Answers to ICT For You OCR Chapter 1 Hardware Components Activity 1 (Page 1) 1 Hardware is those parts of the computer that you can touch and handle, whereas software is the programs that give instructions to the hardware to do a useful job. 2 Name of item Hardware Software Something else Screen √ Keyboard √ Operating system √ Wordprocessing program √ Printer √ Blank DVD √ Game for a Sony Playstation √ Toaster √ Activity 2 (Page 4) 2 Mainframe computer – used by the largest companies/organisations with thousands of terminals. Desktop computers – used by businesses and home users for personal computing and access to the Internet or used as a terminal. Tower/Mini-Tower computers - used by businesses and home users for personal computing and access to the Internet or used as a terminal. Laptop computers – a smaller portable computer used for access to computing facilities in lots of different places. Personal digital assistant (PDA) - calculator sized computer used to hold contact details, check e-mail, use diary facility etc. The latest mobile telephone with computing facilities – used to make calls, take photos, store contact details, access the Internet, take and send photographs etc. Case Study (page 12) 1 Sound sensor 2 The time is recorded to know at what time a loud noise was being made. A noise during the day may be acceptable whereas the same noise in the middle of the night would be unacceptable. Activity 4 (Page 17) 1 dot matrix printer 2 dot matrix printer 3 dot matrix printer 4 laser printer Activity 5 (page 20) 1(a) 1440 bytes (b) 0.0014 gigabytes 2 10/1.44 = 6.94 so 7 disks needed Activity 6 (Page 24) 1 Hardware – the parts of the computer that you can physically touch. 2 Software – you cannot touch these although you can touch what they are stored on ( usually a disk). They are the instructions that tell the computer what to do. 3 Hard copy – output from a computer printed on paper. 4 Peripheral – a device that is connected to the computer and it can be controlled by the computer. 5 Input device – a device that is used to get data into the computer, such as a keyboard. 6 Output device – a device that is use to get information out of the computer, such as a printer. 7 Storage device – a device used to hold the data and programs that are needed by the computer. Activity 7 (Page 25) 1 RAM 2 DVD 3 ROM 4 magnetic hard disk 5 DVD 6 magnetic floppy disk Build Your Notes (Page 27) A hardware, software K digital B programs L digitiser C input M sensors D peripheral N output E keyboard O laser F mouse P ink – jet G touch pad Q ROM, RAM H joystick R non-volatile, volatile I microphone S DVD J scanner Multiple-choice questions (Page 29) 1 b 2 a, d 3 b 4 c 5 d 6 a, d, e 7 b, d, f 8 a, b, e 9 b 10 a Examination questions (Page 31) 1(a) Dot matrix printer – because it uses continuous stationery. (b) Ink-jet printer – the cheapest colour printer (c) Laser printer – a fast printer which is cheaper to run than an ink-jet (d) Colour laser or ink-jet printer or possibly a photo-printer (a type of specialist ink- jet printer.) – using any of these printers, you can print at a very high resolution. 2 Touch pad or keyboard 3 They are thin compared to a regular screen so they take up less space on a desk. 4 Input devices: Keyboard, Scanner, Mouse, Joystick, OMR, OCR, MICR etc. Output devices: Printer, Screen, Motor, Speakers, Plotter etc. 5(a) All computers have them and many people understand how to use them. (b) It is a slow way of inputting a large volume of data. Can introduce lots of errors (i.e. human errors). F Questions 1 A = Printer B = CD-ROM C = Laptop computer D = Mouse E = Floppy disk 2(a) All computers have them and many people understand how to use them. (b) It is a slow way of inputting a large volume of data. Can introduce lots of errors (i.e. human errors). It is expensive because a person needs to be paid to do the typing. (c)(i) Digital camera (ii) Digital video camera (iii) Touch screen (iv) Scanner (v) Microphone (vi) Touch pad (vii) Sensor 3(a) Plotter Colour ink-jet printer Dot-matrix printer Buzzer/speaker Speaker Screen (b) Volatile – memory which loses its contents when the power is removed. Mon-volatile – memory which keeps its contents when the power is removed. (c)(i) ROM (Read Only Memory) a non-volatile memory RAM (Random Access Memory) a volatile memory (ii) RAM is needed to store the programs and the data that is currently being used. ROM is used to store the programs needed to start up the computer. 4(a) There is a search facility which makes finding information quicker. A CD-ROM takes up a lot less space. (b) You can photocopy the relevant pages of a book. Some people find it easier to read the information from a book rather than from a screen. H questions 1 An EPOS terminal is situated where the goods are paid for in a shop/supermarket. The hardware consists of a laser scanner which is used to read the bar-codes on the items, a screen so that the operator can check the details about the goods being scanned, a magnetic stripe reader to read the stripe on payment cards and loyalty cards. There is usually a speaker to make a beep if the goods have not been scanned properly. There is also a keyboard and a till where the cash is kept and there is a printer where the receipts are printed. 2 It is much easier to copy one CD-ROM than lots of floppies. It is much easier for the user to install off CD-ROM as only one disk needs to be inserted. The costs of distribution would be less as the postage would be less to send CD- ROMs because they are much lighter. 3(a) Hardware – the parts of the computer that you can physically touch. Software – you cannot touch these although you can touch what they are stored on ( usually a disk). They are the instructions that tell the computer what to do. (b) Mainframe computers are used for the processing for large networks which typically have 500+ terminals. (c)(i) Touch pad and mouse (ii) It can be used to type data directly into the computer using voice recognition software. 4(a) A web camera is a digital camera usually situated at the top of a computer screen and it is used to capture sill and video images which can then be sent to another person. (b) It is possible to conduct video conferencing using a web camera. 5(a) Hard drives do go wrong and if this happens then all the data stored on the hard drive would be lost and need to be recreated using backup copies. (b) It would take too long as their storage capacity is low compared to a magnetic hard drive. (c) A CD-RW drive could be used to back up the data onto a CD. (d) CDs have a high capacity and data can be copied onto them at high speed. Chapter 2 Software Activity 1 (page 42) Particular configurations vary but would include the following: Word Excel Outlook PowerPoint Possibly: FrontPage Access Activity 2 (Page 46) 1 Batch 2 Batch 3 Real-time 4 Batch 5 Real-time 6 Real-time 7 Real-time Activity 3 (Page 47) 1 Operating System Software 2 Application Software 3 Application Software 4 Application Software 5 Operating System Software 6 Application Software 7 Operating System Software 8 Operating System Software 9 Application Software Activity 4 (Page 47) 2(a) Software deigned to do a typical job such as accounts. (b) The software that controls the hardware and runs the applications programs. (c) A small picture of a task that you can do by clicking on it. (d) A piece of software made up of a number of applications which all have a similar look or interface and it is easy to transfer data from one of these applications to another. (e) The way the computer communicates with the outside world. (f) An interface which uses icons, windows, pull-down menus and where you make your selections using a mouse or other pointing device. (g) Running more than one application at the same time. (h) A screen containing the application you are running. (i) A menu which displays more menu items in a list when you click on it. Case Study (Page 50) 1 Sorts out where files are stored on the hard disk Controls security by using user names and passwords Manages and controls the peripheral devices. 2(a) Software that performs a specific job such as payroll. (b) Software that controls the operation of the hardware directly. 3(a) Graphical User Interface (b) A GUI makes the software easy to use. (c) Command driven or menu driven 4(a) A web browser (to look things up using the Internet) and wordprocesing software. (b) They could look cases up using the Internet and then include these references into a wordprocessed report. 5 Much easier to transfer data from one package to the other. Once you have learnt how to use one of the items in the package it easy to use one of the less familiar ones as the interfaces will be very similar. 6 It takes a long time. Programmers time is very expensive. The program would be more likely to contain bugs than a mass produced package. 7 The applications software may not run with the proposed hardware. For example you may not have the required memory or hard disk capacity. 8(a) Word (b) Word (c) Excel (d) Excel (e) Access (f) Outlook (g) Outlook (h) Outlook (i) PowerPoint Build Your Notes (Page 53) A software G multi-tasking B operating H multi-user C files I macro D application J real-time E user interfaces K batch F utility L interactive Multiple choice questions (Page 54) 1 c 2 b 3 c 4 d 5 a 6 d 7 c 8 c 9 c 10 c Examination questions (Page 56) 1(a) Windows XP, Windows 2000 etc. (b) Organises files, deals with user names and passwords etc. (c) Mainly on the hard disk drive although a small part is stored in ROM. (d) RAM 2(a) A piece of software made up of a number of applications which all have a similar look or interface and it is easy to transfer data from one of these applications to another. (b) It is usually cheaper than buying separate packages. (c) One or more of the modules can be weak compared with the others. 3(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 2 4(a) Changes are made immediately so if a seat is booked it is no longer displayed as being available. (b) So that changes are immediately updated thus preventing double booking. (c) A flood warning system. F Questions (Page 57) 1 You do not have to remember lots of different commands. One windows environment is like another so the skills you learn in using one package can be transferred to another package and this saves time. 2 central heating systems automatic pilot on an aeroplane F Questions (Page 57 continued) 3(a) Graphical user interface (b) Windows Pull-down menus Icons (c) An application package is software that would do a specific job such as produce a payroll. Operating system software is used to control the hardware directly. H Questions (Page 57) 1(a) Sorts out where files are stored on the hard disk Controls security by using user names and passwords Manages and controls the peripheral devices. (b)(i) Graphical User Interface (ii) Command driven and menu driven (iii) Don’t need to remember the command names. Quicker to click on icons that make selections using menus 2(a) Sorts out where files are stored on the hard disk Controls security by using user names and passwords Manages and controls the peripheral devices. (b)(i) A multi-user uses a network of computers whereas a stand-alone computer only uses one compute. A multi-user system allows more than one person to access the same data at the same time. (ii) A multi-user operating system would deal with allowing different access rights to different people. This could mean that accounts people would not have access to personnel files and vice versa. 3(a) It will be much cheaper as the development costs are divided between all the people who will buy the software. (b) You may have to adapt the way you do things to fit the software. (c) You get the software to match your needs exactly. 4 Pupils perform an on-line quiz to test their knowledge. Questions appear on the screen and they enter their answers, if they do not get the answer right then some help appears and they are give the opportunity to answer again. They are given encouragement and the final score is given at the end.
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