake of these                                       collection and recycling of used cooking                                      journey start and end points via phone or
technologies.                                                             oil. Located in Oeiras, a small town on the                                   �nternet and a computer system would
                                                                          outskirts of Lis�on, the L�FE project esta�-                                  then match the request to the vehicle in
Hydrogen also offers considera�le poten-                                  lished 20 collection points and developed                                     the �est way).
tial as a clean and renewa�le transport fuel                              a prototype 1 000-litre �iodiesel process-
when produced from renewa�le sources.                                     ing plant. The fuel produced was tested in                                    The new service was then promoted
Recognising this potential, the MHyBus                                    the municipal transport fleet, demonstrat-                                    with an awareness-raising campaign, to
project �LIFE07 ENV/IT/000434), which                                     ing �oth energy and cost savings.                                             encourage private car users to switch to
is �eing implemented �y the Region of                                                                                                                   pu�lic transport. The pilot scheme, which
Emilia-Romagna ��taly) aims to develop                                    Recycling of waste oil is an important com-                                   ran from June 2004 to Septem�er 2005
and test a first prototype hydro-methane                                  ponent of the ETRUSCAN project �LIFE08                                        showed an increase from 40% to 63%
�us, powered �y a fuel �lend of up to                                     ENV/IT/000425), which also incorpo-                                           in the num�ers of daily pu�lic transport
20% hydrogen and 80% natural gas.                                         rates the use of solar power in order to                                      users within the target zone.
                                                                          demonstrate, not only the potential for
From tHE FryinG pan                                                       increased use of renewa�le energy in the                                      Modal shift was also the aim of the
to tHE FlEEt                                                              pu�lic transport system, �ut also the pos-                                    GESMOPOL� project �LIFE05 ENV/
                                                                          si�ility to source all of this energy locally.                                E/000262), which esta�lished on-site
Focusing on the production of transport                                   The project will develop two hy�rid �us                                       partnerships to promote sustaina�le
fuel from recycled material, the L�FE                                     prototypes. �t will also esta�lish two pho-                                   mo�ility in six industrial parks in the
ECOBUS project �LIFE02 ENV/E/000253)
demonstrated the potential for producing                                      The ETRUSCAN’s project prototype urban bus also incorporates solar power
�iofuels from used cooking oil. The project
                                                Photo: L�FE08 ENV/�T/000425




esta�lished a collection system involving
800 commercial esta�lishments, as well
as three collection points for domestic
waste oil. The waste oil collected was
then processed to produce �io-diesel,
which was mixed with conventional die-
sel to power the city’s �us fleet. During the
project, around 800 000 litres of cooking
oil was collected to produce 322 654 litres
of �io-diesel that was used to fuel 264
�uses, displacing an equivalent amount
of conventional diesel. As an additional
result of the project, the �eneficiary sent
Valencia City Council a proposal to esta�-
lish, at local level, regulations for manag-
ing the used cooking oil.
    


                                         LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use


                                         region of Catalonia �Spain). Mo�ility plans
                                         were produced for each estate and pilot
S U S TA I N A B L E T R A N S P O R T




                                         actions were carried out to promote and
                                         demonstrate the �enefits of car pool-
                                         ing and alternative modes of transport.


                                         ClEanEr anD morE EFFiCiEnt
                                         transport ovEr WatEr

                                         EU transport policy actively encour-
                                         ages a modal shift to transport over
                                         water as a more sustaina�le alternative       Photo: L�FE03 ENV/NL/000474

                                         to road or air transport. However, it also
                                         recognises the considera�le scope for
                                         improving the environmental perform-
                                         ance of water-�ased transport, which
                                         is still largely reliant on diesel or heavy
                                         fuel oils.                                                                  The smallest liquid natural gas carrier in the world was built by the LNG project which
                                                                                                                     reduced CO2, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide emissions
                                         The L�FE LNG Tanker project �LIFE03
                                         ENV/NL/000474) �uilt and delivered the                                      ment, an SME that manages heavy lift                                     Power-assisted �y an electric motor run
                                         smallest liquid natural gas �LNG) carrier                                   cargo shipments worldwide, the project                                   from a fuel cell, the ship commenced
                                         in the world, the 1 100 m3 Pioneer Knut-                                    succeeded in developing the SkySails-                                    service in August 2008 on Ham�urg’s
                                         sen, which operated on short sea water-                                     System: a fully automated towing kite                                    Alster lake.
                                         ways in Norway for a 41-week demon-                                         and a wind-optimised routing system,
                                         stration phase. Compared with a diesel                                      which is designed to �e used in addition                                 intEGratED approaCHEs
                                         alternative, the ship demonstrated a                                        to the ship’s propeller. The first proto-
                                         30% reduction in CO2 emissions, a 60%                                       type was tested in 2008 and during its                                   Bringing together a com�ination of dif-
                                         reduction in hydrocar�on emissions and                                      maiden voyage energy savings of more                                     ferent approaches, the CATCH project
                                         an 80% reduction of NOx. The success                                        than 20% were achieved, equivalent                                       �LIFE02 ENV/UK/000136) successfully
                                         of the project led to an order for three                                    to daily savings of some 2.5 tonnes of                                   demonstrated the potential of inte-
                                         similar vessels from Gaz de France.                                         fuel, or more than €500, according to                                    grated strategies for reducing the envi-
                                                                                                                     the project �eneficiary.                                                 ronmental impact of transport. Focusing
                                         L�FE W�NTECC �LIFE06 ENV/D/000479)                                                                                                                   primarily on the city of Liverpool �UK),
                                         demonstrated an innovative wind pro-                                        Another German project, ZEM/SH�PS                                        the project com�ined actions to reduce
                                         pulsion technology for cargo vessels.                                       (LIFE06 ENV/D/000465), developed the                                     transport demand, such as walking
                                         �mplemented �y Beluga Fleet Manage-                                         first hydrogen-powered passenger ship.                                   and cycling initiatives, with the deploy-
                                                                                                                                                                                              ment of clean fuels and hy�rid �uses.
                                         LIFE WINTECC used an automated towing kite for propelling cargo ships                                                                                The project’s evaluation showed that
                                                                                                                                                                                              the wider implementation of the project
                                                                                                                                                                 Photo: L�FE06 ENV/D/000479




                                                                                                                                                                                              actions throughout the city would result
                                                                                                                                                                                              in emissions reductions of 50 939
                                                                                                                                                                                              tonnes/yr of CO2, contri�uting directly
                                                                                                                                                                                              to the EU GHG reduction targets, as well
                                                                                                                                                                                              as targets for air quality and the use of
                                                                                                                                                                                              renewa�le energy sources.


                                                                                                                                                                                              The L�FE RAVE project �LIFE02 ENV/
                                                                                                                                                                                              IT/000106) also successfully demon-
                                                                                                                                                                                              strated an integrated “slow mo�ility sys-
                                                                                                                                                                                              tem” in the city of Novara, �taly. Led �y
                                                                                                                                                                                              the city council, the project com�ined
                                                                                                                                                                                              the creation of protected pedestrian
                                                                                                                                                                                              areas, cycle paths and �icycle parking
                                                                                                                                                                                              with the introduction of fast, low-emis-
                                                                                                                                                                                              sion �uses and intelligent traffic lights.
                                                                                                                                                                                              These measures were complemented
                                                                                                                                                                                              �y a strategy to discourage the use of
                                                                                                                                                                                              motorised vehicles.
                                                                                                                                                                                        


                                       LIFE Focus                                                         I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




LIFE	helps	boosts
      the energy efficiency
      of EU building stock

                    Europe’s buildings offer many possibilities for making positive contributions to the

                    objectives of the EU’s resource efficiency Flagship, particularly via improvements in

                    energy performance. A variety of LIFE projects have been active in this area and their

                    results are helping Europe’s buildings steer a more sustainable course.




A       s much as 40% of EU energy
        consumption and 36% of EU
CO 2 emissions are associated with
                                                                                                 complement goals in DG Environment’s
                                                                                                 Resource-efficient Europe Flagship to
                                                                                                 improve energy profiles of �uildings.
                                                                                                                                            with these strategic am�itions and an
                                                                                                                                            interesting array of L�FE projects have
                                                                                                                                            �een helping the EU �uilding sector
�uildings. Resource efficiency prin-                                                                                                        pave the way to a more energy efficient
ciples are therefore highly relevant                                                             Bold targets have �een set across the EU   future. Furthermore, as of 2013, all Mem-
for Europe’s �uilding stock. Efforts to                                                          so that �y 31 Decem�er 2020, all new       �er States will have to set their minimum
improve the energy efficiency of �oth                                                            �uildings shall �e nearly zero-energy      energy performance requirements �ased
existing and new �uilt premises pro-                                                             consumption �uildings. New �uildings       on a lifecycle assessment, ensuring opti-
vide significant opportunities for miti-                                                         occupied and owned �y pu�lic authori-      mal cost efficiency.
gating negative climate change effects.                                                          ties will have to comply with the same
Bettering �uildings’ energy efficiency                                                           criteria �y 31 Decem�er 2018. Signifi-
performance can also make useful con-                                                            cant structural challenges are involved
tri�utions to improving energy security,
and simultaneously generate employ-
ment in related sectors.


Policy approaches for strengthening
                                           Photo: L�FE00 ENV/A/000243 and Markus Reisein�erger




resource efficient �uilding practices
are promoted through the Directive
on Energy Performance of Buildings
�2002/91/EC) and its recast �2010/31/
EU). This sets common Mem�er State
standards and certification require-
ments for important energy consump-
tion factors such as heating, lighting,
insulation, and air conditioning sys-
tems. The directive’s o�jectives closely
   


                             LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Photo: L�FE04 ENV/GR/000137
                             Energy efficiency in heating and cooling was demonstrated thanks to an innovative methodology for sustainable school buildings



                             systEmatiC anD simpliFiED                      ing design methods for schools. The                                                        improved energy efficiency, estimated
                             approaCHEs                                     result was a methodology on sustain-                                                       at 35-50% for heating, and 25-30% for
                                                                            a�le school �uildings that was tailored                                                    cooling.
                             Directive 2002/91/EC calls for strong          to the particular needs of Mediterranean
                             methodological approaches to improve           countries. The new methodology holds                                                       Another example of a �eneficial
                             energy efficiency in �uildings. Several        strong demonstration value for other                                                       resource efficiency methodology �eing
                             different L�FE actions have addressed          parts of the region and is especially                                                      introduced �y L�FE can �e seen in
                             this requirement. For instance, for the        relevant for improving the performance                                                     the EQuation project �LIFE00 ENV/
                             transnational L�FE project SB-MED              of existing �uildings. By incorporating                                                    NL/000808), which showed that energy
                             �LIFE04 ENV/GR/000137), partners from          factors such as alternative cooling tech-                                                  performance gains of 15% were pos-
                             Greece, France and Germany joined              niques, appropriate materials, natural                                                     si�le �y adopting sustaina�le design
                             forces to collate, adapt and apply �est        shading and renewa�le energy the new                                                       approaches. EQuation was nominated
                             practices in European sustaina�le �uild-       methodology creates cost savings from                                                      as a “Best” L�FE Environment project in
                                                                                                                                                                       2004-2005 �see pp 21-25).
                             Wood and straw used for wall insulation helped the S-HOUSE project cut energy con-
                             sumption                                                                                                                                  Award schemes are often useful for
                                                                                                                                                                       identifying and disseminating good
                                                                                                                        Photo: Monique Braem and L�FE00 ENV/A/000243




                                                                                                                                                                       practices in resource efficiency meth-
                                                                                                                                                                       odologies, and L�FE’s SUSCON project
                                                                                                                                                                       �LIFE05 ENV/GR/000235) ran a series
                                                                                                                                                                       of competitions to encourage eco-
                                                                                                                                                                       friendly construction techniques among
                                                                                                                                                                       pu�lic and private sector stakeholders.
                                                                                                                                                                       This work formed part of the project’s
                                                                                                                                                                       wider actions involving the design of
                                                                                                                                                                       computerised systems for reducing the
                                                                                                                                                                       environmental impact of construction
                                                                                                                                                                       works. The software developed during
                                                                                                                                                                       the L�FE project represented an innova-
                                                                                                                                                                       tion in Greece and Cyprus �ecause it
                                                                                                                                                                       provided for the first time a full-scale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          


                                           LIFE Focus                                                   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



application of �ntegrated Product Policy




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS
��PP) and sustaina�le construction tech-
niques �com�ining energy efficiency with
land use, low impact materials, water con-
servation, health and safety and economic
performance criteria).


The results of these L�FE-funded works



                                               Photo: Monique Braem and L�FE00 ENV/A/000243
directly support high level EU initiatives
such as the Action Plan for Energy Effi-
ciency and will of course remain valua�le
for helping the resource efficiency Flagship
navigate the challenges that lay ahead.


ECo-innovations

�n addition to promoting more simpli-
fied and systematic approaches to
                                                                                              Austria’s S-House built an ‘eco-office’ from renewable and recyclable raw materials
resource efficiency, the Flagship also
underscores the importance of speed-
ing up and spreading eco-innovations.                                                         concrete walls. To add to this material         tion uses su�stantial amounts of energy
The L�FE programme has �een at the                                                            efficiency, the S-House also featured a         and accounts for some 5% of world-
vanguard of such new thinking, through                                                        large, south-facing glazed facade and           wide annual CO2 emissions.
projects such as Austria’s S-House                                                            stone flooring to capture heat, as well
�LIFE00 ENV/A/000243), which �uilt an                                                         as a prototype �iomass stove capa�le            The project aimed to lower the volumes
‘eco-office’ from renewa�le and recy-                                                         of storing and regulating energy.               of concrete required for conventional
cla�le raw materials. Extensive use of                                                                                                        facades and walls through the intro-
wood and straw for the outer panelling                                                        matErial EFFiCiEnCy                             duction of high-tech textiles that could
and wall insulation helped cut energy                                                                                                         reinforce cement mixes and create
consumption �y 9 kWh/m2/yr compared                                                           The German �NSU-SHELL project                   stronger, thinner walls �reduced from
with a standard house. �t also helped                                                         �LIFE06 ENV/D/000471) focused its               the standard 70 mm to a more ‘material
save raw materials, using only 10% of                                                         attention on the issue of ‘material effi-       efficient’ 10 or 20 mm). This raw mate-
the amount of natural resources that                                                          ciency’ in order to reduce the impact of        rial efficiency offers the prospect of sig-
would have �een needed for standard                                                           the concrete industry - cement produc-          nificant associated energy savings.




         E C O - CAMPS                                                                                                                                                                      Photo: L�FE04 ENV/FR/000321

         The French ECO-CAMPS proj-
ect (LIFE0 ENV/FR/000) demon-
strated a series of resource efficient
eco-design innovations tailored to the
needs of campsite managers. The proj-
ect showed how energy consumption
of chalet heating could be cut by 60%
and of camping appliances by 28%
when chalets were made more energy
efficient through improved insulation,
natural lighting, solar power and roof
planting. Europe’s camping sector has
experienced a resurgence in recent
years and this LIFE project will help
spread the word about how to build
energy efficient, eco-friendly camping
facilities.
   0


                                                          LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS




                                                                                                                                               RENEW BUILDING
                                                                                                                                               A lot of effort has been invested in improving the energy efficiency
                                                                                                                                      potential of new buildings but Europe’s existing building stock is badly in
                                                                                                                                      need of solutions to boost its energy performance. LIFE’s RENEW BUILDING




                                                                                                       Photo: L�FE02 ENV/A/000285
                                                                                                                                      (LIFE0 ENV/A/000) tackles this challenge by strengthening the environ-
                                                                                                                                      mental capacity of the renovation sector. Concluding in 2012, RENEW BUILD-
                                                                                                                                      ING is facilitating knowledge transfers about energy and resource efficient
                                                                                                                                      construction materials and providing training in sustainable renovation skills
                                                                                                                                      among target groups in the renovation trade that are often difficult to reach,
                                                          An Austrian project validated considerable
                                                          energy savings with green construction                                      such as micro businesses and SMEs.
                                                          techniques


                                                          This new know-how �uilds on a grow-                                       More data on material efficient techniques     ing applied research into intelligent home
                                                          ing li�rary of data from L�FE projects                                    will soon �e availa�le from the ongoing        technologies, renewa�le energies and
                                                          demonstrating effective energy efficient                                  EDEA project �LIFE07 ENV/E/000805),            methods for reducing gas, heat, dust and
                                                          �uilding techniques. Nota�le among                                        which aims to improve knowledge a�out          light emissions.
                                                          these is Austria’s L�FE BBMpassiv                                         resource efficiency in social housing
                                                          project �LIFE02 ENV/A/000285) which                                       developments. The project seeks to show        knoWlEDGE builDinG
                                                          validated a series of green construc-                                     how appropriate design of new products,
                                                          tion techniques during its investment in                                  along with suita�le application of exist-      As noted earlier, L�FE has �een and will
                                                          the development of a multi-functional,                                    ing products, can considera�ly improve         continue to �e an invalua�le source for
                                                          multi-storey administration �uilding.                                     the environmental performance of �uild-        helping pu�lic, private and NGO sectors
                                                          The result has �een the creation of a                                     ings. �t aims to do this without increasing    develop new know-how on energy and
                                                          ‘passive house’ that requires only 14                                     costs �eyond the scope of social hous-         other resource efficiency components.
                                                          kWh/m²/yr of heat thanks to the use of                                    ing schemes. To this end, the project has      Building knowledge a�out cost-effec-
                                                          hemp and cellulose insulating material.                                   �uilt an ‘experimental’ house, a social        tive ways to achieve a resource efficient
                                                          The energy efficient �uilding, which pri-                                 housing facility that is acting as a ‘living   Europe is considered vital �y the EU and
                                                          oritises airtight fa�rics, could save 75                                  la�oratory’ for testing and demonstrating      will play a long-term role in helping the
                                                          000 kg of CO2/yr in comparison with a                                     resource efficient approaches for low-cost     Flagship sail towards its goal of a sus-
                                                          conventional �uilding.                                                    homes. Here, the EDEA team is conduct-         taina�le horizon.


                                                          The EDEA project is improving knowledge about resource efficiency in social housing developments
                             Photo: L�FE07 ENV/E/000805
                                                                                                                                          


                                          LIFE Focus    I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                     Buildings’ capacity to store and regulate energy affects their efficiency ratings, and




                                                                                                                                          ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS
                     LIFE funds have been used to help offset financial risks involved with finding eco-inno-

                     vation solutions for new types of resource efficient building materials that can reduce

                     European energy bills.




Taking	the	risk	out	of		
     resource efficiency
     investments

T     rends in �uilding techniques over
       recent years have seen a �oom
in the use of prefa�ricated, lightweight
                                              �uildings provide more sta�le internal
                                              temperatures and they tend to have
                                              lower heating or cooling costs.
                                                                                           state, and in doing so releases the stored
                                                                                           �latent) energy �ack into the room.The
                                                                                           result is a natural passive solution that
and modular constructions. This trend                                                      does not require air conditioning.”
is especially strong in the housing sec-      Market trends for lightweight �uild-
tor where wood and metal frame �uild-         ings with low thermal mass have hence        Despite the energy efficiency potential
ings are faster and cheaper to �uild than     created an escalating environmental          of PCMs, their wider use in the past had
concrete or stone alternatives. These         pro�lem that conflicts with practical        �een hindered �y application pro�lems.
modern techniques can reduce the cost         and policy requirements for increased        Dupont set out to tackle this issue �y
of construction �ut they often remain         energy efficiency and improved energy        developing a user-friendly PCM panel
environmentally flawed in terms of the        �alances.                                    that could �e easily installed in any �uild-
�uilding’s ‘thermal mass’.                                                                 ing, especially lightweight, quick-�uild,
                                              liGHtWEiGHt matErials                        prefa�ricated structures.
Thermal mass is the a�ility of a �uilding     WitH a HiGH tHErmal mass
to a�sor� and store heat. Buildings that                                                   risk rEDuCtion
contain a lot of dense material, such as      A L�FE project �ased in Luxem�ourg
concrete or stone, are a�le to soak up        has helped develop an innovative solu-       A lack of market demand for PCM �uild-
heat or light energy and store this within    tion for this pro�lem. The EFFERNERGY        ing panels represented a large risk for
the walls, floors and ceilings. Buildings     project �LIFE06 ENV/L/000121) was led        DuPont. L�FE support is a�le to help
made of materials such as wood and            �y the Buildings �nnovation department       companies �ridge such risk gaps and the
metal cannot soak up and store as much        of the private sector firm DuPont, and       programme’s role in this area is acknowl-
energy and have a lower thermal mass.         L�FE support helped the company work
                                              with SMEs to design a new type of light-
                                                                                           Placement of the innovative thermal-mass
Rooms in low thermal mass �uildings           weight �uilding material that exhi�its a     panels made of a wax-polymer blend
therefore heat up quicker during hot          high thermal mass.
weather and �ecome colder faster in win-
ter. They are less energy efficient �ecause   “The key to our eco innovation is a
they consume new energy each time the         ‘Phase Change Material’ �PCM) which
room needs to �e heated to a comfort-         changes its form at different tempera-
a�le temperature, or cooled down using        tures,” explains Wim Maes, DuPont’s
air conditioning units. Heating and air       Contract Operations Manager for
conditioning appliances are the largest       Europe. “We have produced a thin flat
users of energy in Europe’s �uildings.        wall panel that contains an internal layer
                                              of special wax. When the temperature
Buildings with higher thermal mass are        in a room increases a�ove 21 degrees
a�le to �etter a�sor� heat energy from        Celsius the wax in the PCM panel starts
solar or indoor sources. They store           to a�sor� heat energy and slowly melts.
the heat and release it when the room         �f the room temperature drops to �elow
temperature drops, as part of a natural       21 degrees the liquid wax material then
passive energy cycle. These types of          starts to change its phase �ack to a solid
   


                             LIFE Focus        I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                              Other options for increasing uptake of
ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS




                                                                                                                              this type of eco-innovation lay with the
                                                                                                                              insurance certification systems that are
                                                                                                                              required for �uilding materials. Before
                                                                                                                              �uilders can start a construction project
                                                                                                                              they normally need to get insurance to
                                                                                                                              cover their work and insurance compa-
                                                                                                                              nies seek assurances that the products
                                                                                                                              �eing used in a �uilding are safe. All new
                                                                                                                              products need to �e certified for insur-
                                                                                                                              ance purposes and so the energy sav-
                                                                                                                              ing �enefits availa�le from PCM panels
                             EFFENERGY improved the thermal performance of existing buildings
                                                                                                                              could also �e accelerated �y help from
                                                                                                                              the product certification �odies. DuPont
                             edged as a highly useful tool �y �enefici-        important lesson from the project – think      have found this certification process slow
                             aries. Mr Maes reiterates this and says,          ahead and start work early on determining      and expensive. “�t’s �een difficult for us
                             “Research and development money at                product specifications.                        as a large company, so imagine how chal-
                             DuPont is very competitive �ut with the                                                          lenging it might �e for smaller companies
                             help of L�FE we were a�le to raise enough         ovErCominG obstaClEs                           with similarly good eco-innovation ideas,”
                             financial support to get our project started.                                                    says Ms. Koster.
                             Without L�FE’s help the eco-innovations           �n addition to the issue of defining speci-
                             we have introduced to the �uilding market         fications, a num�er of other time-con-         in ConClusion
                             might never have gotten further than the          suming o�stacles were overcome �y
                             drawing �oard. The L�FE project helped            the project, and these offer some useful       Examining the EFFERNERGY project
                             us overcome the period when we didn’t             insights for decision-makers involved in       highlights the facts that energy storage is
                             have an income.”                                  promoting resource efficiency at regional,     a core part of energy efficiency, and that
                                                                               national and EU levels. For example,           PCM is an excellent solution for energy
                             Ulrike Koster from DuPont explains fur-           EFFERNERGY has shown how �uilding              storage in modern �uilding methodolo-
                             ther, “�t’s not a�out creating a new mate-        codes can hamper the uptake of PCM             gies. �n 10 years time we might expect
                             rial that will land in an existing market. �t’s   panels �ecause “the official methodolo-        that this approach could �e much more
                             a�out creating a new solution with new            gies for calculating energy performance        common, and this may �e in part attri�-
                             material landing in a non-existent market.        do not know PCM yet,” explains Jacques         uted to the risk finance provided �y L�FE
                             L�FE helped us to define a market strategy        Gilsent, DuPont’s marketing manager.           to help DuPont and its partners produce
                             for commercialising the initial eco innova-       “They know concrete and they know              the industry’s first ever user-friendly PCM
                             tion idea of the PCM panel.”                      stone, so if you are �uilder and you want      �uilding panel.
                                                                               to get the energy efficiency of your �uild-
                             CommErCialisinG pCm                               ing validated you can only use conven-
                                                                               tional materials.”
                             Much of the project’s €1.51 million of L�FE
                             co-finance was spent on the prototyping           This issue still represents a serious o�sta-
                             phases for the PCM panels. Most of this           cle to the energy saving �enefits of PCMs
                             money was used �y the SME and aca-                and only the regulators can change the
                             demic partners from France and Greece             system. As each Mem�er State has its
                             that were involved in testing the PCM             own �uilding regulations, each Mem�er
                             materials. Nota�le among this work was            State has the power to make the changes
                                                                                                                                            LUXEMBOURG
                             the development of new software to deter-         needed for promoting more energy effi-
                             mine the specifications of the panel.             cient �uilding materials. “The main driver        Project number: L�FE06 ENV/L/000121
                                                                               for changes in the industry continues
                                                                                                                                 Title: EFFENERGY - Energy Efficient
                             Without defined specifications the new            to �e the official rules and legislation,”        Building Systems
                             product would not �e a�le to �e adopted           stresses Mr. Gilsent. Thus, a review of
                                                                                                                                 Beneficiary: DuPont Luxem�ourg
                             �y the market. Thanks to the work started         �uilding regulations and certification sys-
                                                                                                                                 Contact: Wim Maes
                             under L�FE and continued after-L�FE, in           tems �y decision-makers could encour-
                             2010, DuPont made software availa�le              age the industry to change its �ehaviour.         Email: wim.maes@lux.dupont.com
                             for the trade that includes PCM specifica-        Wim Maes �elieves this “is in the inter-          Website: http://www.effenergy.dupont.com
                             tions. Building designers and their clients       est of everyone who wants to change the           Period: Dec-2005 to Nov-2008
                             can now check the energy efficiency and           energy �ill of the EU”. As part of any such       Total budget: e5 610 000
                             thermal comfort of a �uilding that includes       review, the role of su�sidies could �e con-
                                                                                                                                 LIFE contribution: e1 510 000
                             the PCM panels. DuPont says this was an           sidered.
                                                                                                                                                                                       


                                        LIFE Focus                                                     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




Protecting Europe’s
    fisheries and marine
    resources

                    Overfishing, pollution and unsustainable coastal development present a serious threat

                    to the EU’s marine environment and coastal areas. LIFE projects are actively contribut-

                    ing to the implementation of EU policy to tackle these issues, testing and demonstrat-

                    ing new tools and approaches for protecting and conserving our marine resources,

                    including fish stocks.




E      urope’s coastal and maritime
       areas are central to its well�eing
and prosperity. Oceans and seas cover
                                                                                             negative impacts of climate change on
                                                                                             coasts and the marine environment.
                                                                                                                                            The ecosystem approach of the Marine
                                                                                                                                            Strategy Framework Directive �MSFD
                                                                                                                                            - see �ox) allows for the sustaina�le
more than half of EU territory and mari-                                                     �f the resilience of our marine ecosys-        use of goods and services, such as fish
time regions are home to a�out 40%                                                           tems is continually undermined, the            stocks and other resources ��iological
of the EU population. These areas also                                                       potential to provide important resources       resources, minerals, ecosystem services
generate some 40% of EU GDP, with                                                            and services – ranging from food pro-          and renewa�le marine energy sources).
economic activities focusing on areas                                                        vision to climate change and erosion           These marine resources, many of which
such as shipping and ship�uilding,                                                           a�atement to �ioremediation of waste           are still unknown, have a high potential
fisheries, offshore energy and coastal                                                       and pollutants, as well as tourism and         and can �e used in applications such as
and maritime tourism. The exploita-                                                          aesthetic enjoyment - will also �e com-        pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, �iotech-
tion of mineral resources, aquaculture,                                                      promised.                                      nology, �io-engineering/�ionics, food
�lue �iotechnology and emerging su�-
sea technologies are also increasingly
                                                                                             The Baltic MPAs project worked with fishermen to gather data on fishery by-catch
important sectors.
                                            Photo: Markus Vetemaa and L�FE05 NAT/LV/000100




Facilitating the co-existence and devel-
opment of these different sectors, while
also protecting the marine environment
on which they depend, is an increas-
ingly important challenge for the EU.
Overexploitation of fish stocks, pollu-
tion from land and sea-�ased sources,
and unsustaina�le development now
represent a major threat. These pro�-
lems are further compounded �y the
  


                                                          LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                          production and processing. The careful
FISH AND MARINE RESOURCES




                                                          exploitation of some minerals and renew-                THE EU’S INTEGRATED MARINE POLICY
                                                          a�le energy resources may also relieve                  The European Union, through its Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP),
                                                          pressure on land-�ased ecosystems
                                                                                                         aims to promote the sustainable use of oceans, seas and coasts. The IMP
                                                          and reduce dependency on resources
                                                                                                         fosters interaction between all sea-related sectors and policies in the EU,
                                                          outside of the EU. Furthermore, marine
                                                          and maritime technologies, resources           in particular transport, fisheries, customs and the protection of the marine
                                                          and services serve as catalysts for inno-      environment.
                                                          vation, competitiveness and, ultimately,       Adopted in June 2008, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/
                                                          �lue growth and jo�s.
                                                                                                         EC) represents the environmental pillar of the IMP. The directive aims “to
                                                                                                         achieve good environmental status of the EU’s marine waters by 2020 and
                                                          There are ways to guarantee resource
                                                          efficiency of our seas in the future, such     to protect the resource base upon which marine-related economic and social
                                                          as �y promoting sustaina�le fishing tech-      activities depend.” The directive provides for Member States and non-EU
                                                          niques, minimising discard and �y-catch        countries to cooperate within European Marine Regions to develop and
                                                          practises, developing technologies that
                                                                                                         implement strategies to achieve this goal.
                                                          exploit marine resources sustaina�ly,
                                                          and �y preventing marine litter and pol-
                                                          lution. L�FE funded projects have a key      seeks to increase production of, and            is working closely with stakeholders from
                                                          role to play in demonstrating how this is    develop a market for, ecological mari-          several Mem�er States to test colla�ora-
                                                          possi�le in practice.                        culture products �y promoting ecologi-          tive methodologies for implementing an
                                                                                                       cal certification. �t will create a directory   ecosystem approach in the Celtic Sea.
                                                          liFE in our sEas                             of German mariculture and esta�lish a           Like other EU seas and oceans, the Celtic
                                                          anD oCEans                                   regional committee on sustaina�le mari-         Sea is under threat from a variety of exter-
                                                                                                       culture, leading to a draft White Paper         nal pressures �climate change, fisheries,
                                                          L�FE projects are at the forefront of        and a code of practice.                         food cultivation in the open ocean, chemi-
                                                          developing and demonstrating innova-                                                         cal pollution, shipping, construction and
                                                          tive approaches that contri�ute to the       tEstinG an ECosystEm                            dredging, coastal development, recreation
                                                          effective implementation of EU policy on     approaCH in tHE CEltiC sEa                      and tourism).
                                                          the marine environment. These projects
                                                          address a wide range of issues, including    An ecosystem-�ased approach to manag-           The project will �ring together stakehold-
                                                          the conservation of fish stocks, com�at-     ing marine resources is a key component         ers and government representatives and
                                                          ing marine pollution, preserving ha�itats    of the MSFD. This approach involves the         will lead to the development of agreed
                                                          and �iodiversity, and the application of     integrated management of land, water            mechanisms for implementing an ecosys-
                                                          an ecosystem approach to managing            and living resources in a way that pro-         tem approach to managing and overcom-
                                                          marine resources.                            motes conservation and sustaina�le use          ing these pressures.
                                                                                                       of resources in an equita�le way. �t is now
                                                          The L�FE ECOSMA project �LIFE07 ENV/         widely recognised as the �est means of          rECyClinG soliD WastE
                                                          D/000229), for example, is looking at        managing and governing activities affect-
                                                          ways to promote more sustaina�le aqua-       ing the marine environment.                     Contri�uting directly to the implementa-
                                                          culture as a means of relieving stress on                                                    tion of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy,
                                                          wild fish stocks and improving water         Contri�uting to knowledge in this area, the     the �ntegrated Maritime Policy and the
                                                          quality in the Baltic Sea. The project       P�SCES project �LIFE07 ENV/UK/000943)           Waste Framework Directive, the 3R-F�SH
                                                                                                                                                       project �LIFE07 ENV/E/000814) aims to
                                                                                                                                                       improve the quality of marine waters and
                                                          Stakeholders are testing new methods for implementing an ecosystem approach
                                                          in the Celtic Sea                                                                            sea�eds, and prevent marine litter in com-
                                                                                                                                                       pliance with the “nothing over�oard” and
                            Photo: L�FE07 ENV/UK/000943




                                                                                                                                                       “zero waste in ports” principles. This will
                                                                                                                                                       �e achieved �y promoting the correct use
                                                                                                                                                       of equipment and �y minimising the envi-
                                                                                                                                                       ronmental impact of solid waste from the
                                                                                                                                                       fishing industry �polystyrene, fishing nets,
                                                                                                                                                       lighting devices, �atteries) �y promoting
                                                                                                                                                       collection and recycling.


                                                                                                                                                       The project will support the reuse and
                                                                                                                                                       recycling of devices and equipment used
                                                                                                                                                       �y the fishing industry in selected ports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        


                                                                                              LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FISH AND MARINE RESOURCES
Photo: Michele Lischi and L�FE06 NAT/�T/000050




                                                 The sustainable use of coastal areas in two Italian regions will be ensured through the active involvement of fisheries associations, tourism
                                                 operators, NGOs and local authorities


                                                 in Galicia �Spain). Project actions include      project �LIFE06 NAT/IT/000050) aims to                                                �t also defined management measures
                                                 the collection and recycling of disused          safeguard and restore nine Sites of Com-                                              for fishing activities to reduce �y-catch of
                                                 nets and expanded polystyrene, and the           munity �mportance �SC�s) in the coastal                                               sea turtles. The results show the poten-
                                                 collection and treatment of some 1 400           zones of Lazio and Cala�ria ��taly), which                                            tial value of modifications to fishing gear
                                                 �atteries). These innovative systems for         are under threat from human activities.                                               when it comes to reducing �y-catch.
                                                 the management and recovery of waste,            Project actions are focusing on priority                                              The project’s approach to preparing and
                                                 throughout the entire lifecycle, will also aim   ha�itats such as Posidonia �eds, Coastal                                              implementing its management plan has
                                                 to recover secondary raw materials, thus         lagoons, Coastal dunes with Juniperus                                                 also provided valua�le lessons for other
                                                 reducing use of primary raw materials.           spp, and Dunes with pine forests.                                                     marine SC�s in the EU.


                                                 prEsErvinG marinE Habitats                       An important aspect of the project is the                                             Making more resource efficient use of
                                                 anD bioDivErsity                                 involvement of local fisheries associa-                                               �y-catch and discards, a priority for EU
                                                                                                  tions, tourism operators, environmental                                               policymakers, was also the su�ject of
                                                 The Baltic MPAs project �LIFE05 NAT/             NGOs and local and regional govern-                                                   L�FE BE-FA�R �LIFE05 ENV/E/000267),
                                                 LV/000100) provided a scientific �asis           ment in ensuring the sustaina�le use of                                               and the follow-up project, FAROS
                                                 for the designation of Natura 2000 sites         coastal areas.                                                                        �LIFE08 ENV/E/000119), which are the
                                                 in the marine territories of Estonia, Latvia                                                                                           su�ject of a feature article on the fol-
                                                 and Lithuania �y proposing seven new             An earlier L�FE project also explored                                                 lowing pages of this section.
                                                 marine protected areas �MPAs) and con-           effective approaches to managing Nat-
                                                 ceiving management plans for six of              ura 2000 sites. �n the context of increas-                                                Measures for the protection of birds were
                                                 them. The project gathered data from             ing pressure from ur�anisation, tourism                                                   updated thanks to a Portuguese project
                                                 fishermen on species �seals, �irds and           development and other human activities,
                                                                                                                                                 Photo: L�FE98 NAT/P/005275 and S. Mendes




                                                 non-commercial fish) caught in their             the L�FE Zonas costeiras/Açores project
                                                 gear, complemented with information              �LIFE98 NAT/P/005275) sought to
                                                 from independent project fishing activi-         develop and implement integrated man-
                                                 ties. Hydro-dynamic modelling was used           agement plans for coastal and marine
                                                 to assess the impact on marine ha�itats          ha�itats in the Azores �Portugal).
                                                 from the dumping of dredged material
                                                 and other activities. The project also           The project focused in particular on five
                                                 implemented measures to assess and               marine SC�s and seven Special Areas of
                                                 reduce the impact of fishery �y-catch on         Conservation �SACs). �t also proposed
                                                 target �ird and mammal species �such as          the designation of new protected areas
                                                 the struggling populations of ringed seal,       under national law. Nota�le successes
                                                 Pusa hispida).                                   of the project included the adoption of
                                                                                                  new regulations on whale watching, a
                                                 Focusing on managing areas already des-          reduction in �y-catch, and the updating
                                                 ignated for protection, the Co.Me.Bi.S.          of measures for the protection of �irds.
  


                            LIFE Focus       I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
FISH AND MARINE RESOURCES




                            No discards, zero waste

                                                   Promoting a more efficient use of fisheries resources was the main aim of the LIFE BE-

                                                   FAIR project, which developed and tested new approaches for managing and reusing

                                                   fishing industry waste and by-catch.




                            A      pproximately 85 million tonnes of
                                   wild fish are harvested glo�ally
                            each year. Of this, an estimated 27 million
                                                                            nEW usEs For FisHinG
                                                                            inDustry WastE anD
                                                                            by-CatCH
                                                                                                                         efficiently reuse fish resources �discards
                                                                                                                         and �y-catches) which represent poten-
                                                                                                                         tial food resources and sources of �asic
                            tonnes - almost one-third - is discarded, or                                                 compounds for the medical and pharma-
                            thrown �ack into the sea.                       �n line with EU o�jectives of “no dis-       ceutical industries.”The first stage of the
                                                                            cards” and “zero waste”, the L�FE BE-        project involved an assessment of the
                            The remaining ”target” catch is then su�-       FA�R project �LIFE05 ENV/E/000267)
                            ject to on-�oard processing, which cre-         sought to develop new commercial uses        A prototype for the extraction of fish oil
                            ates significant quantities of waste, such      for fishing industry waste and discards      from fish livers was designed for use
                            as heads, �ones, guts and skins. This is        �y piloting innovative waste and discards    onboard
                            also usually returned to the sea. More          pre-processing and valorisation prac-
                            waste is produced on-shore as a result          tices, �oth on-�oard fishing vessels and
                            of the activity of fishing ports, auctions,     also on-shore in a dedicated pilot plant.
                            fish traders and processing plants.
                                                                            “The idea �ehind the project was that
                            This com�ination of discards and waste          everything harvested from the sea should
                            represents a serious threat to the sustain-     �e treated as a valua�le product, always
                            a�ility of the fisheries sector, contri�uting   �earing in mind that resources are limited
                            not only to a depletion of fish populations     and that fishing activities must �ecome
                            and a change in the overall structure of        sustaina�le,” explains Luis Ta�oada
                            marine trophic we�s and ha�itats, �ut           Antelo, L�FE project team mem�er.
                            also to the accumulation of pollutants          “We are wasting valua�le �iomass from
                            and the spread of parasites in the marine       which we can produce secondary raw
                            environment.                                    materials. The aim was to find ways to
                                                                                                                                        


                                         LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                          �n France, the results showed a discard




                                                                                                                                        FISH AND MARINE RESOURCES
                                                                                          rate of a�out 13% for Atlantic fisheries
                                                                                          and 31% for the Mediterranean. Sar-
                                                                                          dine fisheries in the Mediterranean had
                                                                                          a discard rate of over 50%, �ecause of
                                                                                          the presence of mixed �anks of sar-
                                                                                          dines and anchovies.


                                                                                          According to information gathered in
                                                                                          Portugal, crustacean and demersal fin-
                                                                                          fish trawl fisheries were found to have
                                                                                          high discard rates, although the values
                                                                                          could �e quite varia�le, according to
                                                                                          the season, fishery and �oat type. The
Samples of chondroitin sulphate produced from fish cartilage                              highest rates �up to 60% for fishing
                                                                                          trawlers and 70% for crustacean trawls)
activities in selected fisheries in Spain,    and significant volumes of discards and     were found in the Algarve.
France and Portugal in order to deter-        waste �eing dumped �ack into the sea.
mine the amount and type of discards          For example, Spanish trawlers operat-       An assessment of activities on land
and �y-products �eing generated.              ing in the North Atlantic, which targeted   also revealed high levels of waste pro-
                                              Greenland hali�ut, also caught grenadier,   duction. At the port of Vigo �Spain), for
“This was essential to understanding the      white hake, witch, American plaice, red-    example, the local fish auction pro-
feasi�ility of processes that we would        fish or skates, shrimps, yellowtail and     duced 10-14 tonnes/day of fish waste,
examine later,” says Mr Ta�oada.              even flounder and cod. Waste material       while waste generated �y fish process-
                                              generated included viscera, heads and       ing amounted to some 35% of the total
The results showed a wide variety of          trims of the target species, all of which   fish catch.
fish species �eing caught as �y-catch         were thrown over�oard.
                                                                                          �n France, it was estimated that in 2005,
Hyaluronic acid (HA) can be extracted from the vitreous humour of certain fish species,   some 215 000 tonnes of waste was
such as swordfish or tuna                                                                 generated as a result of fish trade and
                                                                                          fish processing activities. This mostly
                                                                                          comprised of fish heads �40%), fish
                                                                                          �ones �27%) and viscera �25%).


                                                                                          nEW GuiDElinEs anD
                                                                                          inCEntivEs For rEsourCE
                                                                                          EFFiCiEnt FisHinG

                                                                                          Taking account of the types and amounts
                                                                                          of discards and waste generated, the
                                                                                          project team developed a “Good-Prac-
                                                                                          tice Manual for the Recovery, Handling
                                                                                          and Classification of Discards and By-
                                                                                          Products”. This manual includes pro-
                                                                                          posals for appropriate management
                                                                                          practices, on-�oard and on-shore, with
                                                                                          recommendations for preserving and
                                                                                          pre-treating discards and su�-products.


                                                                                          The guidelines for on-�oard activities
                                                                                          focus on two types of fishing vessels;
                                                                                          trawlers and long-liners. However, these
                                                                                          can easily �e adapted to other fishing
                                                                                          vessels, fishing gear or types of catch.


                                                                                          While the manual was an important start-
                                                                                          ing point, the project team also recog-
                                                                                          nised that to translate this into practice,
  


                            LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                                                                                        The first is the irregularity of supply,
FISH AND MARINE RESOURCES




                                                                                                                        �ecause of the varia�ility of the types
                                                                                                                        and quantity of waste and �y-catch.
                                                                                                                        And the second is the link to the market,
                                                                                                                        which has yet to �e esta�lished.


                                                                                                                        According to Mr Ta�oada, “it was not
                                                                                                                        possi�le to address these issues within
                                                                                                                        the timeframe of the project. This is why
                                                                                                                        we developed the follow-up L�FE FAROS
                                                                                                                        project �LIFE08 ENV/E/000119), which
                                                                                                                        aims to put all the pieces together; to
                                                                                                                        create a network and to esta�lish the
                                                                                                                        link to market.”
                            At the port of Vigo in Spain the local fish auction produced 0- tonnes of fish waste
                            per day                                                                                     FAROS will also look at the introduction
                                                                                                                        of new on-�oard technology to retrieve
                            there had to �e incentives to make it eco-     as a complement to other sources, it was     real time data on fish �eing harvested.
                            nomically attractive.                          found to have potential.                     This will facilitate the generation of maps
                                                                                                                        of activity and resources at sea, and will
                            “Keeping discards and waste on �oard           The prototype for the extraction of fish     also help to predict areas where rates
                            implies a cost, as it takes up space that      oil from fish livers was designed for use    of �y-catch and discards are likely to
                            could �e used to store fish with an eco-       on-�oard and the shipowner’s union of        �e higher, so that these areas can �e
                            nomic value, so you have to create an          Vigo �ARV�) has agreed to test it on its     avoided or closed off during spawning
                            incentive and demonstrate that fisher-         vessels.                                     periods or if num�ers of certain fish spe-
                            men can gain some economic return                                                           cies have dwindled.
                            from this,” insists Mr Ta�oada.                The water reduction unit was also
                                                                           designed for on-�oard use, where it could    “The first thing to keep in mind is to try
                            To address this issue, the project devel-      help to reduce the volume of discard and     and avoid �y-catch, �ut if this is not
                            oped four different prototypes which           waste �y crushing to o�tain a dry cake.      possi�le then let’s exploit it and make
                            were used to demonstrate the potential         Mr Ta�oada reports that “this prototype      sure we use marine resources more effi-
                            to produce commercial products from            is already �eing used in France and there    ciently,” concludes Mr Ta�oada.
                            fish wastes and �y-catch:                      is also interest in Vigo.”


                            • A mechanical device to extract vitreous      The multipurpose prototype worked �y
                              humour from fish eyes;                       extracting collagen from fish skins to
                            • A fish oil extractor to o�tain oils from     o�tain a purified gelatine that could then
                              fish liver on-�oard;                         �e used as a food supplement. The same
                            • A water reduction units; and                 process can also �e used to produce
                            • A multipurpose prototype for gelatine        chondroitin sulphate �CS), a su�stance
                              extraction/chondroitin sulphate/en-          used, for instance, to treat rheumatism.
                              zyme processes.                              “This can �e extracted from the cartilage                         SPAIN
                                                                           of fish such as ray or monkfish,” explains
                            A preliminary assessment of the market         Mr Ta�oada. “Only a�out 20% of a ray is         Project number: L�FE05 ENV/E/000267
                            potential of the different products was        edi�le, so at present the remaining 80%         Title: Benign and environmentally friendly
                            also carried out.                              is waste that can �e transformed into a         fish processing practices to provide
                                                                           valua�le resource.”                             added value and innovative solutions for
                                                                                                                           a responsi�le and sustaina�le management
                            Hyaluronic acid �HA) can �e extracted
                                                                                                                           of fisheries.
                            from the vitreous humour of certain            EstablisHinG links to markEt
                                                                                                                           Beneficiary: The Consejo Superior de
                            fish species, such as swordfish or tuna.
                                                                                                                           �nvestigaciones Científicas �CS�C)
                            Used in the treatment of �one disease          The project clearly demonstrated a
                                                                                                                           Contact: Antonio Álvarez Alonso
                            and in cosmetics, this was found to �e         resource efficient approach, showing the
                            the product with the highest commercial        potential to add-value to discards and          Email: antonio@iim.csic.es
                            value �up to €100 000 per kg). The mar-        waste, and the willingness of fishermen         Website: http://www.�efairproject.com
                            ket opportunity for HA produced exclu-         to implement the guidelines and adopt           Period: Nov-2005 to Nov-2008
                            sively from fish was found to �e limited       the prototype equipment, as long as it
                                                                                                                           Total budget: e1 859 000
                            �ecause of the low concentration of this       was economically feasi�le. However, two
                                                                                                                           LIFE contribution: e909 000
                            compound in fish vitreous humour, �ut          key challenges remain.
                                                                                                                                                                      


                                        LIFE Focus    I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




Planning	for a more resource
     efficient European
     landscape

                    Expanding cities and changing lifestyles demand an ever-increasing supply of natural

                    resources and energy. LIFE Environment projects are providing support at national,

                    local and regional levels for European Union strategies that promote more resource

                    efficient land use and planning in Europe.




T      he way we use our land space
       can have major impacts on envi-
ronmental conditions and resource con-
                                            land use and planning, has emerged as
                                            an important concept in the development
                                            of a more resource efficient European
                                                                                                                        land use and planning policy at all levels:
                                                                                                                        the results are also highly transfera�le to
                                                                                                                        �oth larger and smaller regions of Europe,
sumption. These impacts can �e direct,      landscape. Several L�FE projects have                                       municipalities, and also to companies or
such as the destruction of natural ha�i-    explored this concept. For example, the                                     organisations in the context of their envi-
tats and landscapes, or indirect, such      Finnish ECOREG project �LIFE02 ENV/                                         ronmental management systems.
as increasing the amount of traffic on      FIN/000331)1 demonstrated how eco-
our roads - leading to more congestion,     efficiency monitoring, and the integra-                                     A second Finnish project, Green Valley
air pollution and greenhouse gases. �n      tion of environmental, economic and                                         �LIFE02 ENV/FIN/000319) developed
Europe, land use planning and man-          socio-cultural dimensions into sustain-                                     a resource efficient land use plan for a
agement decisions are usually made          a�le development can �e implemented                                         su�stantial new housing development in
at local or regional level. However, the    at a regional level.
European Union has a role to play in
                                                                                                                        The eco-efficiency of land use in Kymen-
ensuring Mem�er States take environ-        The project developed a series of eco-                                      laakso improved thanks to LIFE funding
mental concerns into account when           indicators for the development of the
                                                                                         Photo: L�FE02 ENV/F�N/000331




putting together their land use devel-      region of Kymenlaakso on the coun-
opment plans.                               try’s southern Baltic coast, which were
                                            later included in a Regional Plan. The
L�FE has �een actively supporting           indicators showed that the overall eco-
Europe’s local or regional authorities to   efficiency of Kymenlaasko improved
develop their land use planning strate-     �etween 1995 and 2002.
gies in a more resource efficient way.
                                            The project’s findings are relevant to the
ECo-EFFiCiEnCy                              development of more resource efficient


Eco-efficiency, com�ining the ecologi-       a ‘Best LIFE Environment Project’ winner
cal, economic and social dimensions of      2005-06
  0


                        LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                        Salo. The plan included specific actions                                   The Coastal Woodlands project �LIFE02
LAND USE AND PLANNING




                        e.g. favouring the procurement of ‘green                                   ENV/S/000355) demonstrated the appli-
                        electricity’ and the enhancement of envi-                                  cation of �CZM, focusing on the Baltic
                        ronmental aspects in the pu�lic procure-                                   Sea coastal zone woodlands of Finland,
                        ment of the participating municipalities.                                  Sweden and Estonia.


                        Stakeholder consultation led to greater                                    Surveys carried out �y the project on the
                        pu�lic involvement in the planning stage                                   cultural, social and environmental value




                                                                                                                                                   Photo: L�FE02 ENV/E/000176
                        and thus significant uptake of the com-                                    of these woodlands, as well as studies of
                        pleted dwellings.                                                          different forestry management activities,
                                                                                                   resulted in the development of integrated
                        Landscape management aspects also                                          inventories and maps for the project area.
                        delivered some 60 small-scale plans for                                    This new information was used in the
                        �iodiversity, semi-natural ha�itats, land-                                 stakeholder consultations in the recom-                                 Tools to aid strategic urban planning
                        scape improvements and water protec-                                       mendations for �CZM in the Baltic Sea.                                  were developed by the DIVERS project
                        tion. Furthermore, �y involving the area’s
                        cattle farmers, who play an important role                                 The findings highlighted the cross-cutting
                        in maintaining meadows and thus contri�-                                   aspects of coastal management encom-                                    urban DimEnsion
                        uting to �iodiversity, the project was a�le                                passing sustaina�le forestry, agriculture,
                        to recommend changes to the application                                    tourism and development planning.                                       Europe is highly ur�anised, with four out
                        of EU agri-environmental support that                                      Moreover, the project demonstrated �et-                                 of every five of its citizens living in towns
                        were su�sequently adopted �y regional                                      ter use of legislation for nature protection                            or cities. The challenge for policy-mak-
                        and national environmental authorities.                                    and rural planning as well as helping to                                ers is to come up with a sustaina�le and
                                                                                                   stimulate more environmentally-con-                                     integrated approach to ur�an develop-
                        Another success was the promotion of                                       scious attitudes toward land use.                                       ment and management that works in har-
                        environmental training, which resulted in                                                                                                          mony with natural systems rather than
                        the esta�lishment of two new enterprises                                   spatial planninG tools                                                  against them. A num�er of L�FE projects
                        targeting innovative waste management                                                                                                              are furthering the EU’s Thematic Strategy
                        technologies.                                                              Spatial planning information is essential for                           on Ur�an Development, which targets a
                                                                                                   good environmental management deci-                                     more integrated approach and supports
                        iCZm a priority                                                            sion-making and avoidance of conflicts.                                 action at local level.
                        in Eu planninG
                                                                                                   There are many different producers of                                   For example, the Spanish-led D�VERS
                        �ntegrated Coastal Zone Manage-                                            such planning tools, �ut data are often                                 project �LIFE02 ENV/E/000176) devel-
                        ment ��CZM) is a�out managing coastal                                      restricted �y reasons of cost or acces-                                 oped tools and a shared data�ase to
                        resources and coastal space �y joining                                     si�ility. The high-profile ENV�FAC�L�TATE                               aid strategic ur�an planning towards a
                        up all the different policies which have an                                project2 �LIFE04 ENV/FI/000304) tackled                                 model for a more sustaina�le city. Piloted
                        effect on coastal regions.                                                 this pro�lem – designing accessi�le, tech-                              in five cities – in Spain, Greece and �taly
                                                                                                   nologically sustaina�le and user-friendly                               – the project has a high demonstration
                                                                                                   mapping tools for shared environmental                                  value, as the strategy and methodology
                        ICZM focusing on the Baltic Sea coastal                                    spatial planning information.                                           is applica�le to any city.
                        zone woodlands was applied in Finland
                                                                                                   The tools provide users with access online                              Another Spanish project – GALLECS
                                                                      Photo: L�FE02 ENV/S/000355




                                                                                                   to the most recent data. They allow maps                                - �LIFE02 ENV/E/000200) developed a
                                                                                                   and data�ases to �e overlaid to give a clear                            Strategic Plan for a rural area on the out-
                                                                                                   representation of spatial data with the doz-                            skirts of Barcelona to address the phe-
                                                                                                   ens of alternative data layers availa�le.                               nomenon of ur�an sprawl. The project
                                                                                                                                                                           promoted more sustaina�le land use,
                                                                                                   The project contri�uted towards several                                 renewa�le energy and more efficient
                                                                                                   national and international environmental                                water irrigation systems to demonstrate
                                                                                                   information systems. �t also supported the                              that it is possi�le to achieve environmen-
                                                                                                   networking of planning information actors                               tally, socially and economically sustain-
                                                                                                   at regional level; and developed an inter-                              a�le development in transition zones on
                                                                                                   active tool to allow the pu�lic to partici-                             the edge of cities. As a result, the project
                                                                                                   pate in the regional planning process.                                  was a�le to strengthen the rural area’s
                                                                                                                                                                           function as an ecological �uffer zone
                                                                                                   2 a ‘Best of the Best’ LIFE Environment                                 �etween the ur�an fringe and the coun-
                                                                                                   project winner 2007-08                                                  tryside �eyond.
                                                                                                                                                                         


                                           LIFE Focus   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




LIFE	turns	food for thought
      into action

                      There is significant scope to produce and consume our food and drink in a more

                      resource efficient manner. EU policy initiatives in this regard have been supported on

                      the ground by a number of innovative LIFE Environment projects.




I   n the glo�alised economy and
    interlinked environment, the EU is
increasingly affected �y glo�al changes
                                               The L�FE programme has played an
                                               important role to date in helping to
                                               implement these policy o�jectives
in resources, climate, material availa�ility   across the EU-27 and in neigh�ouring
and food prices. These issues are likely       countries.
to �ecome more pressing, with a pro-
jected increase in glo�al demand for food      improvinG rEsourCE usE in
of some 70% �y 2050. Steps taken �y            FooD proDuCtion
the Commission at EU level to address
climate change can also contri�ute to          A plethora of L�FE Environment projects                                    One of the earliest L�FE projects to target
improving glo�al food security.                have �een dedicated to helping food                                        wine production �LIFE99 ENV/E/000349)
                                               and �everage producers make �etter                                         took place in the Rioja region of Spain.
Key areas of policy intervention in the        use of their resources and raw materials.                                  This high-profile demonstration project
food and �everage sector have included         The wine industry has �een a particular                                    was developed �y the Rioja Economic
improving resource use in production           focus, given its growing importance and                                    Development Agency �ADER), the Rioja
and avoiding food waste.                       geographic spread.                                                         Water Board and the regional govern-
                                                                                                                          ment in order to develop an environ-
Resource use in the food and beverage sector has improved with LIFE funding                                               mentally sustaina�le and economically
                                                                                                                          via�le model applica�le to the entire
                                                                                           Photo: L�FE05 ENV/F�N/000539




                                                                                                                          wine production process. Key areas for
                                                                                                                          resource efficient production that the
                                                                                                                          project focused on included: measures to
                                                                                                                          reduce the use of environmentally-harm-
                                                                                                                          ful pesticides in vine cultivation; improved
                                                                                                                          water treatment and use �including a pilot
                                                                                                                          wastewater treatment plant); investigat-
                                                                                                                          ing the potential for re-using grape �y-
                                                                                                                          products �e.g. pomace); and integrating
                                                                                                                          wine production into sustaina�le ur�an
                                                                                                                          and rural management. The most nota�le
                                                                                                                          outcome of the project was the agree-
 


                    LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use

                            SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND
                            PRODUCTION OF EUROPE’S FOOD AND DRINK
FOOD AND BEVERAGE




                    As the European Food Sustainable Production and Consumption Round
                    Table in January 2011 highlighted, food and drink industries have an impor-
                    tant part to play in a science-based, coherent approach to sustainable
                    consumption and production in the food sector, one that takes into account
                    interactions across the whole food chain.
                    The round table, co-chaired by the European Commission, set out the fol-
                    lowing three key objectives:




                                                                                                                                          Photo: L�FE08 ENV/E/000143
                    •To establish scientifically reliable and uniform environmental assessment
                    methodologies for food and drinks;
                    •To identify suitable tools and guidance for voluntary environmental com-
                    munication to consumers and other stakeholders; and
                    •To promote continuous environmental improvement measures along the
                                                                                                                                                                    HAproWINE seeks to integrate waste
                    whole supply chain.                                                                                                                            management and Lifecycle Assessment
                                                                                                                                                                   tools into the wine industry



                    ment of the wine companies to fund the       animal feed, and transform the remain-                                                                the Tsiakkas Winery in the west of the
                    largest multi-winery effluent treatment      ing waste into natural organic fertiliser                                                             country. �t is hoped that this will have an
                    plant in Europe, the Station District of     �y composting. This L�FE Environment                                                                  important demonstration effect, since
                    Haro.                                        “Best of the Best” project for 2007-                                                                  many Cypriot wineries still spread their
                                                                 2008 has attracted much interest from                                                                 untreated effluent in fields, there�y pol-
                    The Rioja project found that �etter han-     wineries keen to improve the resource                                                                 luting groundwater resources. Halting
                    dling and storage would �e required to       efficiency of their production processes                                                              the decline of soil fertility and improv-
                    make commercial re-use of wine �y-           and develop financial via�le uses for their                                                           ing water quality are EU-level goals for
                    products, knowledge that was widely          �y-products. Two Greek wineries that did                                                              reducing risks to future agricultural pro-
                    disseminated, including at Green Week        not participate in the project have already                                                           duction and food security.
                    2000. The Greek D�ONYSOS project             implemented its methods.
                    �LIFE03 ENV/GR/000223) has drawn                                                                                                                   Meanwhile, the HAproW�NE project in
                    on this learning to successfully �uild a     Two ongoing L�FE projects are looking to                                                              Spain �LIFE08 ENV/E/000143) seeks to
                    pilot plant for processing winery solid      �uild on these earlier success stories.                                                               integrate waste management and Lifecy-
                    waste. The project was a�le to recover                                                                                                             cle Assessment �LCA) tools into the wine
                    high added-value polyphenols �used in        The W�NEC project in Cyprus �LIFE08                                                                   industry, including promoting the reuse
                    food supplements and cosmetics), use         ENV/CY/000455) is developing an envi-                                                                 of winery wastes and creating a certifi-
                    the slurry wastes and sludgy waste-          ronmental management system �EMS)                                                                     cation scheme to help consumers make
                    water to produce high nutritional value      and wastewater treatment plant for                                                                    more environmentally-friendly choices.
                                                                                                                                                                       This lifecycle approach chimes with the
                                                                                                                                                                       goals of the European Food Sustaina�le
                    High nutritional value animal feed was produced from winery wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                       Production and Consumption Round
                                                                                                            Photo: L�FE03 ENV/GR/000223




                                                                                                                                                                       Ta�le �see �ox).


                                                                                                                                                                       �mproving resource efficiency through an
                                                                                                                                                                       LCA approach was also the goal of the
                                                                                                                                                                       ECO�L project �LIFE04 ENV/GR/000110)
                                                                                                                                                                       �see pages 21-25).


                                                                                                                                                                       sHoWinG tHE Way
                                                                                                                                                                       to EFFiCiEnt proDuCtion

                                                                                                                                                                       The EU produces around half of the
                                                                                                                                                                       world’s potato starch, a process that
                                                                                                                                                                       uses large amounts of water and energy.
                                                                                                                                                                       The L�FE New potatopro project �LIFE04
                                                                                                                                                                       ENV/DK/000067) aimed to develop a
                                                                                                                                                                       novel energy efficient process for potato
                                                                                                                                                                       protein extraction on an industrial scale.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     


                                                                       LIFE Focus                                 I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                                                                     FOOD AND BEVERAGE
Photo: L�FE05 ENV/NL/000035




                              Reductions in energy and water use were achieved through a Closed-Loop Blanching method



                              This new process, designed �y Danish                                       A second good demonstration of               in raw materials, as well as reductions
                              �eneficiary, Karup Kartoffelmelfa�rik,                                     resource efficiency in the potato            in energy and water use, transport and
                              would also made more efficient use of                                      processing industry is provided �y CLB       overall emissions.
                              raw materials.                                                             �LIFE05 ENV/NL/000035), a Dutch L�FE
                                                                                                         project that developed an innovative new     A closed-loop water treatment process
                              Results were impressive: �y transform-                                     method of �lanching chips �French fries).    was also the goal of another Dutch project
                              ing fruit water to high-value protein, the                                 CLB stands for Closed-Loop Blanching,        targeting the dairy industry. L�FE ‘Dairy,
                              starch factory was a�le to take steps                                      a method that is designed to avoid the       No Water!” �LIFE03 ENV/NL/000488)
                              towards producing fertiliser concentrate                                   negative environmental impacts – waste       achieved significant improvements in
                              and �iomass for energy production, as                                      energy and water – and loss of potato        resource use in a cheese factory in
                              well as towards treating process water                                     solids �some 10-30%) of industry stand-      Hogeveen �y extracting whey water and
                              for reuse in the production process.                                       ard hot water �lanching processes. The       reusing it as process water. Although the
                                                                                                         CLB project achieved significant savings     plant did not �ecome totally self-sufficient
                              The �eneficiary’s new factory, co-funded
                              �y L�FE, features a more efficient heating                                 An innovative treatment process produced water efficiencies in a Dutch cheese factory
                              and heat exchange system for the proc-
                                                                           Photo: L�FE03 ENV/NL/000488




                              ess, as well as �etter decanting and dry-
                              ing of the end product. These improve-
                              ments have resulted in energy savings of
                              some 60% and a 40% reduction in water
                              consumption.


                              The new facility also removes 55-60% of
                              the nitrogen load from the wastewater.
                              The waste product, containing phospho-
                              rous and potassium, can then �ecome
                              a useful secondary raw material, as it is
                              dried and sold as fertiliser sludge. The
                              factory also now has a system for sepa-
                              rating the potato proteins into fractions
                              and is attempting to produce a new
                              product with a low solanine content �the
                              su�stance that turns potatoes green).
 


                    LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                    in water, as planned, it did reduce water
FOOD AND BEVERAGE




                    intake from 825 million to 275 million
                    litres/yr, reduced wastewater �y 255 mil-
                    lion litres/yr and eliminated the use of
                    groundwater. �n addition, energy savings
                    amounted to some 7.8 Kton of CO2.


                    Reducing water consumption and asso-
                    ciated impacts of wastewater treatment
                    �such as sludge and odour emissions)
                    was also the goal of the Spanish JELLY
                    project �LIFE04 ENV/ES/000224), which
                    applied the EU’s �ntegrated Pollution Pre-
                    vention and Control ��PPC) guidelines to
                    the manufacture of gelatine from pig skin.
                                                                                           Photo: L�FE05 ENV/F�N/000539




                    The improvements instigated �y the JELLY
                    project have cut the time needed for the
                    whole process from 60 hours to 10 hours.
                    Water savings are equivalent to the aver-
                    age consumption of a town with 6 000
                    inha�itants, with significant reductions in
                                                                                                                          Best practice models and materials on waste prevention were tested in households in
                    energy consumption, solid waste �y-prod-
                                                                                                                          Helsinki
                    ucts and odour emissions. Final product
                    quality is also higher �ecause the gelatine
                    is exposed to higher temperatures for                                                                 taCklinG FooD WastE                          of waste they produced �y purchasing
                    less time. Other important achievements                                                                                                            eco-goods and services achieved an
                    include an investment pay�ack time of                                                                 �t is not only food and �everage pro-        average reduction of 120 kg �34%) in 12
                    3 years 3 months and the discovery that                                                               ducers that L�FE has targeted, the pro-      months. The L�FE project also helped
                    �lood, proteins and fats contained in wash                                                            gramme has also played a leading role        reduce the average residual waste per
                    waters could �e recovered and converted                                                               in the drive to avoid food waste among       inha�itant of Deux Sèvres �y 9.9% in
                    into valua�le products made from these                                                                consumers. Wastage leads to more             three years �from 314 kg per inha�it-
                    secondary raw materials. A new company                                                                imports and exports of food, driving up      ant in 2005 to 283 kg per inha�itant in
                    – Proca �ngredients S.L. has �een set up                                                              commodity prices, increasing instances       2008) as well as raising awareness of
                    �y the �eneficiary and a project partner to                                                           of ‘land gra��ing’ of agricultural land in   the need to conserve resources and
                    exploit this opportunity.                                                                             developing countries and putting more        reduce waste.
                                                                                                                          pressure on the environment. An esti-
                                                                                                                          mated 179 kg/capita/yr of food is wasted     The purpose of the WASTEPrevKit project
                    Families who took part in the IDEAL 79
                                                                                                                          �y the food processing industry, whole-      was to work, test, disseminate and adopt
                    project reduced the amount of waste
                    they produced by purchasing ecogoods                                                                  salers, caterers and households. A large     �est practice models and materials on
                    and services                                                                                          part of this wastage could �e avoided,       waste prevention. �t was expected that
                                                                                                                          especially at household level. The           this would lead to a reduction in the
                                                                                                                          French �DEAL 79 project �LIFE05 ENV/         amount of waste in the test area. The
                                                                                                                          F/000063) and WASTEPrevKit in Finland        target groups were households, schools,
                                                                                                                          �LIFE05 ENV/FIN/000539) are just two         day care centres, vocational institutions,
                                                                                                                          examples of pilot schemes that are help-     pu�lic administrations and enterprises
                                                                                                                          ing to mainstream resource efficient food    in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. �nfor-
                                                                                                                          consumption practices.                       mation campaigns were supported �y a
                                                                                                                                                                       diverse range of project actions, includ-
                                                                                                                          �DEAL 79 took practical steps to reduce      ing the development of teaching materi-
                                                                                                                          waste in Deux Sèvres, distri�uting an        als, the extension of an existing waste
                                                                                                                          eco-consumer’s guide to 160 000 homes        �enchmarking service, and a two-year
                                                                                                                          in the department and providing incen-       pilot waste reduction project involving
                                                                                                                          tives �e.g. price reduction vouchers)        households in the Viikki-Latokartano
                                                              Photo: L�FE05 ENV/F/000063




                                                                                                                          to switch to purchasing eco-products         area of Helsinki. Results were positive
                                                                                                                          and services. Sales of eco-products in       �for instance, families taking part in the
                                                                                                                          large supermarkets increased 19% as          pilot scheme reduced mixed waste �y
                                                                                                                          a result. Nine families who took part in     9% and �iowaste �y 22% on average)
                                                                                                                          a pilot scheme to reduce the amount          and are readily transfera�le.
                                                                                                                                                                                         


                                               LIFE Focus                                            I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




LIFE	aids	agriculture
      to preserve resources

                       Europe faces many challenges on the path to resource efficient agriculture and eco-

                       system services. The LIFE programme is helping to demonstrate ways of improving

                       water efficiency, reducing soil erosion and mitigating and adapting to the effects of

                       climate change, in line with EU policy goals.




O       ne of the main challenges that
        the EU faces is how to reform
the Common Agricultural Policy �CAP)
                                                                                          efficient use of our resources, as fore-
                                                                                          seen with the CAP reform that is under
                                                                                          preparation2.
                                                                                                                                             while guaranteeing the same or higher
                                                                                                                                             production levels, as the following exam-
                                                                                                                                             ples illustrate.
so that Europe continues to contri�ute
to food production and to increasingly                                                    The L�FE programme has led the way in              WatEr EFFiCiEnt
deliver environmental improvements,                                                       demonstrating agri-techniques that have            aGriCulturE
preserving soil fertility and other eco-                                                  efficiently helped to preserve resources
system services, avoiding deforestation                                                                                                      Agriculture accounts for 70% of glo�al
and promoting rural areas and liveli-                                                     2 See COM (200) 672 final The CAP towards         freshwater consumption and water scar-
hoods.                                                                                    2020: Meeting the food, natural resources          city issues have affected 17% of EU ter-
                                                                                          and territorial challenges of the future http://
                                                                                          eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.           ritory. The changing climate will further
At present agriculture and food produc-                                                   do?uri=COM:200:0672:FIN:en:PDF                    reduce the availa�ility of water in the
tion are continuing to challenge envi-
ronmental resources, sometimes creat-                                                     The AGRICARBON project will demonstrate that conservation agriculture can reduce
ing disservices1, even with the ongoing                                                   GHG emissions and adapt farming techniques to new climatic conditions
reform’s requirements for ‘cross-com-
                                                 Photo: Aixa Sopeña and L�FE08 ENV/E/000129




pliance’ �i.e. the requirement that farm-
ers respect environmental, food safety,
phytosanitary and animal welfare stand-
ards, in order to receive their direct pay-
ments). Hence more steps need to �e
taken towards sustaina�le agricultural
practices that preserve and make an


 Management practices in agriculture can
create disservices such as nutrient run-off,
sedimentation of water bodies, pesticides
poisoning, soil erosion, water depletion,
desertification and loss of habitats and
biodiversity
      


                                                              LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use

                                                                       LIFE AND THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF FORESTS (IYF)
                                                                      As the world’s forest resources are under threat from deforestation, fires and pests, the United Nations has declared
A G R I C U LT U R E A N D E C O S Y S T E M S E RV I C E S




                                                              2011 the International Year of Forests (IYF). Through its LIFE programme the EU has supported and continues to support
                                                              initiatives to preserve the resilience of forest resources.
                                                              The Climforisk project (LIFE0 ENV/FI/000) will map changes in future forest growth and carbon mitigation potential
                                                              and changes in the susceptibility of forests to drought and selected biotic disturbance (pests/pathogens). The system will
                                                              be used to develop maps and indicators that will support decision-making by public officials and forest managers.
                                                              Forest biomass provides a carbon store and is important for mitigating climate change. The LIFE Bioenergy & Fire Prev.
                                                              project (LIFE0 ENV/ES/0000) aims to develop new forest management tools and approaches to minimise the risk
                                                              of forest fires by reducing the amount of ground-level waste biomass in forest areas. It will also evaluate the potential
                                                              of biomass as a source of renewable energy and rural employment.



                                                              driest areas of Europe. The OPT�M�ZA-        The project demonstrated great results in    the technical, hydraulic and administra-
                                                              GUA project �LIFE03 ENV/E/000164)            terms of efficiency - 40% water savings      tive management of El Vicario’s ‘irriga-
                                                              demonstrated efficient ways to reduce        compared with traditional irrigation sys-    tion community’ and helped optimise
                                                              water consumption in irrigation cultures     tems �20 000 m3 in only 4 hectares).         the management of the entire river �asin.
                                                              �cereals – wheat and maize – and grass)                                                   Stakeholders �including farmers) were
                                                              �y developing a prototype that com-          Mediterranean countries use some 70%         trained to use the gEa system, which, in
                                                              �ined traditional rainwater collection and   of their water for irrigation purposes       trials, saved some 1 087 000 litres when
                                                              storage systems with “smart irrigation”      and the average loss is high in an area      used on only two fields. This gives a
                                                              systems. Rainwater is used for irriga-       already faced with issues of water scar-     good idea of the extent of water savings
                                                              tion, thus reducing the consumption of       city. The Spanish gEa project focused on     that could �e achieved if the technology
                                                              water from pu�lic supply networks, with      improving water efficiency for irrigation    were to �e used extensively.
                                                              the irrigation system adjusting the water    in El Vicario �LIFE05 ENV/E/000313). �t
                                                              intake according to the crop, soil type,     developed an automated online system         Lack of information, insufficient exper-
                                                              weather conditions and availa�ility of       for real-time reading of meters, control     tise and scarcity of financial and human
                                                              water. The prototypes are wind and solar     of water quality, regulation of water con-   resources sometimes make it difficult for
                                                              powered, giving the project an energy        sumption and detection of leaks. This        farmers to undertake actions or to find
                                                              efficient dimension as well.                 decision-support tool helped improve         innovative technologies to reduce water


                                                              The OPTIMIZAGUA prototype achieved notable water efficiencies by combining combined rainwater collection and storage systems
                                                              with “smart irrigation”




                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photo: L�FE03 ENV/E/000164
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      


                                                                      LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A G R I C U LT U R E A N D E C O S Y S T E M S E RV I C E S
Photo: L�FE05 ENV/E/000330




                             The terracing system developed by LIFE PRIORAT increases vegetation cover and thus a better drainage system for rainwater



                             use. The AQUA �LIFE09 ENV/IT/000075)          these pro�lems, the PR�ORAT project                                                          water consumption �y 85%. The project
                             project aims to work with stakeholders        �LIFE05 ENV/E/000330) developed a                                                            methodology allowed for a higher level of
                             from agriculture and agri-industry to         “Mountain Viticulture Sustaina�le Man-                                                       productivity and economic �enefits also
                             produce and disseminate a “Water Sav-         agement System” which introduces                                                             derived from reduced water, energy and
                             ing Kit” that will demonstrate how to         a terracing system that - aside from                                                         chemical consumption.
                             anticipate environmental threats such as      improving landscape conservation and
                             water scarcity, as well as to respond to      the organic content of soils - allows veg-                                                   soil Erosion
                             eventual emergencies, such as su�sid-         etation cover to �e increased �y 80%.
                             ence and droughts, �ased on a ‘cradle         The increased vegetation produces a                                                          Conventional agricultural techniques
                             to cradle’ approach.                          �etter drainage system for rainwater,                                                        can lead to soil erosion, water pollution,
                                                                           which in turn significantly reduces soil                                                     loss of �iodiversity and reduced car�on
                             Mountain viticulture can lead to water        erosion. Furthermore, su�surface drip                                                        sequestration. Some 18% of EU terri-
                             exploitation and soil erosion. To address     irrigation systems were installed that cut                                                   tory is affected �y soil erosion, which is
                                                                                                                                                                        particularly severe in the Mediterranean
                             Conservation agriculture techniques such as vegetation cover improved soil quality in                                                      �ecause of the prevalence of steep
                             the Doñana National Park                                                                                                                   slopes, dry periods followed �y high
                                                                                                                                                                        precipitation and conservative farming
                                                                                                                        Photo: L�FE00 ENV/E/000547 and Audrey Thénard




                                                                                                                                                                        practices.


                                                                                                                                                                        The ALMOND PRO-SO�L project
                                                                                                                                                                        �LIFE05 ENV/E/000288) demonstrated
                                                                                                                                                                        the �enefits of cultivating almond trees
                                                                                                                                                                        to prevent desertification, soil erosion
                                                                                                                                                                        and the a�andonment of land in rural
                                                                                                                                                                        areas. The project increased soil fertility
                                                                                                                                                                        and �iodiversity �via enhanced organic
                                                                                                                                                                        matter content and micro�ial activity),
                                                                                                                                                                        reducing erosion and improving the
                                                                                                                                                                        soil’s physical structure, sta�ility and
                                                                                                                                                                        water holding capacity.


                                                                                                                                                                        Another Spanish project, DOÑANA
                                                                                                                                                                        SOSTEN�BLE �LIFE00 ENV/E/000547),
                                                                                                                                                                        tackled the pro�lem of soil erosion on 33
                                                                                                                                                                        pilot farms covering 318.9 ha �y apply-
                                                                                                                                                                        ing conservation agriculture techniques
                                                                                                                                                                        such as vegetation cover to improve soil
      


                                                              LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                              protection and diminish soil erosion and
A G R I C U LT U R E A N D E C O S Y S T E M S E RV I C E S




                                                              the run-off of water and fertilisers. The
                                                              result was an improved conservation
                                                              status of the Guadiamar River.


                                                              �n the UK, the Sowap project �LIFE03
                                                              ENV/UK/000617) replaced ploughing
                                                              with zero-till or non-inversion tillage to
                                                              reduce soil erosion and ena�le cover


                                                                                                           Photo: L�FE05 ENV/E/000288
                                                              crops during winter that improved soil
                                                              structure and enhanced soil �iodiver-
                                                              sity. The results reduced run-off �y as
                                                              much as 90%, particularly during heavy
                                                              rainfall, and cut soil erosion �y 95% on
                                                              light sandy soils. Soil function was also                                 A Spanish project demonstrated how cultivating almond trees could prevent desertifica-
                                                              improved, as shown �y higher soil car-                                    tion and soil erosion
                                                              �on, nitrogen and moisture together with
                                                              increased inverte�rate �iodiversity.                                  climate agenda. L�FE projects are show-                                                         age the agro-forestry sector in Galicia
                                                                                                                                    ing what can �e achieved �y improving                                                           �Spain) to �ecome involved in activities
                                                              ClimatE CHanGE                                                        energy efficiency, �iomass and renew-                                                           that support adaptation and mitigation
                                                                                                                                    a�le energy production, and the protec-                                                         measures. The project aims to promote
                                                              The agricultural sector’s potential to                                tion of car�on in soils.                                                                        the use of renewa�le energies and �io-
                                                              mitigate, adapt to and reduce green-                                                                                                                                  fuels, recycling, the esta�lishment of
                                                              house gas �GHG) emissions needs to �e                                 The Changing the Climate project                                                                energy efficiency measures, a shift to
                                                              developed to meet the EU energy and                                   �LIFE07 INF/E/000852) aims to encour-                                                           organic farming and the use of climate-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    adapted crops, as well as encouraging
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    farmers to adopt sustaina�le manage-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ment alternatives.
                                                                      AGRICULTURE AND
                                                                      THE NATURA 2000 NETWORK                                                                                                                                       The Acciòn Agroclimatica project
                                                              Agriculture has a major influence on the Natura 2000 network and its sur-                                                                                             �LIFE09 ENV/ES/000441) will develop
                                                              roundings. Intensive farming techniques and bad agricultural management                                                                                               tools for carrying out energy and GHG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    audits on farms, and for identifying the
                                                              can produce pressures on the conservation status of habitats and species,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    most suita�le crops and �est practices
                                                              whereas other forms of agriculture can be essential to managing extensive                                                                                             for mitigation and adaptation to climate
                                                              areas of valuable habitat.                                                                                                                                            change. Ultimately it aims to develop a
                                                              Reforms of the CAP and the Rural Development Regulation (2007–2013) have                                                                                              diagnostic software for energy �alances
                                                              introduced policy tools and measures that have improved the integration of                                                                                            and GHG emissions and demonstrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    general practices for each farming sec-
                                                              biodiversity considerations into farming and forestry practices across the EU.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tor to reduce energy use and GHG emis-
                                                              New rural development measures under Pillar II have also supported farming                                                                                            sions �y 10% to 40%.
                                                              and forestry activities that are beneficial for wildlife.
                                                              The CAP reform, foresees that, in the future, environmental measures should                                                                                           CO2 emissions in farming come mainly
                                                              be tailor made to fulfil the needs of regions and local areas such as Natura                                                                                          from ploughing, which causes soil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    car�on loss. The L�FE+AGR�CARBON
                                                              2000 and high-nature-value (HNV) farms and the functions of intensive and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    project �LIFE08 ENV/E/000129) encour-
                                                              extensive farming practices will have to be revised.                                                                                                                  ages the uptake of conservation agri-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    culture �CA) techniques that can reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                Photo: Ga�riella Camarsa and L�FE04 ENV/ES/000269




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    GHG emissions and the adaptation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    farming techniques to new climatic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    conditions resulting from glo�al warm-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ing. Through the sink effect of CA, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    project aims to fix an additional 0.60-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.50 tonnes of CO 2/ha/yr on farms, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    20% reduction in CO 2 emissions. �n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    addition to reducing energy consump-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tion, the project also aims to quantifi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a�ly improve soil quality.
                                                                                                                                                                       


                                                                        LIFE Focus    I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                                       A G R I C U LT U R E A N D E C O S Y S T E M S E RV I C E S
Photo: José Fernando Ro�les




                              Conservation agriculture
                                 reduces soil erosion		
                                 in	Andalusian	wetlands

                                                   The Spanish Humedales Sostenibles (‘Sustainable Wetlands’) project showed how LIFE

                                                   can contribute to the conservation and efficient use of natural resources, taking into

                                                   account the needs for landscape preservation, flood protection, carbon storage, good

                                                   water quality and control and protection of biodiversity.




                              A       ndalusia has a rich and diverse
                                      natural heritage, especially in
                              terms of wetland ha�itats: some 17%
                                                                            The aim of the L�FE ‘Sustaina�le Wet-
                                                                            lands’ project �LIFE04 ENV/ES/000269)
                                                                            was to demonstrate the application of
                                                                                                                          The L�FE project involved 33 farmers
                                                                                                                          in a pilot scheme showing how con-
                                                                                                                          servation agriculture �CA) techniques
                              of Spanish of Spanish wetlands are            agricultural practices that used resources    can drastically reduce soil erosion in
                              located in the region. These dynamic          such as soil and water efficiently in order   the catchment areas of the wetlands. A
                              ecosystems are also fragile and can           to improve the conservation status of         Geographical �nformation System �G�S)
                              �e negatively impacted �y soil erosion        Andalusian wetlands, whilst increasing        was used to select the areas for the trial
                              caused �y the intensive agricultural          awareness amongst farmers of the impor-       and to help farmers choose the �est soil
                              practices typically used in the Mediter-      tance of Natura 2000 sites. “We wanted        management systems and crop rota-
                              ranean. Such practices can increase soil      to demonstrate the decisive role that agri-   tions in accordance with the physical
                              loss and reduce the fertility and a�ility     culture can play in protecting our natural    characteristics of their farms. Demon-
                              of soil to a�sor� CO 2, leading to the        resources and in providing us with impor-     stration plots covering 60 ha were esta�-
                              loss of water content in the soil, nutrient   tant ecosystem services,” explains project    lished in the surroundings of wetlands in
                              run-off and loss of �iodiversity.             manager José Fernando Ro�les.                 Utrera, Osuna-Lantejuela, Gosque and
      0


                                                              LIFE Focus      I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



                                                              Le�rija-Las Ca�ezas. There, with train-       ily impacted the area’s wetlands caus-                                    From the farmer’s point of view, produc-
A G R I C U LT U R E A N D E C O S Y S T E M S E RV I C E S




                                                              ing and guidance from the Technical           ing siltation. “Our land suffers from                                     tion levels are what matters most. Mr.
                                                              Office for the Promotion of Conserva-         soil erosion and � was very interested                                    Cortines, who eliminated soil tillage and
                                                              tion Agriculture, the farmers tested tech-    in learning techniques for optimum soil                                   applied direct sowing on his demonstra-
                                                              niques including minimum or no tillage,       management,” says Juan Cortines,                                          tion plot of 6 ha of sunflowers, is pleased
                                                              the maintenance of harvest residues on        a local farmer who participated in the                                    to note that “over the three years during
                                                              soil surface, direct sowing and vegeta-       L�FE project. “Soil is one of the primary                                 which � applied the techniques, the pro-
                                                              tion cover for ar�oreal crops. �n addition,   resources that allows us to produce in                                    duction levels remained the same and in
                                                              the project produced a guide to CA tech-      the long run. Without it we would have                                    some cases they increased.”
                                                              niques that was disseminated to Andalu-       no agriculture in this area.”
                                                              sia’s agricultural community.                                                                                           The farmland of Osuna also suffers from
                                                                                                            One of the most important tasks, �elieves                                 soil erosion. Here, another local farmer,
                                                              ConsErvation aGriCulturE                      project technician Emilio Cu�eros, was                                    Pedro Baena, applied CA techniques on
                                                              in aCtion                                     to train farmers how to produce in com-                                   25 ha of olive groves and wheat fields.
                                                                                                            pliance with the Natura 2000 network                                      “Before introducing the techniques sug-
                                                              Farms located in Le�rija have clay soils      and make them understand the impor-                                       gested �y the project, the land would
                                                              that are significantly exposed to soil        tance and value that wetlands represent                                   lose up to 4 cm/ha when it rained,” says
                                                              erosion. The run-off of soils has heav-       in terms of �iodiversity.                                                 Mr Baena. “That is equivalent to 400
                                                                                                                                                                                      tonnes/ha/yr that will never �e recov-
                                                                                                                                                                                      ered.” This soil erosion also caused silta-
                                                              Osuna’s farmland would lose up to 00 tonnes/ha/yr of soil through precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                      tion and sedimentation of the neigh�our-


                                                                                                                                                        Photo: José Fernando Ro�les
                                                                                                                                                                                      ing wetlands.


                                                                                                                                                                                      To reduce the soil erosion in his olive
                                                                                                                                                                                      groves, Mr Baena added vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                      cover. According to Emilio González,
                                                                                                                                                                                      General Secretary of the European Con-
                                                                                                                                                                                      servation Agriculture Federation �ECAF
                                                                                                                                                                                      – a project partner), “This produces the
                                                                                                                                                                                      effect of filtering water more rapidly so
                                                                                                                                                                                      that it does not remain on the surface,
                                                                                                                                                                                      thus reducing run-off and siltation. Fur-
                                                                                                                                                                                      thermore, the vegetation impedes the
                                                                                                                                                                                      loss of water.”


                                                                                                                                                                                      prEsErvinG rEsourCEs anD
                                                                                                                                                                                      EnHanCinG bioDivErsity

                                                                                                                                                                                      The project’s technical team monitored
                                                                                                                                                                                      each of the demonstration plots and
                                                                                                                                                                                      compared them with plots where conven-
                                                                                                                                                                                      tional soil management techniques were
                                                                                                                                                                                      continuing to �e applied. The results in
                                                                                                                                                                                      terms of soil erosion were impressive. For
                                                                                                                                                                                      example in the wetland area of Laguna
                                                                                                                                                                                      del Gosque, soil erosion decreased �y 1
                                                                                                                                                                                      022 tonnes/yr for olive groves, �y 1 489
                                                                                                                                                                                      tonnes/yr for corn/cotton crops and �y 1
                                                                                                                                                                                      811 tonnes/yr for wheat/sunflower crops
                                                                                                                                                                                      in comparison with soil losses uses con-
                                                                                                                                                                                      ventional farming techniques.


                                                                                                                                                                                      Other �enefits noted during monitor-
                                                                                                                                                                                      ing included a reduction in run-off and
                                                                                                                                                                                      an increase in the hydric content of the
                                                                                                                                                                                      soil where direct sowing was employed.
                                                                                                                                                                                      By avoiding tillage and, �y maintaining
                                                                                                                                                                                      harvest residues on the surface, the
                                                                                                                                                                       


                                                                     LIFE Focus    I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                                                       A G R I C U LT U R E A N D E C O S Y S T E M S E RV I C E S
Photo: Ga�riella Camarsa




                           Project manager José Fernando Robles explains how soil erosion has caused the siltation and sedimentation of neighbouring wetlands


                           organic content and fertility of the soil     it requires greater professional skills to    countries of the Mediterranean, �ut
                           was increased, while the car�on content       apply the soil conservation techniques        throughout the EU. The uptake of sus-
                           in the soil was found to have increased       correctly. “More than half of the 33 farm-    taina�le practices that make efficient use
                           �y 1 tonne/yr.                                ers are still applying the techniques         of our natural resources �y farming com-
                                                                         today. Some have not �een a�le to invest      munities will provide European citizens
                           The decrease in soil erosion was reflected    in the direct sowing machinery, how-          with quality, value and diversity of food
                           in less siltation of the wetlands, where a    ever, more simple techniques are �eing        and ensure the long-term future of EU
                           significant increase in �iodiversity was      applied in the area and this is creating      agriculture and rural areas.
                           also o�served. Organic matter in the          interest amongst the farming commu-
                           soil is the main food source for micro-       nity of Andalusia even four years after
                           organisms, which thus �enefits all other      the project has ended,” notes Mr Ro�les
                           organisms in the trophic chain �insects,      proudly.
                           mammals, �irds, e.g. flamingos, etc). The
                           increase in vegetation cover on some of       aCHiEvinG FurtHEr
                           the demonstration plots also meant more       rEsourCE EFFiCiEnCiEs
                           hiding and nesting places for fauna, as
                           well as more food, thus enhancing the         Ultimately the project has demonstrated
                           �iodiversity of the area.                     how CA techniques can �e applied to
                                                                         make more efficient use of resources
                           GrEEn skills anD EConomiC                     �mostly soil and water), avoiding the                              SPAIN
                           bEnEFits                                      deterioration and sedimentation of pro-
                                                                                                                          Project number: L�FE04 ENV/ES/000269
                                                                         tected wetlands whilst preserving �iodi-
                           The techniques applied �y the project         versity and enhancing production.                Title: Humedales Sosteni�les - �ntegrated
                                                                                                                          management of agriculture in the surround-
                           were shown to reduce production costs
                                                                                                                          ings of community importance wetlands
                           significantly �since no machinery was         “The project will facilitate the adaptation      �sustaina�le wetlands)
                           required to till the soil). “We have calcu-   of farms to the new context esta�lished
                                                                                                                          Beneficiary: Asociación Agraria Jóvenes
                           lated that the savings are �etween 40 and     �y the Natura 2000 Network and the               Agricultores de Sevilla �ASAJA-Sevilla)
                           60 euros per hectare per year for annual      future CAP reform,” says Mr. Ro�les. “�t
                                                                                                                          Contact: José Fernando Ro�les del Salto
                           crops in southern Europe,” says Mr. Ro�-      has demonstrated how CA techniques
                                                                                                                          Email: jfro�les.life@asajasev.es
                           les. This compensates for the investment      can �e easily adopted to preserve our
                           in machinery for direct sowing.               natural resources, which are the �asis of        Website: http://www.humedales.org
                                                                         thriving agro-ecosystems.”                       Period: Oct-2004 to Oct-2007
                           The L�FE funded project was also a clear                                                       Total budget: e1 087 000
                           demonstration of how green skills in the      Such techniques are in the midst of a
                                                                                                                          LIFE contribution: e541 000
                           agricultural sector can �e created, as        phase of expansion, not only in all the



     LIFE Focus     I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




     LIFE	shows the environmental
           benefits of GPP

                          One way of favourably influencing Europe’s unsustainable use of its natural resources is

                          to encourage one of its largest consumers, public authorities, to adopt common green

                          criteria for purchasing such goods as computers, stationery (paper), vehicles and fur-

                          niture as well as fuel, food and electricity.




     P      u�lic authorities have great
            purchasing power – spending
     around 17% of the EU’s gross domestic
                                                 ice groups, and also adopted a new
                                                 procedure for the development of GPP
                                                 criteria in 2010. The aim is to make the
                                                                                                                          tHE rolE oF liFE

                                                                                                                          L�FE projects have aimed to raise
     product – and their choices a�out the       process more transparent and partici-                                    awareness of GPP and promote the use
     goods and services they purchase not        patory and enhance synergies among                                       of GPP criteria �y esta�lishing regional
     only have a significant impact on the       the various eco-innovation la�els that                                   networks and developing and imple-
     environment directly, �ut also greatly      are already in place.                                                    menting tools for joint procurement
     influence the market for those goods                                                                                 practice. For example, the �talian GPP-
     and services �y �oosting green �usi-        Criteria help pu�lic authorities choose                                  net project �LIFE02 ENV/IT/000023)
     nesses.                                     the �est environmental products on
                                                 the market whilst minimising verifica-
     As a result, greening the performance       tion requirements and costs. �n the                                      The GGPnet project produced a 00-page
                                                                                                                          handbook for public administrations
     of pu�lic authorities – or Green Pu�lic     future, the way forward may �e to put
     Procurement �GPP) as it has come to         in place mandatory Green Pu�lic Pro-
     �e known – is an area that has received     curement to support targeted areas of
     much attention from legislators and         innovative, resource efficient goods.
     policymakers in the EU.                     This approach could remove �arriers
                                                 to innovation, such as when pu�lic
     For GPP to �ecome more widespread,          procurement of water delivery services
     clear and verifia�le environmental cri-     gives preference to well-tested solu-
     teria for products and services must        tions, rather than resource efficient
     �e esta�lished that are compati�le          ones.
     �etween Mem�er States. A level play-
     ing field will �oost the single market,     A forthcoming Communication from the
                                                                                            Photo: L�FE02 ENV/�T/000023




     reduce the impact of goods and serv-        European Commission’s Directorate-
     ices on the environment and lead to a       General for the Environment �DG ENV)
     more efficient use of resources. To date,   will point to the scope for procurement
     the Commission has developed EU             to drive innovations that can improve
     GPP criteria for 18 product and serv-       resource efficiency.
                                                                                                                                                                  


                                         LIFE Focus                                I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use


                                                                                       GREEN SKILLS
created a network of politicians and                                                The European Commission identifies the lack of ‘green skills’ – i.e.




                                                                                                                                                                  GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AND GREEN SKILLS
executives in the Province of Cremona                                       expertise and competence in the use of green technologies – as a specific bar-
to spread awareness of the potential of
                                                                            rier to innovation. Green skills are needed to develop new technologies, more
GPP at all administrative levels.
                                                                            resource efficient processes and new working methods. EU 2020 initiatives,
The GPPnet project trained staff in                                         such as “Youth on the Move”, and “Green Skills” will be addressing these
charge of pu�lic purchasing to identify                                     issues, but further action specific to resources may also need to be taken. LIFE
products and services with lower envi-                                      projects have shown that providing green skills benefits job creation.
ronmental impacts, and to introduce
                                                                            For example, the Spanish ELVES project (LIFE0 ENV/E/000) created 11
environmental criteria into purchasing
procedures, widely disseminating the                                        permanent positions for trained staff involved in the separation of metal
concept of resource efficiency through                                      alloys from end-of-life vehicle engines. The green skills employed in this
GPP in so doing. To facilitate the train-                                   process are having a significant environmental impact in terms of waste
ing process, the project produced a                                         reduction and recycling of materials, since the alloys are reused in new
300-page hand�ook that contained a
                                                                            engines for the automotive sector.
step-�y-step outline of how environ-
mental criteria can �e introduced into
a pu�lic administration’s purchasing
procedures, including ways of elimi-
nating administrative �urdens that may
impede the adoption of GPP. The guide-
lines contained in this hand�ook, which
were used for calls for tender during
the project, demonstrate EU policy in
action and could �e used as examples
                                             Photo: L�FE05 ENV/E/000317




for future common GPP guidelines.


The Province of Cremona is continuing
its GPP activities after the end of the
L�FE project. The legacy of the GPPnet
project is evident in other regions too. A
National Working Group on GPP, �ased                                      �asis for a future mandatory implemen-     To monitor the success of this project
on the experiences of the project, was                                    tation of GPP.                             and other initiatives, the Commission
esta�lished in Bologna in 2005. The                                                                                  has proposed two types of indicator:
�ody is spreading the good procedures                                     Moreover, the project produced a           quantitative indicators to assess the
determined during the project to local                                    tool for testing joint procurement         progress of the policy and its impact
and regional authorities throughout                                       approaches to overcoming market �ar-       on the supply side; and impact-ori-
�taly.                                                                    riers for green purchasing in Europe.      ented indicators allowing assessment
                                                                          Such a tool will help meet the policy      of the environmental and financial gains
�n line with the Commission’s emphasis                                    o�jectives highlighted in the EU’s 6th     made. A 2009 study tested this meth-
on common criteria for GPP, the group                                     Environment Action Programme.              odology. Further evaluation will take
of tools for assisting GPP implemen-                                                                                 place in 2011, and statistical data will
tation developed �y the L�FE LEAP                                         Lack of information remains an o�sta-      serve as the �asis for setting future tar-
project �LIFE03 ENV/UK/000613) are                                        cle to further take-up of GPP. The         gets for GPP implementation.
transfera�le across Europe. �n fact, 11                                   ongoing GPPinfoNET project �LIFE07
local authorities in five Mem�er States                                   INF/IT/000410), is demonstrating ways      The figures are impressive. A saving of
were partners in the project. Launched                                    of tackling this pro�lem in �taly, and     the equivalent of 60 million tonnes of
at the EcoProcura conference in Barce-                                    with the potential to �e transfera�le to   CO2 is achieva�le if all pu�lic authori-
lona in 2006, the LEAP Toolkit consists                                   the EU as a whole. By the end of the       ties across the EU demanded green
of eight tools for implementing GPP.                                      project, it aims to have ensured that at   electricity �equivalent to the emissions
The tools outline a five-step implemen-                                   least 30% of local authorities that have   of 6.5 million Europeans). The Commis-
tation process, give examples of good                                     joined regional networks will have pu�-    sion estimates that environmental �uild-
practice, set out standard specifications                                 lished green tenders and implemented       ing construction could lead to a similar
for key products, and detail evaluation                                   actions that favour the adoption of GPP    result. Large CO 2 reductions can also
priorities and the promotion of a green                                   within their administrations: just one     �e achieved through the use of energy-
market. Most importantly in terms of                                      example of how L�FE is furthering the      efficient computers, and greater water
resource efficiency, the criteria devel-                                  goal of resource efficiency �y encour-     use efficiency could result in consider-
oped �y the project could �e used as a                                    aging the widespread adoption of GPP.      a�le savings.



     LIFE Focus        I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




     Project	list
     The table below provides the complete list of LIFE projects on resource efficiency mentioned in this
     publication. For more information on individual projects, visit the online database at:
     http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/projects/index.cfm


     Project Reference                    Acronym                Title                                                                     Page
                                                              PRoducTion PRocesses

     L�FE04 ENV/�T/000583                 PROWATER               Sustaina�le water management in the textile wet industry through           6
                                                                 an innovative treatment process for wastewater re-use
     L�FE05 ENV/�T/000846                 BATTLE                 Best Availa�le Technique for water reuse in TextiLE SMEs                   6
     L�FE05 ENV/E/000285                  RES�TEX                Alternatives for waste volume reduction in the textile sector through      6
                                                                 the application of minimisation measures in the process and in the
                                                                 consumption
     L�FE02 ENV/E/000216                  AF�NO                  Development of a new salt water purification system in the tanning         7
                                          CONDUCT�V�DAD          sector for reuse
     L�FE04 ENV/�T/000414                 N.E.S.S.               New Eco Spray System                                                       7
     L�FE00 ENV/�T/000184                 G�ADA                  �ntegrated Environmental Management in the tannery district of             7
                                                                 Chiampo Valley ��taly)
     L�FE08 ENV/E/000140                  OXATAN                 Environmentally friendly oxazolidine-tanned leather                        7
     L�FE05 TCY/GA/000115                 HAGAR                  Environmental action for the sustaina�ility of natural resources           7
                                                                 through recycling of water and sludge frm mar�le production
     L�FE02 ENV/UK/000140                 �nwatco                �ntegrated Water Management in former coal mining regions                  8
     L�FE05 ENV/E/000317                  ELVES                  Development of a system for high-quality separation of metal alloys        8
                                                                 from end-of-life-vehicle engines and its reuse in new engines and
                                                                 components for automotive sector
     L�FE05 ENV/D/000185                  �NCOCAST               Demonstration of environmentally friendly aluminium engine �lock           9
                                                                 Core Package casting �CPS) using an inorganic �inder
     L�FE04 ENV/�T/000598                 ESD                    New ESD �eco-sustaina�le drawing) system, environment-friendly             9
                                                                 to process steel wire rods / �y-products, eliminating the current
                                                                 pickling practice and the related chemical fumes possessing a high
                                                                 environmental impact su�stituting the ...
     L�FE06 ENV/NL/000176                 Green Bearings         Demonstrating innovative technologies that significantly improve           9
                                                                 the environmental performance of �earings

     L�FE06 ENV/�T/000332                 ME�GLASS               Minimising the Environmental impact of GLASS recycling and glass          10-12
                                                                 container production
     L�FE07 ENV/�T/000361                 NOVED�                 No Vetro in Discarica �No glass in landfill): demonstrating innovative     12
                                                                 technologies for integral recovery of glass rejects actually landfilled
     L�FE08 ENV/�T/000421                 VAL�RE                 Valorisation of incentration residues                                      12

                                                           eco-PRoducTs And eco-design

     L�FE04 ENV/�T/000589                 EWG                    New clean technology for the decoration of all kinds of ceramic            14
                                                                 surfaces, whether flat or textured, with a minimal use of raw no�le
                                                                 materials
     L�FE02 ENV/�T/000052                 Microfinishing         A new dry process of microfinishing of gres porcelain and natural          14
                                                                 stone surfaces, which will su�stitute the stage of smoothing/
                                                                 polishing, drastically decreasing the environmental impact of this
                                                                 stage, to aim for a sustaina�le development
     L�FE05 ENV/E/000301                  Eco-Ceramics           Ecological ceramics optimization. Alternative to sludge disposal           14
     L�FE07 ENV/SLO/000710                UN�SASH                Resource efficient, Universal Window Sash                                  14
     L�FE08 ENV/F/000481                  C�SDP                  Cleaning �ndustry Sustaina�le Development Programme                        14

     L�FE03 ENV/A/000002                  PROCOOL                Development and successful market penetration of HFC-free and              15
                                                                 eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use
       Best projects       “Best of the Best” projects
                                                                                                                                               


                                               LIFE Focus   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




                                                                                                                                               PROJECT LIST
Project Reference               Acronym                         Title                                                                  Page

L�FE05 ENV/DK/000156            CO2REF                          Development and demonstration of a prototype transcritical CO2          15
                                                                refrigeration system
L�FE00 ENV/�T/000213            Clean-Deco                      Development of a clean coating technology pvd for decorative            15
                                                                applications on metal components in place of the traditional
                                                                �galvanic) coating technologies
L�FE05 ENV/F/000062             GAP                             Clean alternative technology to chemical milling: demonstration of      16
                                                                technical, environmental and economic performance of mechanical
                                                                milling for the machining of complex shaped panels used in the
                                                                aeronautical and space industries - GAP �Green Advanced Panels)
                                                                project
L�FE03 ENV/E/000106             REC�PLAS                        �ntegrated reusa�le plastic crates and pallets, eliminating package     16
                                                                waste, for sustaina�le distri�ution of everyday commodities in
                                                                Europe.
L�FE99 ENV/�T/000034            Use and … re-use                Use and ... reuse. The “processing centre” in the logistics of          16
                                                                packaging of fresh fruit and vegeta�le products
L�FE09 ENV/ES/000454            WOODRUB                         Utilisation of recovered wood and ru��er for alternative composite      17
                                                                products
L�FE95 ENV/�T/000393                                            New raw materials from agri-food and industrial wastes: sugar           17
                                                                paper, orange paper, smog paper
L�FE03 ENV/GR/000204            ECO-TEXT�LE                     �ntroduction and Promotion of the ECO-LABEL to the greek textile        17
                                                                industry
L�FE08 ENV/E/000147             SHOELAW                         Promotion of Environmental Legislation among European Footwear          17
                                                                �ndustries
L�FE09 ENV/LU/000390            ECO2 Tyre Tech                  Development and validation of ecologically sustaina�le tyres            17
                                                                through lifecycle enhancing technologies
L�FE00 ENV/F/000593             E.D.�.T                         Eco Design �nteractive Tools                                            17
L�FE06 ENV/L/000118             BioTyre                         Development and validation of ultra low rolling resistance tyre with   18-20
                                                                environmentally friendly resources

                                                            LifecycLe Thinking

L�FE02 ENV/S/000351             DANTES                          Eco-Efficiency evaluation of new and existing products �DANTES)         23
L�FE00 ENV/NL/000808            EQuation                        Demonstration and dissmeination project for stimulating architects      23
                                                                and local governments to �uild sustaina�le with help of innovative
                                                                design tools
L�FE08 ENV/E/000135             FEN�X                           Fenix-Finding regional environmental lifecycle information on           23
                                                                packaging waste management through flexi�le software tools and
                                                                data�ases
                                Aquala�el                       Environmental certification of water resource distri�uted �y            23
L�FE03 ENV/�T/000333
                                                                waterworks systems.
L�FE04 ENV/�T/000588            LA�PP                           Dissemination of �PP tools in the furniture industry                    24
                                ECO�L                           Life Cycle Assessment �LCA) as a decision support tool �DST) for        24
L�FE04 ENV/GR/000110
                                                                the eco-production of olive oil.
                                OSELCA                          �ntroduction and �mplementation of Life Cycle Assessment                24
L�FE03 ENV/EE/000194                                            Methodology in Estonia: Effects of Oil Shale Electricity on the
                                                                Environmental Performance of Products
L�FE00 ENV/F�N/000656           Rural L�FE Design               Eco-design and marketing model for rural products and services          25
L�FE04 ENV/GR/000138            �PP TEL                         �ntegrated Product Policy in the Telecommunication Sector               25
                                Resolved                        Recovery of Solar Valua�le Materials, Enrichment and                    25
L�FE04 ENV/DE/000047
                                                                Decontamination
                                ELECTROVALUE                    Electric and electronic eco-assem�ly alternatives for the               25
L�FE07 ENV/P/000639                                             valorisation of the end-of-life products in the recycling
                                                                market
                                ACADEMY                         Air�us Corporate Answer to Disseminate integrated Environmental        26-28
L�FE04 ENV/FR/000353
                                                                Management System
L�FE05 ENV/F/000059             PAMELA                          Process for Advanced Management of End of Life of Aircraft              28

 Best projects   “Best of the Best” projects
 


               LIFE Focus       I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use


               Project Reference                   Acronym                   Title                                                                    Page
PROJECT LIST




                                                                            WATeR efficiency

               L�FE00 ENV/EE/000922                RAKWANET                  Demonstration Activities for the Reduction of Water Losses                30
                                                                             and Preservation of Water Quality in Over-dimensioned Water
                                                                             Distri�ution Network in Rakvere Town, Estonia
               L�FE09 ENV/�T/000136                PALM                      Pump And Leakage Management                                               30
               L�FE07 ENV/�T/000475                TRUST                     Tool for regional - scale assessment of groundwater storage               31
                                                                             improvement in adaptation to climate change �TRUST)
               L�FE03 ENV/NL/000467                VERBAL                    The Vertical Flow Reed Bed at Leidsche Rijn. A natural way to filter      31
                                                                             ur�an water
               L�FE98 ENV/D/000509                 Reuse filter �ackwash-    Reuse of filter �ackwashwater from groundwater treatment for              31
                                                   water                     drinking water purposes with a su�merged mem�rane system
               L�FE07 �NF/UK/000950                Eco-Animation             Eco-Animation: a cutting edge cartoon to raise awareness on               31
                                                                             climate change and sustaina�le use of natural resources among
                                                                             European children
               L�FE96 ENV/E/000509                 Zaragoza                  Zaragoza: water saving city. Small steps, �ig solutions                   32


               L�FE03 ENV/E/000164                 OPT�M�ZAGUA               Demonstration of water saving for watering uses through the               32
                                                                             experimentation of artificial
               L�FE00 ENV/NL/000790                Maastricht Water          Demonstration of integrated total water management for a cluster          32
                                                                             of 8 industries, implementing a centralised water supply and a semi
                                                                             collective WWTS and resulting in su�stantial ground water and
                                                                             energy savings
               L�FE02 ENV/E/000183                 Dropawater                Dura�le Regions On Peripheal Areas for Water Reduction                    32
               L�FE02 ENV/E/000210                 HAGAR                     Tools of self-management for water irriga�le in the overused hydric       32
                                                                             systems

                                                                        susTAinAbLe TRAnsPoRT

               L�FE02 ENV/GR/000359                �MMACULATE                �Mprovement of Ur�an Environment Quality of Air and Noise Levels          34
                                                                             �y an �ntegrated, Cost Effective and MUlti-Level Application of
                                                                             Clean Vehicle Technologies
               L�FE06 ENV/D/000477                 PARFUM                    Particulates, Freight and heavy duty vehicles in Ur�an                    34
                                                                             Environments
               L�FE07 ENV/�T/000434                MHyBus                    Methane and Hydrogen �lend for pu�lic city transport �us:                 35
                                                                             technical demonstrative application and strategic policy measures
               L�FE02 ENV/E/000253                 ECOBUS                    Collecting used cooking oils to their recycling as �iofuel for diesel     35
                                                                             engines
               L�FE05 ENV/P/000369                 O�L PROD�ESEL             �ntegrated Waste Management System for the Reuse of Used                  35
                                                                             Frying Oils to Produce Biodiesel for Municipality Fleet of Oeiras
               L�FE08 ENV/�T/000425                ETRUSCAN                  Under the Etruscan sun - Environmental friendly Transport to              35
                                                                             RedUce Severe Climate change ANthropic factors
               L�FE03 ENV/�T/000319                S�DDHARTA                 Smart and �nnovative Demonstration of Demand Handy Responsive             35
                                                                             Transport Application to improve the quality of the ur�an
                                                                             environment
               L�FE05 ENV/E/000262                 GESMOPOL�                 �ntegral mo�ility management in industrial estates and areas              35
               L�FE03 ENV/NL/000474                LNG Tanker                Demonstrating the effective and safe use of liquid natural gas as fuel    36
                                                                             for ship engines for short-sea shipping and inland waterway transport
               L�FE06 ENV/D/000479                 W�NTECC                   Demonstration of an innovative wind propulsion technology for             36
                                                                             cargo vessels
               L�FE06 ENV/D/000465                 ZEM/SH�PS                 Zero.Emission.Ships                                                       36
               L�FE02 ENV/UK/000136                CATCH                     Clean Accessi�le Transport for Community Health                           36
               L�FE02 ENV/�T/000106                RAVE                      The Green Ray of Novara                                                   36

                                                                      eneRgy efficienT buiLdings

               L�FE04 ENV/GR/000137                SB-MED                    Enhancing transfera�ility of innovative techniques, tools, methods        38
                                                                             and mechanisms to implement “sustaina�le �uilding” in the
                                                                             Mediterranean region
                Best projects       “Best of the Best” projects
                                                                                                                                              


                                               LIFE Focus   I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use



Project Reference               Acronym                         Title                                                                 Page




                                                                                                                                              PROJECT LIST
L�FE00 ENV/NL/000808            EQuation                        Demonstration and dissemination project for stimulating architects     38
                                                                and local governments to �uild sustaina�le with help of innovative
                                                                design tools
L�FE05 ENV/GR/000235            SUSCON                          Sustaina�le Construction in Pu�lic and Private Works through �PP       38
                                                                approach
L�FE00 ENV/A/000243             S-House                         S-House: innovative use of renewa�le resources demonstrated �y         39
                                                                means of an office and exhi�ition �uilding
L�FE06 ENV/D/000471             �NSU-SHELL                      Environmentally Friendly Facade Elements made of thermal               39
                                                                insulated Textile Reinforced Concrete
L�FE04 ENV/FR/000321            ECO-CAMPS                       Eco-design and eco-engineering of �uildings, amenities and             39
                                                                accommodations in campsites
L�FE02 ENV/A/000285             BBMpassiv                       Multifunctional company and administration �uilding with logistics     40
                                                                and cultural centre in passive house standard in sustaina�le tim�er
                                                                construction
L�FE07 ENV/E/000805             EDEA                            Efficient Development of Eco-Architecture: Methods and                 40
                                                                Technologies for Pu�lic Social Housing Building in Extremadura
L�FE08 ENV/A/000216             RENEW BU�LD�NG                  Demonstration and Dissemination of Climate and Environmental           40
                                                                Friendly Renovation and Building with Renewa�le Resources and
                                                                Ecological Materials
L�FE06 ENV/L/000121             EFFERNERGY                      Energy Efficient Building Systems                                     41-42

                                                     fish And mARine ResouRces

L�FE07 ENV/D/000229             ECOSMA                          Ecological Certification of Products from Sustaina�le Marine           44
                                                                Aquaculture
L�FE07 ENV/UK/000943            P�SCES                          Partnerships �nvolving Stakeholders in the Celtic sea Eco-System       44
L�FE07 ENV/E/000814             3R-F�SH                         �ntegral management model of recovery and recycling of the proper      44
                                                                solid waste from the fishing and port activities
L�FE05 NAT/LV/000100            Baltic MPAs                     Marine protected areas in the Eastern Baltic Sea                       45
L�FE06 NAT/�T/000050            Co.Me.Bi.S.                     Urgent conservation measures for �iodiversity of Central               45
                                                                Mediterranean Sea
L�FE98 NAT/P/005275             Zonas costeiras/Açores          �ntegrated management of coastal and marine zones in the Azores        45
L�FE05 ENV/E/000267             BE-FA�R                         Benign and environmentally friendly fish processing practices to      46-48
                                                                provide added value and innovative solutions for a responsi�le and
                                                                sustaina�le management of fisheries
L�FE08 ENV/E/000119             FAROS                           �ntegral networking of fishing actors to organize a responsi�le        48
                                                                optimal and sustaina�le exploitation of marine resources

                                                       LAnd use And PLAnning

L�FE02 ENV/F�N/000331           ECOREG                          The Eco-Efficiency of Regions - Case Kymenlaakso                       49
L�FE02 ENV/F�N/000319           Green Valley                    Operation model of environmental management in Salo region             49
L�FE02 ENV/S/000355             Coastal Woodlands               �ntegrated Coastal Zone Management in Woodlands �y the Baltic          50
                                                                Sea
L�FE04 ENV/F�/000304            ENV�FAC�L�TATE                  �ntegration of spatial environmental information across different      50
                                                                themes, scales, resolutions and uses : added value of facilitating
                                                                mechanisms
L�FE02 ENV/E/000176             D�VERS                          �nformation, Competitiveness and Sustaina�ility in Ur�an System        50
L�FE02 ENV/E/000200             GALLECS                         Demonstration project on land use and environmental                    50
                                                                management of the physical planning in Gallecs as a �iological
                                                                and sta�le connector in the fringe space of Barcelona
                                                                metropolitan area

                                                            food And beveRAge

L�FE99 ENV/E/000349                                             Business, environment and wine: from the winegrape to the �ottle.      51
                                                                Vertical integration of the environment in the wine production
                                                                process and horizontal optimization of resources

 Best projects   “Best of the Best” projects
 


               LIFE Focus       I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use
PROJECT LIST




               Project Reference                   Acronym                  Title                                                                  Page

               L�FE03 ENV/GR/000223                D�ONYSOS                 Development of an economically via�le process for the integrated        52
                                                                            management via utilization of winemaking industry waste;
                                                                            production of high added value natural products and organic
                                                                            fertilizer
               L�FE08 ENV/CY/000455                W�NEC                    Advanced systems for the enhancement of the environmental               52
                                                                            performance of W�NEries in Cyprus
               L�FE08 ENV/E/000143                 HAproW�NE                �ntegrated waste management and life cycle assessment in the            52
                                                                            wine industry: From waste to high-value products
               L�FE04 ENV/GR/000110                ECO�L                    Life Cycle Assessment �LCA) as a decision support tool �DST) for        52
                                                                            the eco-production of olive oil
               L�FE04 ENV/DK/000067                New potatopro            Novel energy efficient process for potato protein extraction            52
               L�FE05 ENV/NL/000035                CLB                      Demonstration of a closed loop �lanching system for the potato          53
                                                                            processing industry
               L�FE03 ENV/NL/000488                Dairy, No Water!         A dairy industry which is self-supporting in water                      53
               L�FE04 ENV/ES/000224                JELLY                    Demonstration project for gelatine production with use of innovative    54
                                                                            technology achieving an important washing wastewater reduction
               L�FE05 ENV/F/000063                 �DEAL 79                 Sustaina�le �nitiatives and Local Alternatives towards waste            54
                                                                            prevention
               L�FE05 ENV/F�N/000539               WASTEPrevKit             Waste Prevention Kit for enterprises, education and households          54

                                                                  AgRicuLTuRe And ecosysTem seRvices

               L�FE09 ENV/F�/000571                Climforisk               Climate change induced drought effects on forest growth and             56
                                                                            vulnera�ility
               L�FE09 ENV/ES/000450                Bioenergy & Fire Prev.   Contri�ution of forest �iomass generated in the prevention of forest    56
                                                                            fires in the EU energy strategy
               L�FE03 ENV/E/000164                 OPT�M�ZAGUA              Demonstration of water saving for watering uses through the             56
                                                                            experimentation of artificial
               L�FE05 ENV/E/000313                 gEa                      Excellence in irrigation water management                               56
               L�FE09 ENV/�T/000075                AQUA                     Adoption of Quality water Use in Agro-industry sector                   57
               L�FE05 ENV/E/000330                 PR�ORAT                  Making compati�le mountain viticulture development with                 57
                                                                            European Landscape Convention o�jectives
               L�FE05 ENV/E/000288                 ALMOND PRO-SO�L          Soil protection in Mediterraanean areas with increased soil erosion     57
                                                                            rate through cultivation of new
               L�FE00 ENV/E/000547                 DOÑANA SOSTEN�BLE        Design and Application of a Sustaina�le Soil Management Model           57
                                                                            for Orchard Crops in the Doñana National Park Area
               L�FE03 ENV/UK/000617                Sowap                    Soil and Surface water protection using conservation tillage in         58
                                                                            northern and central europe
               L�FE07 �NF/E/000852                 Changing the Climate     L�FE+campaign ‘Changing the change’. The Galician agriculture           58
                                                                            and forest sector facing climate change.
               L�FE09 ENV/ES/000441                Acción Agroclimática     Com�ating climate change through farming: application of a              58
                                                                            common evaluation system in the 4 largest agricultural economies
                                                                            of the EU
               L�FE08 ENV/E/000129                 L�FE+AGR�CARBON          Sustaina�le agriculture in Car�on arithmetics                           58
               L�FE04 ENV/ES/000269                Humedales Sosteni�les    �ntegrated management of agriculture in the surroundings of            59-61
                                                                            community importance wetlands

                                                              gReen PubLic PRocuRemenT And gReen skiLLs

               L�FE02 ENV/�T/000023                GPPnet                   Green Pu�lic Procurement Network                                        62
               L�FE03 ENV/UK/000613                LEAP                     Local Authority EMAS and Procurement                                    63
               L�FE07 �NF/�T/000410                GPPinfoNET               GPPinfoNET The Green Pu�lic Procurement �nformation Network             63
               L�FE05 ENV/E/000317                 ELVES                    Development of a system for high-quality separation of metal alloys     63
                                                                            from end-of-life-vehicle engines and its reuse in new engines and
                                                                            components for automotive sector

                Best projects       “Best of the Best” projects
                                                                                                                                      


                                          LIFE Focus    I   LIFE and resource efficiency: Decoupling growth from resource use




Available	LIFE	Environment	publications
                             LIFE-Focus brochures                                                 Other publications

LIFE and local authorities: Helping           LIFE and Energy: Innovative solutions for    Best LIFE Environment projects 2009
regions and municipalities tackle envi-       sustainable and efficient energy in Europe   �2010, 32pp.-�SBN 978-92-79-16432-3
ronmental challenges                          �2007 – 64pp. �SBN 978 92-79-04969-9 -       �SSN 1725-5619)
�2010 - 60 pp. - �SBN 978-92-79-18643-1       �SSN 1725-5619)
- �SSN 1725-5619)                                                                          Environment Policy & Governance Proj-
                                              LIFE-Third Countries 1992-2006
                                                                                           ects 2009 compilation �2010, 125pp.
Water for life - LIFE for water: Protecting   �2007, 64 pp. – �SBN 978-92-79-05694-9
                                                                                           – �SBN 978-92-79-13884-3)
Europe’s water resources                      – �SSN 1725-5619)
�2010 - 68 pp. - �SBN 978-92-79-15238-2
                                              LIFE in the City: Innovative solutions for   Information & Communications Projects
- �SSN 1725-5619)
                                              Europe’s urban environment                   2009 compilation �2010, 14pp. –
                                              �2006, 64pp. - �SBN 92-79-02254-7 – �SSN     �SBN 978-92-79-16138-4)
LIFE among the olives: Good practice in
                                              1725-5619)
improving environmental performance in
the olive oil sector                                                                       Nature & Biodiversity Projects 2009
�2010 - 56 pp. - �SBN 978-92-79-14154-6       The air we breathe: LIFE and the Euro-       compilation �2010, 91pp. – �SBN 978-92-
- �SSN 1725-5619)                             pean Union clean air policy                  79-16139-1)
                                              �2004 - 32 pp. – �SBN 92-894-7899-3
                                              – �SSN 1725-5619)
Getting more from less: LIFE and sus-                                                      Environment Policy & Governance
tainable production in the EU                                                              Projects 2008 compilation �2009, 107pp.
                                              A cleaner, greener Europe - LIFE and the
�2009 - 40pp. - �SBN 978-92-79-12231-6                                                     – �SBN 978-92-79-13424-1)
                                              European Union waste policy
- �SSN 1725-5619)
                                              �2004 - 28 pp. – �SBN 92-894-6018-0
                                              – �SSN 1725-5619)                            Information & Communications Projects
Breathing LIFE into greener businesses:                                                    2008 compilation �2009, 21pp. – �SBN
Demonstrating innovative approaches                                                        978-92-79-13425-8)
to improving the environmental perfor-          A number of LIFE publications are
mance of European businesses
                                                available on the LIFE website:             Nature & Biodiversity Projects 2008
�2008 - 60pp. - �SBN 978-92-79-10656-9
                                                http://ec.europa.eu/environment/           compilation �2009, 87pp. – �SBN 978-92-
- �SSN 1725-5619)
                                                                                           79-13426-5)
                                                life/publications/lifepublications/
LIFE on the farm: Supporting environ-           index.htm
                                                                                           Best LIFE Environment projects 2008-
mentally sustainable agriculture in Europe
                                                                                           2009 �2009, 32pp.-�SBN 978-92-79-13109-7
�2008 - 60 pp. - 978-92-79-08976-3 - �SSN       A number of printed copies of
                                                                                           �SSN 1725-5619)
1725-5619)                                      certain LIFE publications are
                                                available and can be ordered free-
LIFE and waste recycling: Innovative                                                       Environment Policy & Governance and
                                                of-charge at:                              Information & Communications Projects
waste management options in Europe
�2007 - 60 pp. - �SBN 978-92-79-07397-7         http://ec.europa.eu/environment/           2007 compilation �2009, 92 pp.-�SBN 978-
- �SSN 1725-5619)                               life/publications/order.htm                92-79-12256-9)
liFE+   “L’Instrument Financier pour l’Environnement” / The financial instrument for the environment

period covered (liFE+) 2007-2013.
Eu funding available approximately EUR 2 143 million
type of intervention at least 78% of the �udget is for co-financing actions in favour of the environment �L�FE+
    projects) in the Mem�er States of the European Union and in certain non-EU countries.

liFE+ projects
>   LIFE+ Nature projects improve the conservation status of endangered species and natural ha�itats. They support the
    implementation of the Birds and Ha�itats Directives and the Natura 2000 network.
>   LIFE+ Biodiversity projects improve �iodiversity in the EU. They contri�ute to the implementation of the o�jectives of
    the Commission Communication, “Halting the loss of Biodiversity by 200 – and beyond” �COM �2006) 216 final).
>   LIFE+ Environment Policy and Governance projects contri�ute to the development and demonstration of innovative
    policy approaches, technologies, methods and instruments in support of European environmental policy and legislation.
>   LIFE+ Information and Communication projects are communication and awareness raising campaigns related to the
    implementation, updating and development of European environmental policy and legislation, including the prevention




                                                                                                                             KH-AJ-11-002-EN-C
    of forest fires and training for forest fire agents.

Further information         further information on L�FE and L�FE+ is availa�le at http://ec.europa.eu/life.

How to apply for liFE+ funding              The European Commission organises annual calls for proposals. Full details are
    availa�le at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/funding/lifeplus.htm

Contact
    European Commission – Directorate-General for the Environment
    L�FE Unit – BU-9 02/1 – B-1049 Brussels – �nternet: http://ec.europa.eu/life

LIFE and Resource Efficiency: Decoupling Growth from Resource Use

Luxem�ourg: Pu�lications Office of the European Union

2011 - 72p - 21 x 29.7 cm
�SBN 978-92-79-19764-2
�SSN 1725-5619
doi:10.2779/74370




                                                                              �SSN 1725-5619

				
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