Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Aggression Hurting Others

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 26

									     Social Psychology
    Chapter 10: Aggression: Hurting
                Others




 Is aggression biologically predisposed, or do we
  learn it?
 What circumstances prompt hostile outbursts?
 Do the media influence aggression?
 How might we reduce aggression?
               What is Aggression?


• Aggression: Physical or verbal behavior
  intended to cause harm.
  – The “Thugs”
  – A sale person can be “aggressive” and it can be a
    good thing.
                What is Aggression?


• Hostile Aggression: Aggression driven by anger
  and performed as an end in itself.
  – Most murders
  – “Hot” aggression
• Instrumental Aggression: Aggression that is a
  means to another end.
  – Terrorism is a strategic tool
  – “Cool” aggression
    What are Some Theories of Aggression?
    Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon
  Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology


• Instinctive Behavior: An innate, unlearned
  behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a
  species.
  – Contrary to this notion, there is wide variability in
    aggression from culture to culture.
      What are Some Theories of Aggression?
      Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon
                Neural Influences
• Phillip Bard performed a series of experiments demonstrating
  that the hypothalamus serves as a critical center for
  coordinating the autonomic and somatic components of
  emotional behavior. Bard removed both cerebral hemispheres
  in experimental cats and found that they exhibited all the
  characteristics of being extremely angry, even though there
  was no external stimulus to trigger such a reaction. He called
  this constellation of behaviors sham rage.
• Walter Hess demonstrated that electrical stimulation of discrete
  locations of the hypothalamus could evoke sham rage, while
  stimulation of other sites could evoke fear reactions.
    What are Some Theories of Aggression?
    Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon
              Genetic Influences
• Animal’s can be bred
  for aggressiveness or
  passiveness.
  – Domestic fox breeding
  – Pit Bull breeding
      What are Some Theories of Aggression?
      Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon
              Biochemical Influences
• Alcohol
   – Most in-home fights and assaults involve alcohol.
   – Alcohol reduces self-awareness and ability to consider
     consequences.
• Testosterone
   – After 25, men’s testosterone levels and rates of violent crime
     decrease together.
• “We could avoid two-thirds of all crime simply by putting all
  able-bodied young men in cryogenic sleep from the age of 12
  through 28.”
             » David Lykken
• Low Serotonin
      What are Some Theories of Aggression?
      Aggression as a Response to Frustration

• Frustration-Aggression Theory: The theory that frustration
  triggers a readiness to aggress.
• Frustration: The blocking of goal-directed behavior.
• Displacement: The redirection of aggression to a target other
  than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a
  safer or more socially acceptable target.
      What are Some Theories of Aggression?
      Aggression as a Response to Frustration
       Frustration-Aggression Theory Revised
   If frustration is caused by an understandable
    thing, then it tends to lead to irritation rather
    than aggression.
       What are Some Theories of Aggression?
       Aggression as a Response to Frustration
                Relative Deprivation
   Relative Deprivation: The perception that one is
    less well off than others with whom one
    compares oneself.
      Crime tends to be higher not in poor places,
       but in places where there is a large disparity
       in incomes.
   “A house may be large or small; as long as the surrounding
    houses are equally small, it satisfies all social demands for a
    dwelling. But let a palace arise beside the little house, and it
    shrinks from a little house into a hut.”
                Karl Marx
    What are Some Theories of Aggression?
    Aggression as Learned Social Behavior
         The Rewards of Aggression
• By experience and by observing others, we
  learn that aggression often pays.
• Children that successfully intimidate other
  children tend to become more aggressive.
• Aggressive professional hockey players tend to
  score more goals, a lesson not lost on the youth
  hockey players.
    What are Some Theories of Aggression?
    Aggression as Learned Social Behavior
            Observational Learning
• Social Learning Theory: The theory that we
  learn social behavior by observing and imitating
  and by being rewarded and punished.
       What are Some Theories of Aggression?
       Aggression as Learned Social Behavior
               Observational Learning
   Children watch model        12        boys   girls
    behave aggressively with
                                10
    Bobo doll
   Then model is either         8

    rewarded or punished         6
   Then children are
                                 4
    frustrated, and allowed
    access to a room with        2
    toys, including a Bobo doll 0
   Do the children imitate the       model        model
    model’s behavior?                rewarded     punished
      What are Some Theories of Aggression?
      Aggression as Learned Social Behavior
              Observational Learning
• Models for aggression can come from the home, the media, or
  from outside.
• If children learn aggression by watching others, then if parents
  use violence as a form of discipline, then children will learn that
  in the face of a problem, violence is the solution.
   What are Some Influences on Aggression?
              Aversive Incidents
• Pain
  – Rats can live together peacefully, but if some shock is given,
    the rats become aggressive.
  – The greater the shock, the more the aggression.
  – Held true for other species as well.
  – Object of attack could be other animals of the same or a
    different species, or even a stuffed toy.
• Heat
  – The relationship between heat and aggression is positive, as
    it gets hotter, aggression rises.
• Attacks
  – Following an attack, we tend to counterattack.
   What are Some Influences on Aggression?
                   Arousal

• Schachter and Singer injected people with
  adrenaline.
• A given state of bodily arousal feeds one
  emotion or another, depending on how the
  person interprets and labels the arousal.
• Two-factor theory
   What are Some Influences on Aggression?
              Aggression Cues

• Aggressive cues can
  release pent up anger.
What are Some Influences on Aggression?
           Aggression Cues
   What are Some Influences on Aggression?
         Media Influences: Television

Correlational Studies-Tend to find connection
between TV viewing and aggressive behavior.
   What are Some Influences on Aggression?
         Media Influences: Television
• Longitudinal Studies
   – Examined the TV viewing habits of 3rd grade
     boys (preference for violent TV).
   – Examined the aggressiveness of these boys
     10 years later.
   – Correlation between violent TV watching in
     3rd grade and aggression 10 years later.
   – No correlation between aggressiveness in 3rd
     grade and preference for violent TV ten years
     later.
• Laboratory and Field Experiments
   – Generally show strong relationship
    What are Some Influences on Aggression?
           Media Influences: Television
         Television’s Effects on Behavior
• Catharsis: Emotional release. The catharsis
  view of aggression is that aggressive drive is
  reduced when one “releases” aggressive
  energy, either by acting aggressively or by
  fantasizing aggression.
• “He who gives way to violent gestures will increase his rage.”
            » Charles Darwin
• Prosocial Behavior: Positive, constructive,
  helpful social behavior; the opposite of
  antisocial behavior.
   – Sesame Street
    What are Some Influences on Aggression?
          Media Influences: Television
         Television’s Effects on Thinking
• Desensitization
• Social Scripts: Culturally provided mental
  instructions for how to act in various situations.
• “We don’t teach our children that healthy relationships involve
  drunken, naked parties in a hot tub with strangers—but that’s
  what they see when they turn on ‘The Real World.’ When
  they’re fed a steady diet of these depictions over and over
  again from the time they’re very young, this behavior becomes
  acceptable—even normal.”
              » Barack Obama
• Altered Perceptions
 What are Some Influences on
          Aggression?
Media Influences: Video Games
            • Video Game violence seems to show
              similar patterns as television violence.
               – Many blame the Columbine
                 situation, and school violence in
                 general, on video games.
            • Violence in music shows the same
              effects.
               – Antisocial lyrics lead to undesirable
                 emotions, attitudes, and behaviors.
            • The rating systems employed by
              television, video games, and music is
              one small step toward reducing the
              problem.
               – Really though, the rating systems
                 are the industry’s way of shifting
                 the blame to the parents.
What are Some Influences on Aggression?
    Media Influences: Video Games
     Effects of the Games Kids Play
   What are Some Influences on Aggression?
              Group Influences

• Group Influences
  –   Diffusion of responsibility
  –   Social contagion
  –   Social identity
  –   “Moral imperatives”
  –   Amplification of aggressive tendencies
  –   Group polarization
Learning and Aggression

								
To top