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					              Министерство образования и науки РФ
    ГОУ ВПО Московский автомобильно-дорожный государственный
                Технический университет (МАДИ)
                       Сочинский филиал



                                         Регистрационный №________
                                             Дата регистрации__________
                                              Методист




                КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № _______
                по дисциплине ____________________
                         Вариант № ___




Выполнил(а) студент(ка) группы ЭА_________
_________________________________________
          (фамилия, имя, отчество)
Проверил(а) ______________________________
     (ученая степень, звание, должность)
_________________________________________
           (фамилия, имя, отчество)




Проверена _______________________________
            (дата, подпись преподавателя)




                             Сочи 2010
Variant 1.

     I. Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 1 абзац:

     After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s financial institutions have
generally developed through a number of short-term speculative activities. While
this path of the development has created moral hazard problems that eventually
led to the Russian financial crisis in 1998, banks have also played the role of
financial intermediation among governments, non-financial corporations and
residents, as evidenced by macro financial flows. As negotiation and political
interests among economic players functioned strongly in the financial flows, even
after the crisis such inertia and financial moral hazard were preserved. In short,
since 1998, in spite of some market-oriented reforms, speculation and rent-seeking
behaviour in the financial sector seem to have been reinforced. Therefore, the
restructuring of the Russian banking sector has to be judged as incomplete.
     The Russian financial crisis in August 1998, which entailed substantial ruble
devaluation, has boosted export competitiveness and helped bring import
substitution in the light industry and food production. Combined with the benign
effect of higher world oil prices, this has led to, contrary to expectations, relatively
low inflation and faster economic growth. GDP increased by 3.2% in 1999 and by
7.5% in the first half of 2000. While the economic recovery is widely considered
fragile yet (P. Hanson, 2000), the rapid increase of domestic investment is
noteworthy (in 2000, domestic investment increased by 17.7%). Particularly since
the second half of 1999, domestic demand and investment have been the driving
forces of the economic recovery.
     Though the Russian financial crisis caused a great deal of damage to the
banking sector, the oligarchic financial groups have not lost their power. The
financial groups have strengthened their influence in the Russian Union of
Entrepreneurs and Industrialists, whose member-firms accounted for more than
80% of GDP, and maintained their presence in the (central and local) governments.
     The financial crisis and the subsequent economic recovery in Russia confirm
that the development of financial institutions, which intermediate between the
owners of production means and innovators, is indispensable for the capitalist
economic system. Financial institutions play the role of a financial safety net
necessary for the functioning of markets, and the financial system is essential for
determining the level of transaction costs in the economy. Financial system
reforms in East Asia and Russia in the aftermath of the 1997-98 financial crises
have also helped improve our understanding of the peculiarities of the affected
countries’ economic systems.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     1. What have Russia’s financial institutions generally developed through after
         the collapse of the Soviet Union?
     2. What led to the Russian financial crisis in 1998?
    3. Why can the restructuring of the Russian banking sector be judged as
       incomplete?
    4. What did the Russian financial c6risis in August 1998 entail?
    5. What sector did the Russian financial crisis cause a great deal of damage
       to?
    6. What do the financial crisis and the subsequent economic recovery in
       Russia confirm?
    7. What role do financial institutions play?

                                         Часть 2.
        Текст для чтения 2: The Future of the Engineering Profession.
       Engineering is a science which deals with design, construction, machines,
engines, building, electricity, electronics, communication etc.
       Among various recent trends in the engineering profession computerization
is the most widespread. The trend in modern engineering offices is also towards
computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems
as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data
modern engineers must work with.
       Computer engineering is a general field. It deals with both electric and
electronic industries. Electronic engineering deals with the research, design,
integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and
processing of information. Electric engineering deals with electric power. In
designing communication systems, engineers rely on various branches of advanced
mathematics, such as Fourier analysis, linear systems theory, linear algebra,
differential equations, and probability theory. Engineers working in the field of
electric power design and operate systems for generating, transmitting, and
distributing electric power. Several important developments appeared in this field.
One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the
direct current and alternating current modes, reducing power losses.
      Major developments in the field of communication and control have been the
replacement of analogue systems with digital systems; fibre optics are used now
instead of copper cables. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to electrical
noise. Fibre optics are likewise immune to interference; they also have great
carrying capacity, and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.
                  Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. заниматься чем-либо –
     2. широко распространенный –
     3. обработка –
     4. сфера –
     5. полагаться –
     6. анализ Фурье –
     7. высокое напряжение–
     8. медный кабель –
     9. защищенность –
     10. чрезвычайно –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
       1) The term engineering is describing activity of people dealing with
linguistics.
       2) Engineer has a basic knowledge of other engineering fields, because most
engineering tasks are complicated and interrelated.
       3) Among various recent trends in the engineering profession automation is
the most widespread.
       4) Computer engineering is a general field. It deals with both electric and
electronic industries.
       5) The most important subject of electrical and electronics engineering is
electric power.
       6) Digital systems offer less immunity to electrical noise.
     III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
    1) Who is an engineer?
    2) What is the most widespread trend in the engineering profession?
    3) What is computerization?
    4) What can be done to reduce power losses?
    5) What branches of advanced mathematics are used in designing
communication systems?
    6) What do the engineers of such field as electronic engineering do?
    7) Is fibre optics expensive?

                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
     Образец:
     1) To understand the importance of this event you should know all the facts.
Чтобы понять важность этого события, вы должны знать все факты.
to understand – обстоятельство цели
     1) He is always the first to come to the University.
     2) Nail Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
     3) I don’t know him well enough to ask him for help.
     4) The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and stronger.
     5) To understand this phenomenon better one must know the structure of the
        material.
     6) Our intention is to charter a steamer immediately.
     7) He must know her address.
     8) There is every reason to suppose that the cargo will arrive in time.
     9) He worked hard so as not to lag behind the other students.
     10)    To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number
        of atoms in the oxygen molecule.
    II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в
простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the
Objective Infinitive Construction).
    Образец:
    1) When Jane entered the apartment, she found that Paul was cooking dinner.
When Jane entered the apartment, she found him cooking dinner.
    1) The teacher ordered that students should rewrite the exercises.
    2) They consider that Ann will take part in the Olympic Games of 2014.
    3) We expect that our athletes to win in the competition.
    4) I heard that somebody was speaking in the room.
    5) I found that he was a very clever man.
    6) We consider that heat is a form of energy.
    7) Everybody knows that gravity causes bodies to fall to the earth.
    8) The couch believed that he was playing better.
    9) He believed that this student was fit for the project.
   10) We observed that applicants were good for the job.


     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather
abrasive.
     1) It is said that she knows several foreign languages.
     2) It is reported that the killer has returned to Moscow.
     3) It is alleged that the man drove through the town at 90 miles per hour.
     4) It is known that she is the most beautiful girl on the faculty.
     5) It is said that he works in the field of IT technologies.
     6) It is said that company is losing a lot of money.
     7) It is reported that many people are homeless after the floods.
     8) It is said that the new manager will work 12 hours a day.
     9) It is expected that he will be a good specialist.
     10)     It is said that he is a secret agent.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The theatre built in the last century needed reconstruction.
Театр, построенный в прошлом веке, нуждался в реконструкции.
     1) I see a man walking around your car.
     2) He will manage the task using your methods.
     3) We learn English grammar doing many exercises.
     4) When driving my car I pay attention to the traffic signs.
     5) Having finished the experiment the students left the laboratory.
     6) While fixing the TV-set I had to ask my neighbor for help.
     7) Having been translated into many languages Dickens’ books became
known all over the world.
     8) When reading your translation I found some mistakes.
     9) While crossing the road she dropped her phone.
     10)     When playing with a child my brother tries to think up new games.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
      Образец:
      1) He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.
Он был награжден за спасение жизни своего товарища.
      1) I remember your having objected to this schedule.
      2) Flying is better for long journeys but travelling by car is more interesting.
      3) His hobby is driving a car.
      4) Is there any possibility of their finding a suitable building material so
soon?
      5) They insisted on the question being reconsidered.
      6) After receiving good results they stopped experiments.
      7) He tried to find an excuse for being late.
      8) Did you have any difficulty in solving this problem?
      9) She was angry with him for losing her purse.
      10) Smoking is not allowed in this building.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
     Образец:
     1) He said, “I have spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the
machine.”
     He said that he had spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the
machine.
     1) Peter said, “I met him in 2000.”
     2) She said, “I was reading a letter when he entered the room.”
     3) Dad says, “She will come in the evening”.
     4) He asked me, “Where do you live?”
     5) Mary says, “Jack has taken my dictionary”.
     6) He said, “I saw her yesterday.”
     7) He asked me, “Why have you come so late?”
8) He said to me, “You ought to send him a cable”
9) She said, “My brother works here”.
10) He asked me, “Who is the owner of this car?”
Variant 2.

     I. Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите абзац 3:

              Financial sector restructuring under the Putin government
     The Putin government pushed for a stronger government role in promoting
investment and reorganization of the financial sector.
     Before Mr. Putin came to power, “Investment Environment in Russia”, a
report prepared by the Expert Institute of the Ministry of Economy in 1999,
characterized the Russian economy in the following ways. "We need to restructure
the economy on the basis of contemporary technology"; "The flow of residents'
savings to the real sector has not materialized yet"; "The business environment in
Russia has not been favourable for foreign investors"; "So far financial
stabilisation has succeeded"; and “The Russian state has been weak, and we need
to strengthen state control of the market transition”. Moreover, it pointed out
difficulties in settlements between economic actors and fragility of the banking
system increase transaction costs, thus deterring Russia’s economic development.
The reasons for this situation are the inadequate legal system, the lack of
competent people, and the low quality of management. To reform the banking
system, the report argued that bankruptcies of insolvent banks, a more active role
of ARCO, creating favourable conditions for the entry of foreign banks, and
improvement of bank management transparency are necessary.
     After taking power, the Putin government drew up its own policy report. “The
Strategy of Russia's Development until 2010” was prepared by the Centre for
Strategy Development under the leadership of its director (А. Греф). According to
it, Russia’s goal was economic modernization based on liberal principles but with a
strong role of the state. The report said the target of 5% annual GDP growth until
2010 could be achieved through the formation of strong legal institutions, the
overhaul of social welfare policies, and the adoption of a new budgetary system.
The following economic policy goals were also included: 1) protection of
shareholder rights; 2) establishment of fair competitive conditions (abolition of
direct and indirect privileges); 3) deregulation and cutting “red tape”
(simplification of administrative procedures for firm registration, etc.).
     In the financial field, solid financial infrastructure and tax preferences were
deemed indispensable to create a favorable investment environment. Policy
proposals included simplifying permission procedures for investment projects,
improvement of bank insolvency procedures, implementation of government
audits, and better enforcement of legal rules in securities markets.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     1. What did the Putin government push for?
     2. How did the “Investment Environment in Russia”, a report prepared by the
         Expert Institute of the Ministry of Economy in 1999, characterize the
         Russian economy?
     3. What does the report offer to reform the banking system?
    4. What was the goal of Putin’s government policy report?
    5. What could the target of 5% annual GDP growth be achieved through?
    6. What did policy proposals include?


                                     Часть 2.
                          Текст для чтения 2: Paratransit.
      Paratransit covers a wide range of collective passenger movement types:
school buses; social, health, and special bus and van services; subscription or club
buses; community and neighborhood services; jitneys; variable-route and route-
deviation services by buses or vans; shared taxis and regular taxi services;
vanpools and carpools; organized share-ride or hitchhiking services.
      Many of these types of services are organized or operated by private
companies, social agencies, or welfare organizations. Transit operators have been
exploring opportunities which can be served by the equipment that is available to
them.
      A bus operating on a fixed route or schedule may be programmed to deviate
from that route up to a certain distance to pick up and deliver passengers, and still
operate within the general framework of the route and schedule involved. This is
sometimes called flexible route service. This is called flexible route service.
      More freedom from route and schedule constraints is introduced by “dail-a-
ride” service. Routes are determined dynamically by current demand, and
schedules may only provide for vehicles meeting each other or fixed route service
at some interval, for example, an hour.
      Paratransit have advantages when providing service in places or at times
when conventional transit cannot provide them, meeting needs of special groups
of travelers and providing economic service. In some instances, paratransit has
been operated in direct competition with conventional transit.
                   Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. услуги отклонения от маршрута –
     2. передвижение автостопом –
     3. частная компания –
     4. техника –
     5. заданный маршрут –
     6. отклониться от –
     7. городской транспорт нефиксированного маршрута –
     8. фиксированный маршрут –
     9. общественный транспорт –
     10. конкуренция –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
       1) “Dial-a-ride” service is paratransit.
       2) The word schedule is equivalent to the word jitney.
       3) Many of transit services are organized or operated by private companies,
social agencies, or welfare organizations.
       4) A bus operating on a fixed route is called a carpool.
       5) Paratransit doesn’t have any advantages over conventional transport.
       6) Paratransit sometimes operates in direct competition with conventional
transit.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What kinds of transport can be related to paratransit?
      2) What vehicles are operating on the fixed routes?
      3) Are routes determined dynamically by current demand?
      4) What is called flexible route service?
      5) Which transit operator is providing economic service?
      6) What are the advantages of paratransit?
      7) What types of conventional transit do you know?

                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) The purpose of this catalist is to accelerate the process of chemical
reaction. Назначение этого катализатора заключается в том чтобы ускорить
процесс химической реакции.
to accelerate – часть составного именного сказуемого:
      1) All the progressive peoples must fight for peace.
      2) He had to start the experiment at noon.
      3) Voltage, resistance, and capacity are the three important properties to
         influence the flow of current in а circuit.
      4) We expected for the impurities to fall out as a precipitate.
      5) То reduce the temperature of the substance, it was placed in cooling
         mixture.
      6) Automation is one of the ways to increase productivity.
      7) The wire to connect the terminals is 10 meters long.
      8) Не asked us to return.
      9) We expect him to come.
      10) The transmitter is too weak to cover this distance.
    II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в
простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the
Objective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
Chemists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.
     1) We expect that he will solve this problem.
     2) I don’t consider that he is a good manager.
     3) I know that she has graduated from the university three years ago.
     4) The manager considers that the results are unsatisfactory.
     5) I expect that John will be elected.
     6) The scientists expect that this effort was relatively small.
     7) We know that a vector quantity is represented by means of straight line.
     8) We believe that he is a good engineer.
     9) Johnny saw how the crowd broke the line of policemen barring their way.
     10) I suppose that you will take part in this work.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather
abrasive.
     1) It is said that his theory is correct.
     2) It is said that he is a student.
     3) It seems that the weather is changing.
     4) It is known that she will sure come.
     5) It is expected that he will give us an answer tomorrow.
     6) It is reported that the fire produced a panic in the morning.
     7) It is said that there is a secret way in the castle.
     8) It is known that she works in the field of psychology.
     9) It is known that all bodies possess weight.
     10)     It is sure that he will be send there.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
    Образец:
    1) When asked this question, the student could not answer it at once.
Когда студенту задали этот вопрос, он не смог ответить на него сразу.
    1) The injured man was taken to hospital.
    2) The stars shining in the dark sky seem blue.
    3) Having finished the task children left the room.
    4) When going to work I always meet Mary.
    5) You will grow up beautiful flowers watering them every day.
    6) The theatre built in the last century need reconstruction.
     7) While translating the article I didn’t use the dictionary.
     8) I met my exe-wife going to work.
     9) We don’t know the girl standing at the window.
     10)    Payment for the equipment was made in Mexico on the 3rd of Janury.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
       Образец:
       1) The idea of spending our holidays on the Volga belongs to my husband.
Идея провести каникулы на Волге принадлежит моему мужу.
       1) He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.
       2) You can improve your pronunciation by reading aloud every day.
       3) I shall not be able to translate this article without looking up a new words
in the dictionary.
       4) He is used to getting up early.
       5) They have just finished loading the steamer.
       6) Не succeeded in finishing his work in time.
       7) This work is far from being easy.
       8) I am thankful to you for answering my letter so quickly.
       9) After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.
       10) Не has a bad habit of smoking before breakfast.

    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
      Образец:
     1) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
He said that he had been waiting for me since five o’clock.
      1) He said to me, “I ought to send him a letter”.
      2) The secretary said to me, “The negotiations have begun.”
      3) Mary says, “Peter has taken my car”.
      4) He said, “I have spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the
Machine.”
      5) He will say, “I sent them the catalogue on Tueday.”
      6) I said to him, “I get up at seven o’clock every day.”
      7) He said, “The goods were delivered yesterday.”
      8) She said to him, “You must consult a doctor.”
      9) She said to him, “You should send them a telegram at once.”
      10) He asked me, “Where is your sister?”
Variant 3.

     I. Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 2, 3 и 4 абзацы:

                   The U.S. Financial Crisis Is Spreading to Europe
     WASHINGTON — barely a week after Europeans rebuffed American pleas
to join in their bailout of the banking system, Europe now faces a financial crisis
almost as grave as that in the United States — demonstrating how swiftly this
contagion is spreading around the world.
     In the last two days, governments from London to Berlin have seized or bailed
out five faltering banks. In Ireland, where rumors of panicked withdrawals from
banks spooked the stock market, the government has offered a two-year blanket
guarantee on all deposits and bank debt.
     Asia has been less buffeted by the turmoil, though a brief run on a bank in
Hong Kong last week brought back dark memories of June 1997, when speculation
against the Thai currency sparked a financial crisis that fanned rapidly across Asia,
and later to Brazil and Russia.
     Economists see a parallel between these two crises a decade apart: once
creditors panic and begin to pull out their holdings, the underlying health of banks
— or entire countries — no longer matters a great deal. In a global financial
system, national borders are porous.
     “In this day and age, a bank run spreads around the world, not around the
block,” said Thomas Mayer, the chief European economist at Deutsche Bank.
“Once a bank run is under way, it doesn’t matter anymore if you have good loans
or bad loans. People lose confidence in you.”
     In a sign of how vulnerable Russia remains to contagion, officials halted
trading on the Moscow stock exchange for two hours on Tuesday morning,
fearing investor reaction to the House’s rejection of the Bush administration’s
bailout plan. Trading resumed, and after President Bush vowed to win approval of
the package, shares bounced back.
     “People ask, ‘What on earth is happening with Russia?” said Roland Nash,
chief analyst at Renaissance Bank in Moscow. “Russia is reacting to the
unprecedented size, complexity and danger coming out of the U.S.”
     The shock waves could reverberate to the United States, experts said, since
Russia has plowed its oil wealth into American debt, including Fannie Mae’s.
Russia has additional problems, including unstable oil prices and a newly assertive
foreign policy that is unpopular with many investors.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     1. What has the Ireland offered?
     2. What sparked a financial crisis of June 1997?
     3. What parallel do economists see between these two crises?
     4. Why could the shock waves reverberate to the United States from Russia?
     5. What additional problems does Russia have?
                                      Часть 2.
                          Текст для чтения 2: Air Cleaner.
       It is impossible to discuss the carburetor without discussing air, which is one
of the three essential factors necessary to produce combustion. As previously
mentioned, air consists of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases. It is the oxygen in the
air that is necessary for combustion.
      During combustion the nitrogen and other gases pass through the engine and
out the exhaust system. Each atom of gasoline combines with two atoms of
oxygen forming carbon dioxide (CO2) which passes through the exhaust system
as a gas.
       With a rich gasoline mixture, carbon monoxide (CO), a poisonous gas
consisting of one atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen, is formed because
insufficient oxygen is available to form carbon dioxide. Two atoms of hydrogen
from the gasoline with one atom of oxygen from water. Approximately 11/3
gallons of water are produced for each gallon of gasoline burned.
      Air contains dust and abrasives that contaminate the lubricating oil which is
continuously circulated. These foreign substances damage the closely fitted parts,
therefore, filtering devices have been installed to reduce the amount of foreign
material entering the engine. One such device is the Air Cleaner.
       Mounted above the carburetor is a dry type air cleaner consisting of an AIR
CLEANER BODY, FILTER ELEMENT, AND AIR CLEANER COVER. The
filtering action of the air cleaner is accomplished by means of a dry filter element
consisting of a band of accordion pleated filter paper encased in a wire mesh
screen. The air enters the air cleaner through the opening on the side, passes
through a silencing chamber, then through the filter. The clean air is deflected
down to the carburetor. The dust particles are trapped in the filter element as the air
rushes through it.
                    Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. сгорание –
     2. азот –
     3. бензин –
     4. ядовитый –
     5. сгорать –
     6. смазочный –
     7. вещество –
     8. достигается –
     9. поступать –
     10. проходить –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
       1) It is possible to discuss the carburetor without discussing air, which is one
of the three essential factors necessary to produce combustion.
       2) Air consists of oxygen, carbon dioxide oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases
       3) During combustion the nitrogen and other gases pass through the engine
and out the exhaust system.
       4) Three atoms of hydrogen from the gasoline with one atom of oxygen from
water.
       5) Foreign substances damage the closely fitted parts.
       6) The clean air is deflected down to the carburetor.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What does air consist of?
      2) What air component is absolutely necessary for combustion?
      3) What does the air cleaner consist of?
      4) In what way is the filtering action of the air cleaner accomplished?
      5) What do foreign substances damage?
      6) Why is it necessary to install filtering device?
      7) What is the name of air filtering device?

                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) To weld metals is possible by means of heat produced by a current.
Сваривать металлы можно- посредством тепла, производимого током.
to weld-подлежащее
     1) То smoke is bad for health.
     2) We can actually begin the experiment.
     3) He forgot to wind up the watch when he went to bed.
     4) То reach the lecture hall he had to walk almost half a mile.
     5) George was the first to recover.
      6) The purpose of this catalist is to accelerate the process of chemical
reaction.
     7) I was too young to think of such things at the time.
     8) In the case of gas, the molecules are much too far from each other to repel
each other.
     9) He will be the last to leave.
     10)     As least one radioactive isotope is known to exist for all known
elements.
     II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые,
употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective
Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) Scientists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
Scientists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.
     1) We know that gravity pulls on every particle of a body.
     2) We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.
     3) We know that a vector quantity is represented by means of a straight line.
     4) The scientists expect that this effect will be relatively small.
     5) The surgeon pronounced that the wound was a slight one.
     6) We expect that he will do it in time.
     7) I hate when you talk in this way.
     8) The scientist expected that his assistant will obtain some new data.
     9) Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually
convertible.
     10)     He expects that I shall answer by return.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) It is said that they were in London last month. They are said to have
been in London last month.
     1) It is said that he works in the field of nuclear physics.
     2) It is known that coal is rather abrasive.
     3) It is said that the capitalist system is based upon the principles of
competition.
     4) We supposed that the man was the broker of the company.
     5) It is known that he is a great book-lover.
     6) It was reported that many buildings had been damaged by the fire.
     7) It seems that this film is very popular with children.
     8) It is said that the expedition has reached Murmansk.
     9) It is known that Mendeleev was the greatest scientist of his time.
     10)     It is known that he is reading for his exams.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The theatre built in the last century needed reconstruction.
Театр, построенный в прошлом веке, нуждался в реконструкции.
     1) A person brining good news is always welcome.
     2) Books read in childhood seem like old friends.
     3) While skating yesterday he fell and hurt himself.
     4) She showed the travellers the room reserved for them.
     5) The leaves lying on the ground reminded us of autumn.
     6) We visited one of the largest plants producing cars in our country.
     7) А broken plate lay on the floor.
     8) He sat on the sofa dreaming of the future.
     9) Standing on the bank of the river, he watched the dockers at work.
     10)     Knowing the English language well, he was able to translate news-
paper articles without a dictionary.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
        Образец:
        1) He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.
Он был награжден за спасение жизни своего товарища.
        1) I thanked him for helping us.
        2) I have no intention of going to the south this summer.
        3) There is no chance of getting a theatre ticket today.
        4) The doctor insisted on my staying at home.
        5) The buyers examined the goods carefully before concluding the contract.
        6) After sleeping for about an hour, he was awakened by a loud noise in the
street.
        7) She reproached herself for having said it.
        8) We insisted on the contract being signed immediately.
        9) I am obliged to you for helping me.
        10) Is there any possibility of their finding a suitable material so soon?
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
      Образец:
      1) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
He said that he had been waiting for me since five o’clock.
      1) He said, “I go to the park every day.”
      2) Jane says: "We'll have take a taxi".
      3) The people asked:"Why is he so happy?"
      4) He says to me, “I live here”.
      5) The girl said, “ I like ice cream”.
      6) Jack said “I haven’t seen Julie”.
      7) She said to me, "I might be late".
      8) He said, "I must study at the weekend"
      9) She asked, “Where is the Post Office, please?”
      10) She asked me, “Could you bring my book tonight?”
Variant 4.

     I.           Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 4 и 5 абзацы:

                                   Continued Volatility
     When stock markets in the United States, Europe and Asia continued to
plunge, the world’s leading central banks on Oct. 8 took the drastic step of a
coordinated cut in interest rates, with the Federal Reserve cutting its two main rates
by half a point.
     And after a week in which stocks declined almost 20 percent on Wall Street,
European and American officials announced coordinated actions that included
taking equity stakes in major banks, including $250 billion in investments in the
United States. The action prompted a worldwide stock rally, with the Dow rising
936 points, or 11 percent, on Oct. 13.
     But as the prospect of a severe global recession became more evident, such
gains were impossible to sustain. Just two days later, after Ben S. Bernanke, the
Federal Reserve chairman, said there would be no quick economic turnaround
even with the government’s intervention, the Dow plunged 733 points.
     The credit markets, meanwhile, were slow to ease up, as banks used the
injection of government funds to strengthen their balance sheets rather than lend.
By late October, the Treasury had decided to use its $250 billion investment plan
not only to increase banks’ capitalization but also to steer funds to stronger banks
to purchase weaker ones, as in the acquisition of National City, a troubled Ohio-
based bank, by PNC Financial of Pittsburgh.
     The volatility in the stock markets was matched by upheaval in currency
trading as investors sought shelter in the yen and the dollar, driving down the
currencies of developing countries and even the euro and the British pound. The
unwinding of the so-called yen-carry trade, in which investors borrowed money
cheaply in Japan and invested it overseas, made Japanese goods more expensive on
world markets and precipitated a steep plunge in Tokyo stock trading.
     Oil-producing countries were hit by a sudden reversal of fortune, as the record
oil prices reached over the summer were cut in half by October because of the
world economic outlook. Even an agreement on a production cut by the
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries on Oct. 24 failed to stem the
price decline.
     Stock markets remained in upheaval, with the general downward trend
punctuated by events like an 11-percent gain in the Dow on Oct. 28. A day later,
the Fed cut its key lending rate again, to a mere 1 percent. In early November, the
European Central Bank and the Bank of England followed with sharp reductions of
their own.
     Federal officials also moved to put together a plan to aid homeowners at risk
of foreclosure by shouldering some losses for banks that agree to lower monthly
payments. Detroit’s automakers, meanwhile, hard hit by the credit crisis, the
growing economic slump and their belated transition away from big vehicles,
turned to the government for aid of their own, possibly including help in
engineering a merger of General Motors and Chrysler.

    II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
    1. What did the world’s leading central banks do on Oct. 8?
    2. What did banks use to strengthen their balance?
    3. Why had the Treasury decided to use its $250 billion investment plan?
    4. What was the volatility in the stock markets matched?
    5. What made Japanese goods more expensive?


                                  Часть 2.
      Текст для чтения 2: Mound Barrier as a Specific feature of M-way
                          in Northern Ireland.
      The mound barrier is trapezoidal shaped 2 ft 6 in. high and tapering from 3
ft wide at the base to 1 ft at the top. The barrier is constructed from turf sods laid
upside down like bricks forming the sides with a clay core.
     There have been a number of occasions when the barrier has been struck by
vehicles and it has undoubtedly prevented a number of vehicles from crossing over
on to the opposite carriageway. Usually a vehicle while coming to rest demolishes
a length of barrier which of course is very easily and cheaply repaired. On several
occasions vehicles have been overturned by the barrier often without causing
serious injury to the occupants. The barrier has been found to have certain
advantages for night driving; while it has not high enough to be a full anti-dazzle
barrier it gives a driver extra confidence in meeting opposing traffic in that he
knows that there is something solid between him and the opposing traffic and he
unconsciously does not allow his eyes to be focused on the opposing headlamps.
The barrier reduces the spray between carriageways. A similar barrier is provided
on the outside of the grass verge where the road is on a high embankment; to give
greater stability this barrier has a stone face on the field side.
                    Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. трапециевидный –
     2. глиняное ядро –
     3. транспортное средство –
     4. разрушать –
     5. опрокидывать –
     6. препятствующий ослеплению –
     7. бессознательно –
     8. уменьшать –
     9. обочина –
     10. каменный –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
       1) The mound barrier is four-square shaped 2 ft 6 in. high and tapering from
3 ft wide at the base to 1 ft at the top.
       2) When the barrier has been struck by vehicles and it has undoubtedly
prevented a number of vehicles from crossing over.
       3) The barrier is very difficult and cheaply repaired.
       4) The barrier has several advantages for night driving.
       5) The barrier increases the spray between carriageways.
       6) To give more stability the barrier has a stone face on the field side.
     III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1)   What shape does the mound barrier have?
      2)   What material is used for its construction?
      3)   Is it easy to repair the barrier?
      4)   What for are the barriers constructed?
      5)   What are the advantages of such barriers?
      6)   Why do the barriers give extra confidence to the drivers?
      7)   What are the functions of the mound barriers?


                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) The purpose of this catalist is to accelerate the process of chemical
reaction. Назначение этого катализатора заключается в том чтобы ускорить
процесс химической реакции.
to accelerate – часть составного именного сказуемого:
     1) It was necessary to do something.
     2) You are to live here for the next six months.
     3) We know the atomic weight of a hydrogen atom to be 1.008.
     4) Energy is defined as the ability to do work.
     5) We intended to camp in one of the inlets to be found round that tiny shore.
     6) We have come to the station to see them off.
     7) Everyone watched him walk across the garden.
     8) The type of the manometer depends on the magnitude of pressure to be
measured.
     9) My watch began to gain, it gained faster and faster day by day.
     10)     We hoped to obtain good results.
     II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые,
употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective
Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.
We know the current to flow through a conductor easily.
     1) I expect that she will come tomorrow.
     2) We consider that electrons travel from the cathods to the the anode.
     3) I know that he is a very experienced engineer.
     4) Scientists found that bodies are lighter in water than in air.
     5) I consider that he is right.
     6) Nobody noticed that she left the room.
     7) I believe that she has been sent to St.Perersburg.
     8) We assume that our team will take part in this competition.
     9) I felt that somebody touched my arm.
     10)      Scientists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry
         and agriculture.
Scientists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather
abrasive.
     1) It is said that she knows several foreign languages.
     2) It is known that he has a large collection of pictures.
     3) It was reported that they have arrived in Moscow.
     4) It is said that they live in Great Britain.
     5) It is said that this device provides high power torque.
     6) It is said that Johnson works hard at his English.
     7) It seems that the car moves to the right.
     8) It appears that this young lecturer knows her subject well.
     9) It is expected that they will take part in this research work.
     10)     It was known from the ancient times that water is denser than air.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The theatre built in the last century needed reconstruction.
Театр, построенный в прошлом веке, нуждался в реконструкции.
     1) While crossing the bridge, we saw Charles talking with an old man.
     2) Being very tired, we refused to go for a walk.
     3) The secretary sent off the letters signed by the director.
     4) At a conference of the Academy of Sciences being held in St.Petersburg, a
number of important scientific problems are being discussed.
    5) I’ll show you the article written by my wife.
    6) At the present time we have a very limited number of these details in the
Warehouse.
    7) Having been taught Spanish by a good teacher, he knew the Spanish
Language very well.
    8) We sent the catalogues to the address indicated.
    9) Being hidden by a cloud, the moon was invisible.
    10)     Having climbed the mountains the summer before the boys
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
      Образец:
      1) He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.
Он был награжден за спасение жизни своего товарища.
      1) Reading much means learning much.
      2) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
      3) I have no hope of seeing him soon.
      4) I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.
      5) In planning your work for next month you should take this into
consideration.
      6) Did you succeed in finding her address?
      7) I am thankful to you for answering my letter so quickly.
      8) My son likes very much being told about sea voyages.
      9) I know of his having been appointed to a new job.
      10) There are different ways of obtaining this substance.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
      Образец:
      1) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
He said that he had been waiting for me since five o’clock.
      1) Mary says, “Peter has taken my dictionary”.
      2) The manager has said, “I shall come at five o’clock”.
      3) The captain said, “The steamer loaded 5000 tons of barley in Tuapse.
      4) She said, “I have been waiting for you since eleven o’clock!”
      5) He says, “I sent them the catalogue on Monday.”
      6) She said, “I met him when I was crossing the road”.
      7) He said to her, “You must consult a doctor.”
      8) He asked me, “Where do you live?”
      9) The teacher asked me, “Why have you come so late?”
      10) He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept the
Cargo?”
Variant 5.

     I. Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 1 и 4 абзацы:

                               The Crisis and the Campaign
     The credit crisis emerged as the dominant issue of the presidential campaign
in the last two months before the election. On Sept. 24, as polls showed Senator
John McCain’s support dropping, he announced that he would suspend his
campaign to try to help forge a deal on the bailout plan. The next day, both he and
Senator Barack Obama met with Congressional leaders and President Bush at the
White House, but their efforts failed to assure passage of the legislation, which
went down to defeat in an initial vote on Sept. 29, a week before it ultimately
passed.
     The weakening stock market and growing credit crisis appeared to benefit Mr.
Obama, who tied Mr. McCain to what he called the failed economic policies of
President Bush and a Republican culture of deregulation of the financial markets.
Polls showed that Mr. Obama’s election on Nov. 4 was partly the fruit of the
economic crisis and the belief among many voters that he was more capable of
handling the economy than Mr. McCain.
     As president-elect, Mr. Obama made confronting the economic crisis the top
priority of his transition. Just three days after his election, he convened a meeting
of his top economic advisers, including the billionaire investor Warren Buffett; two
former Treasury secretaries, Lawrence H. Summers and Robert E. Rubin; Paul A.
Volcker, a former Federal Reserve chairman; and Eric E. Schmidt, the chief
executive of Google. After their Nov. 7 meeting, he called quick passage of an
economic stimulus package, saying it should be taken up by the lame-duck
Congressional session, and that if lawmakers failed to act, it would be his main
economic goal after assuming office Jan. 20.
     Mr. Obama also faced a host of other demands as president-elect, including
calls to bail out the auto industry, particularly General Motors, which warned that
it would run out of cash by mid-2009. And some economists and conservatives
questioned whether, given the economic crisis, he could still meet some of his
pledges from the campaign, like rapidly rolling back the Bush tax cuts, which some
felt would hurt demand, and pushing ahead with his planned expansion of health
care coverage, which could greatly increase a soaring deficit.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     1. Why did the weakening stock market and growing credit crisis appear to
         benefit Mr. Obama?
     2. What was the top priority of Mr. Obama’s transition?
     3. What did Mr. Obama do after Nov. 7 meeting?
     4. Why did Mr. Obama call to bail the auto industry, particularly General
         Motors?
     5. What can greatly increase a soaring deficit?
                                   Часть 2.
            Текст для чтения 2: Carburetor or the Ford Engine.
      The carburetor has been defined as a device that vaporizes fuel and supples
the cylinders with the required amounts of vaporized fuel as needed.
      Carburetors, along with other engine components, have been modified and
refined to provide greater engine efficiency. Ford utilizes the downdraft
carburetor in which the air enters the top of the carburetor and travels downward
through the barrel into the engine.
      Ford engines are equipped with single, dual, or four-barrel carburetors. The
type of carburetor used is determined by the design of the engine, and conditions
under which it will operate. The carburetor must be able to deliver to the engine
exactly the right fuel-air mixture for various operating needs. Normal crusing
speeds require an economical mixture; high power output and acceleration
demand a richer mixture; and idling and low speeds call for still another fuel-air
mixture.
      All carburetors installed on Ford engines have one set, or more, of four fuel-
mixing systems: IDLE SYSTEM, MAIN SYSTEM, POWER SYSTEM, and
ACCELERATING SYSTEM.
      In addition to these four basic systems, a fuel inlet system regulates the fuel
supply from the pump, and a choke system provides an enriched mixture to aid in
starting and operating a cold engine.
      The ford Dual Carburetor, standard equipment on the 1960 v-8 292 cubic
inch passenger car engine, is a downdraft, single stage carburetor. A single stage
carburetor contains one set of fuel-air mixing systems. The carburetor has two
main assemblies, the air horn, and the main body.
      The air horn assembly serves as the main body cover and contains the choke
plate assembly and fuel bowl vent. The main body contains the throttle plates, the
accelerating pump assembly, the power valve assembly, and the fuel bowl.

                  Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. топливо –
     2. совершенствовать –
     3. четырёхкамерный –
     4. смесь бензина и воздуха –
     5. ускорение
     6. автоматическая система–
     7. топливоснабжение –
     8. одноступенчатый карбюратор –
     9. воздушная горловина –
     10. клапан экономайзера –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
     1) Carburetor a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion
engine.
      2) Carburetor have been modified and refined to provide greater
engine efficiency.
      3) Ford engines are equipped with three-barrel carburetors.
      4) Normal crusing speeds require an economical mixture.
      5) There five basic systems.
      6) The carburetor has two main assemblies.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What is a carburetor?
       2) What does a carburetor consist of?
       3) What type of a carburetor is called a downdraft one?
       4) What systems do most carburetors have?
       5) What are the aims of a fuel inlet system and a choke system?
       6) What type of a carburetor is used on Ford cars?
       7) What system does regulate the fuel supply?

                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) To weld metals is possible by means of heat produced by a current.
Сваривать металлы можно- посредством тепла, производимого током.
to weld-подлежащее
      1) To design a brake properly the energy to be absorbed in a given length of
time must be known.
      2) The issue to consider next deals with our company.
      3) In the case of gas, the molecules are much too far from each other to repel
each other.
      4) Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
      5) Marie Curie wanted to find out if other chemical substances might emit
similar rays.
      6) To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number
of atoms in the oxygen molecule.
       7) It was too late to turn back or escape, and Peter just stood still, five
feet from the entrance.
       8) The purpose of these experiments is to observe properties of the element
involved.
       9) He is always the first to come to the University.
       10) To understand the importance of this event you should know all the
facts.
     II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые,
употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective
Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.
We know the current to flow through a conductor easily.
      1) We consider that our team will take part in the competitions.
      2) The couch believed that he was playing better.
      3) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
      4) I saw that David entered the room.
      5) I have never heard that he spoke English.
      6) The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting that will be held on
August 23.
      7) I consider that this experiment is dangerous.
      8) They thought that information has been published recently.
      9) The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of
machinery.
      10) We consider that mercuric ions are colorless.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather
abrasive.
      1) It is said that he works in the field of IT technologies.
      2) It is expected that he will be a good specialist.
      3) It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them.
      4) It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
      5) It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion.
      6) It is known that the rocket is an engine which propels itself by
disintegrating and rejecting the particles of fuel exhausted in the form of gas.
      7) It is known that he is a great book-lover.
      8) It seems that this film is very popular with children.
      9) It is said that the expedition has reached Murmansk.
      10)     It is known that he is reading for his exams.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The gentleman sitting in the car came from St.Petersburg.
Джентльмен, сидящий в машине, приехал из Петербурга.
     1) When driving a car I pay attention to the traffic signs.
     2) Having finished the experiment the students left the laboratory.
     3) Arriving at the station I called a porter.
     4) They watched a drawing up a schedule.
     5) The described modern terminology and symbolism are a relatively new
development.
     6) The doctor insisted on my staying at home.
     7) Unfortunately, the agreement was broken.
     8) The method used depends on the chosen material.
     9) I have solved the problem with the regular polyhedra.
     10)    Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
     Образец:
     1) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические
правила и значительное количество слов.
     1) He is against informing them about it now.
     2) He likes being invited to his friends.
     3) I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.
     4) This work is far from being easy.
     5) I am thankful to you for answering my letter so quickly.
     6) I have no hope of seeing him soon.
     7) After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.
     8) They insisted on the question being reconsidered.
     9) She was angry with him for losing her credit card.
     10) He tried to find an excuse for being late.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
     Образец:
     1) The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".
The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
     1) He said, “I saw her yesterday”.
     2) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
     3) The parents told to their son, "Say hello to uncle Jim".
     4) “Don't make so much noise," he says.
     5) He said, "I like this song."
     6) She asked me, “Why don’t you speak English?”
     7) "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.
     8) Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.
     9) He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept the
Cargo?”
     10) Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.
Variant 6.

     I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 1 абзац:

     After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s financial institutions have
generally developed through a number of short-term speculative activities. While
this path of the development has created moral hazard problems that eventually
led to the Russian financial crisis in 1998, banks have also played the role of
financial intermediation among governments, non-financial corporations and
residents, as evidenced by macro financial flows. As negotiation and political
interests among economic players functioned strongly in the financial flows, even
after the crisis such inertia and financial moral hazard were preserved. In short,
since 1998, in spite of some market-oriented reforms, speculation and rent-seeking
behaviour in the financial sector seem to have been reinforced. Therefore, the
restructuring of the Russian banking sector has to be judged as incomplete.
     The Russian financial crisis in August 1998, which entailed substantial ruble
devaluation, has boosted export competitiveness and helped bring import
substitution in the light industry and food production. Combined with the benign
effect of higher world oil prices, this has led to, contrary to expectations, relatively
low inflation and faster economic growth. GDP increased by 3.2% in 1999 and by
7.5% in the first half of 2000. While the economic recovery is widely considered
fragile yet (P. Hanson, 2000), the rapid increase of domestic investment is
noteworthy (in 2000, domestic investment increased by 17.7%). Particularly since
the second half of 1999, domestic demand and investment have been the driving
forces of the economic recovery.
     Though the Russian financial crisis caused a great deal of damage to the
banking sector, the oligarchic financial groups have not lost their power. The
financial groups have strengthened their influence in the Russian Union of
Entrepreneurs and Industrialists, whose member-firms accounted for more than
80% of GDP, and maintained their presence in the (central and local) governments.
     The financial crisis and the subsequent economic recovery in Russia confirm
that the development of financial institutions, which intermediate between the
owners of production means and innovators, is indispensable for the capitalist
economic system. Financial institutions play the role of a financial safety net
necessary for the functioning of markets, and the financial system is essential for
determining the level of transaction costs in the economy. Financial system
reforms in East Asia and Russia in the aftermath of the 1997-98 financial crises
have also helped improve our understanding of the peculiarities of the affected
countries’ economic systems.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     1.What have Russia’s financial institutions generally developed through after
     the collapse of the Soviet Union?
     2. What led to the Russian financial crisis in 1998?
    3. Why can the restructuring of the Russian banking sector be judged as
       incomplete?
    4. What did the Russian financial c6risis in August 1998 entail?
    5. What sector did the Russian financial crisis cause a great deal of damage
       to?
    6. What do the financial crisis and the subsequent economic recovery in
       Russia confirm?
    7. What role do financial institutions play?


                                     Часть 2.
                       Текст для чтения 2: The Engine.
      The greatest number of cars use piston engines. The four-cycle piston engine
requires four strokes of the piston per cycle. The first downstroke draws in the
petrol mixture. The first upstroke compresses it. The second downstroke – the
power stroke – following the combustion of the fuel, supplies the power, and the
second upstroke evacuates the burned gases. Intake and exhaust valves in the
cylinder control the intake of fuel and the release of burned gases. At the end of the
power stroke the pressure of the burned gases in the cylinder is 2.8 to 3.5 kg/sq cm.
These gases escape with the sudden opening of the exhaust valve. They rush to a
silencer (muffler), an enlarged section of piping containing expanding ducts and
perforated plates through which the gases expand and are released into the
atmosphere.
      Greater smoothness of operation of the four-cycle engine were provided by
the development of the four-cylinder engine, which supplies power from one or
another of the cylinders on each stroke of the cycle. A further increase in power
and smoothness is obtained in engines of 6, 8, 12 and 16 cylinders, which are
arranged in either a straight line or two banks assembled in the form of a V.
                   Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. бескрейцкопфный двигатель –
     2. такт/ход –
     3. бензин –
     4. сдавливать –
     5. сжигание –
     6. отработанный (о топливе) –
     7. давление –
     8. глушитель –
     9. четырех цилиндровый –
     10. собранный –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
       1) The greatest number of cars use piston engines.
       2) The second downstroke draws in the petrol mixture.
       3) Intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder control the intake of fuel and the
release of burned gases.
       4) An engine is a mechanical device that converted force into motion.
       5) Engine means the same that motor.
       6) Engines can be arranged in either a straight line or two banks assembled
in the form of a V.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) In what way does piston engine function?
     2) What do intake and exhaust valves control?
     3) What is four-cylinder engine?
     4) What engine configurations do exist?
     5) What automobile engines do you know?
     6) How to obtain increase in power and smoothness?
     7) What is the pressure of the burned gases in the cylinder at the end of the
power stroke?
                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) As least one radioactive isotope is known to exist for all known
elements.
Известно, что по крайней мере один радиоактивный изотоп существует для
всех известных элементов.
to exist- часть составного глагольного сказуемого
       1) Diesel engine manufactures frequently specify in detail the quality of fuel
to be burned in their engines.
       2) To read books is useful.
       3) The method to be outlined is equally applicable to different kinds of
           engines.
       4) His greatest wish was to turn his native town into a health resort.
       5) This language was difficult to understand.
       6) His task is to provide conditions for experiments.
       7) To design a brake properly the energy to be absorbed in a given length of
time must be known.
       8) The issue to consider next deals with our company.
       9) We are planning to finish the work today.
       10) To know English well you must work hard.
    II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в
простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the
Objective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
Chemists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.
     1) I saw that David entered the room.
     2) We know that gravity pulls on every particle of a body.
     3) They heard that the engines roar as the plane began moving.
     4) They thought that information has been published recently.
     5) Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually
convertible.
     6) We believe that he is a good writer.
     7) It is said that the capitalist system is based upon the principles of
competition.
     8) I consider that he is right.
     9) We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.
     10) The hydroelectric power plant that was constructed in this region will be
of great importance for the development of local industries.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather
abrasive.
     1) It is said that she speaks Chinese and Greek.
     2) A large proportion of radium is likely will be lost from sea water.
     3) It happened that I was there at that time.
     4) To an ordinary observer it seems that the air have no weight.
     5) It is likely that they will come soon.
     6) It is certain that they will come to Moscow.
     7) It proved that he was a good pupil.
     8) It appears that the weather is improving.
     9) It is reported that the motor-vessel “Garsy” has arrived in Sochi.
     10)     It was expected that the delegation will arrive in the evening.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The stars shining in the dark sky seemed blue.
Звезды, сиявшие в темном небе, казались голубыми.
     1) The method used depends on the chosen material.
     2) The injured man was taken to hospital.
     3) A second branch of Mathematics is geometry consisting of several
geometries.
     4) When asked this question, the student could not answer it at once.
     5) Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.
     6) Having been translated into many languages Pushkin’s books became
known all over the world.
     7) They spent the whole day learning modern methods of arithmetic
operations.
     8) Knowing the English language well, we shall be able to find well-paid
job.
     9) Arriving at the station I called a porter.
     10)    The gentleman sitting in the car came from St.Petersburg.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
       Образец:
       1) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические
правила и значительное количество слов.
       1) We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.
       2) One cannot acquire good knowledge without reading much.
       3) I'm surprised at your having missed so many lessons this term.
       4) We insisted on their chartering a vessel at once.
       5) There are different ways of obtaining this substance.
       6) Smoking is not allowed here.
     1) He likes reading new technical magazines written in English.
     2) Everything depends on the documents being sent straight away.
     3) Swimming is good exercise.
     4) I was quite disappointed at not finding the manager at his working
place.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
      Образец:
      1) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
He said that he had been waiting for me since five o’clock.
      1) The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".
      2) The girl said, "I was very tired".
      3) The boss says, "I will get myself a drink”.
      4) I said to the secretary, “Write to them that we cannot offer the goods for
Immediate shipment.”
      5) “Don't make so much noise," he says.
      6) "Be careful, Ben," she said.
      7) The teacher asked, “Who knows the answer?"
      8) The parents told to their son, "Say hello to uncle Jim".
      9) “Where is your sister?" she asked me.
10)   Peter said, "The film began at seven o'clock".
Variant 7.

             I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 3 абзац:

              Financial sector restructuring under the Putin government
     The Putin government pushed for a stronger government role in promoting
investment and reorganization of the financial sector.
     Before Mr. Putin came to power, “Investment Environment in Russia”, a
report prepared by the Expert Institute of the Ministry of Economy in 1999,
characterized the Russian economy in the following ways. "We need to restructure
the economy on the basis of contemporary technology"; "The flow of residents'
savings to the real sector has not materialized yet"; "The business environment in
Russia has not been favourable for foreign investors"; "So far financial
stabilisation has succeeded"; and “The Russian state has been weak, and we need
to strengthen state control of the market transition”. Moreover, it pointed out
difficulties in settlements between economic actors and fragility of the banking
system increase transaction costs, thus deterring Russia’s economic development.
The reasons for this situation are the inadequate legal system, the lack of
competent people, and the low quality of management. To reform the banking
system, the report argued that bankruptcies of insolvent banks, a more active role
of ARCO, creating favourable conditions for the entry of foreign banks, and
improvement of bank management transparency are necessary.
     After taking power, the Putin government drew up its own policy report. “The
Strategy of Russia's Development until 2010” was prepared by the Centre for
Strategy Development under the leadership of its director (А. Греф). According to
it, Russia’s goal was economic modernization based on liberal principles but with a
strong role of the state. The report said the target of 5% annual GDP growth until
2010 could be achieved through the formation of strong legal institutions, the
overhaul of social welfare policies, and the adoption of a new budgetary system.
The following economic policy goals were also included: 1) protection of
shareholder rights; 2) establishment of fair competitive conditions (abolition of
direct and indirect privileges); 3) deregulation and cutting “red tape”
(simplification of administrative procedures for firm registration, etc.).
     In the financial field, solid financial infrastructure and tax preferences were
deemed indispensable to create a favorable investment environment. Policy
proposals included simplifying permission procedures for investment projects,
improvement of bank insolvency procedures, implementation of government
audits, and better enforcement of legal rules in securities markets.

    I. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
    1. What did the Putin government push for?
    2. How did the “Investment Environment in Russia”, a report prepared by the
       Expert Institute of the Ministry of Economy in 1999, characterize the
       Russian economy?
3. What does the report offer to reform the banking system?
4.What was the goal of Putin’s government policy report?
5.What could the target of 5% annual GDP growth be achieved through?
6.What did policy proposals include?


                                Часть 2.
                Текст для чтения 2: Air Bags in Police Cars.
      Police departments in six states have agreed to participate in a program that
will retrofit existing police cars with driver-side air bags, reports the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Beginning this fall, some 500 restraint
systems will be installed in police vehicles in Arizona, Wisconsin, Maryland, Ohio,
California, and Mississippi. The states will be required to furnish NHTSA with air-
bag maintenance records and accident data.
      “This represents the key in our effort to test the feasibility of retrofitting air
bags into existing cars”, says NHTSA deputy administrator Diane K. Steed. “This
actual fleet usage affords us the opportunity to dispel the 1970s myths about air
bags, pro and con, and to reintroduce the public to air-bag technology. We hope
ultimately that this project will lead to the commercial availability of a retrofit air-
bag system for every consumer who wants one.”
      Air-bag retrofit kits produced by Romeo-Kojyo Co. will soon be installed in
state police cars.
      The state of Arizona has agreed to modify and equip 130 of its fleet of late-
model Ford LTDs with air bags. Arizona plans to maintain records on vehicle
performance in accidents. DOT also has entered into an agreement with the
General Service Administration to purchase 5000 compact cars equipped with
driver-side air bags. The goal of this project is to make available to large fleet
buyers – and eventually the public – an affordable domestic car equipped with an
air bag.
                    Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. воздушная подушка –
     2. удерживающий –
     3. оснащать –
     4. попытка –
     5. за и против –
     6. привести к –
     7. аптечка –
     8. последней модели –
     9. Министерство транспорта –
     10. со временем –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
      1) The new program will retrofit existing police cars with powerful engines.
      2) Police cars will be equipped with air-bag maintenance records and
accident data.
      3) Domestic cars will be soon equipped with the kits.
      4) The state of Arizona has agreed to modify and equip 130 of its fleet.
      5) The goal of the project is to make air-bag cars available to large fleet
buyers.
      6) The reason of all modifications is safety.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What is the air-bag used for?
      2) How many restraint systems will be installed in police vehicles?
      3) What does the abbreviation NHTSA mean?
      4) Will it help to dispel the 1970s myths about air-bags?
      5) What is DOT?
      6) What model of the car did the state of Arizona has agreed to modify?
      7) What is the goal of the project?

                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) To understand this phenomenon better one must know the structure of the
material.
Для того чтобы лучше понять это явление необходимо знать структуру
вещества.
to understand- обстоятельство цели
     1) To reduce the temperature of the substance, it was placed in cooling
mixture.
     2) His greatest wish was to turn his native town into health resort.
     3) To make mistakes easy.
     4) To study at the University is exiting.
     5) Everyone watched him walk across the garden.
     6) We expected for the impurities to fall out as a precipitate.
     7) The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and stronger.
     8) Diesel engine manufactures frequently specify in detail the quality of fuel
to be burned in their engines.
     9) To read books is useful.
     10)     To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number
of atoms in the oxygen molecule.
    II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в
простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the
Objective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
Chemists know isotopes to find wide application both in industry and agriculture.
     1) We expect that our group-mates will win the contest.
     2) When I entered the room, I found that he was playing the piano.
     3) The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting that will be held on
August 23.
     4) The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of
machinery.
     5) Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually
convertible.
     6) We believe that he is a good writer.
     7) We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.
     8) Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually
convertible.
     9) He expects that I shall answer by return.
     10)     I hate when you talk in this way.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) It is said that she knows several foreign languages.
She is said to know several foreign languages.
      1) It was known from the ancient times that water is denser than air.
      2) It is said that they were in London last month.
      3) It is said that he works in the field of nuclear physics.
      4) It is said that this device provides high power torque.
      5) It is known that the rocket is an engine which propels itself by
disintegrating and rejecting the particles of fuel exhausted in the form of gas.
      6) It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
      7) It was reported that many buildings had been damaged by the fire.
      8) It is said that he is a student.
      9) It is sure that he will be send there.
      10)     It appears that this young lecturer knows his subject well.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
    Образец:
    1) A second branch of Mathematics is geometry consisting of several
geometries.
Второй отраслью математики является геометрия, состоящая из нескольких
геометрий.
     1) Having finished the task children left the room.
     2) I met my exe-husband going to work.
     3) The method used depends on the chosen material.
     4) The described modern terminology and symbolism are a relatively new
development.
     5) We learn English grammar doing many exercises.
     6) Having been translated into many languages Shakespeare’s books became
     7) They watched a drawing up a schedule.
     8) He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.
     9) The doctor insisted on my staying at home.
     10)    Arriving at the station I called a porter.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
     Образец:
     1) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические
правила и значительное количество слов.
     1) I'm surprised at your having missed so many lessons this term.
     2) This work is far from being easy.
     3) We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.
     4) After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.
     5) Flying is better for long journeys but travelling by car is more interesting.
     6) I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.
     7) We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.
     8) Smoking is not allowed here.
     9) We saw her writing a letter.
     10) We insisted on their chartering a vessel at once.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
      Образец:
    1) The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".
The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
    1) She said, "I don't speak Italian".
    2) He said to her, “You must consult a doctor.”
    3) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
    4) Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in
       London”.
    5) He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept
       the
Cargo?”
6) He asked me, “Where do you live?”
7) Jill said, “My aunt lives in that high building”.
8) He said, "I like this girl."
9) "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.
10) He said, “ I saw her yesterday”.
Variant 8.

             I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 2, 3 и 4 абзацы:

                   The U.S. Financial Crisis Is Spreading to Europe
     WASHINGTON — barely a week after Europeans rebuffed American pleas
to join in their bailout of the banking system, Europe now faces a financial crisis
almost as grave as that in the United States — demonstrating how swiftly this
contagion is spreading around the world.
     In the last two days, governments from London to Berlin have seized or bailed
out five faltering banks. In Ireland, where rumors of panicked withdrawals from
banks spooked the stock market, the government has offered a two-year blanket
guarantee on all deposits and bank debt.
     Asia has been less buffeted by the turmoil, though a brief run on a bank in
Hong Kong last week brought back dark memories of June 1997, when speculation
against the Thai currency sparked a financial crisis that fanned rapidly across Asia,
and later to Brazil and Russia.
     Economists see a parallel between these two crises a decade apart: once
creditors panic and begin to pull out their holdings, the underlying health of banks
— or entire countries — no longer matters a great deal. In a global financial
system, national borders are porous.
     “In this day and age, a bank run spreads around the world, not around the
block,” said Thomas Mayer, the chief European economist at Deutsche Bank.
“Once a bank run is under way, it doesn’t matter anymore if you have good loans
or bad loans. People lose confidence in you.”
     In a sign of how vulnerable Russia remains to contagion, officials halted
trading on the Moscow stock exchange for two hours on Tuesday morning,
fearing investor reaction to the House’s rejection of the Bush administration’s
bailout plan. Trading resumed, and after President Bush vowed to win approval of
the package, shares bounced back.
     “People ask, ‘What on earth is happening with Russia?” said Roland Nash,
chief analyst at Renaissance Bank in Moscow. “Russia is reacting to the
unprecedented size, complexity and danger coming out of the U.S.”
     The shock waves could reverberate to the United States, experts said, since
Russia has plowed its oil wealth into American debt, including Fannie Mae’s.
Russia has additional problems, including unstable oil prices and a newly assertive
foreign policy that is unpopular with many investors.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     1. What has the Ireland offered?
     2. What sparked a financial crisis of June 1997?
     3. What parallel do economists see between these two crises?
     4. Why could the shock waves reverberate to the United States from Russia?
     5. What additional problems does Russia have?
                               Часть 2.
    Текст для чтения 2: Principles and Process of Polymerization in
                         Plastics Production.
      Condensation polymerization and addition polymerization are the two main
processes in plastics production. The manufacture of plastics depends upon the
building of chains and networks during polymerization. A condensation polymer
is formed by a synthesis that involves the gradual reaction of reactive molecules
with one another, with the elimination of small molecules such as water. The
reaction gradually slows down as polymers are built up. An addition polymer
forms chains by the linking of small identical units without elimination of small
molecules.
     The most important concept in condensation polymers is that of
“functionality”, i.e. the number of reactive groups in each molecule participating in
the chain buildup. Each molecule must have at least two reactive groups, of which
hydroxyl (-OH), acidic endings (-COOH), and amine endings (-NH) are the
simplest.
     Hydroxyl is characteristic of alcohol endings, combining with an acid ending
to give an ester, the polymer being known as a polyester. Examples are
polyethylene terephthalate obtained by reaction of ethylene glycol containing
hydroxyl groups at each end and terephthalic acid containing two acidic groups
and polycarbonate resins.
      Alcohols are a particular class of oxygen-containing chemical compounds
with a structure analogous to ethyl alcohol (C-HOH). Amines are various
compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of hydrogen by one or more
hydrocarbon radicals (molecular groups that act as a unit). Esters are compounds
formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol or phenol with the
elimination of water.
                   Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. реакция выпадения осадка –
     2. застывший полимер –
     3. постепенно –
     4. соединяться –
     5. по крайней мере –
     6. спиртовая группа –
     7. терефталевая кислота –
     8. химическое соединение –
     9. аммиак –
     10. удаление –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
      1) Condensation polymerization and elimination of small molecules are the
two main processes in plastics production.
      2) The manufacture of plastics depends upon the reaction between an acid
and phenol and networks during polymerization.
      3) An addition polymer forms chains by the linking of small identical units
without elimination of small molecules.
      4) Each molecule must have at least two reactive groups.
      5) Alcohols are a particular class of oxygen-containing chemical compounds
      6) The manufacture of plastic involves synthesizing the basic polymer.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What is condensation polymerization?
      2) What is addition polymerization?
      3) In what way is a condensation polymer formed?
      4) What is the most important concept in condensation polymers?
      5) Is hydroxyl characteristic of alcohol endings?
      6) Why each molecule must have at least two reactive groups?
      7) What new important materials have chemists created?

                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) To understand this phenomenon better one must know the structure of the
material.
Для того чтобы лучше понять это явление необходимо знать структуру
вещества.
to understand- обстоятельство цели
      1) To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number of
atoms in the oxygen molecule.
      2) Hydrogen is difficult to liberate from this compound.
     3)To read books is useful.
      4) The Romans were the first people to have schools run by the government
free of charge.
     5) The issue to consider next deals with our company.
      6) We hoped to obtain good results.
       7) The texts to be typed today are on your desk.
       8) He asked me to wait a little.
       9) We are going to build the largest atomic pile in the world.
       10) Не was about to start, but the engine suddenly stopped.
    II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в
простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the
Objective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
     1) The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of
machinery.
The goods to be loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of machinery.
     1) We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.
     2) They thought that information has been published recently.
     3) It is said that the capitalist system is based upon the principles of
competition.
     4) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
     5) I saw that Joanna entered the room.
     6) When Julia entered the apartment, he found that Margaret was cooking
dinner.
      7) I found that our boss was a very clever man.
      8) I consider that he is right.
      9) We expect that he will do it in time.
      10) I hate when you talk in this way.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) A large proportion of radium is likely will be lost from sea water.
A large proportion of radium is likely to be lost from sea water.
      1) It is alleged that the man drove through the town at 90 miles per
hour.
      2) It is known that all bodies possess weight.
      3) It is said that they were in London last month.
      4) It is said that company is losing a lot of money.
      5) It is reported that the fire produced a panic in the morning.
      6) We supposed that the man was the broker of the company.
      7) I have no hope of seeing him soon.
      8) It is reported that the motor-vessel “Garsy” has arrived in Yalta.
      9) It is likely that they will come soon.
      10)      It is said that she speaks Spanish and Italian.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
    Образец:
    1) When asked this question, the student could not answer it at once.
Когда студенту задали этот вопрос, он не смог ответить на него сразу.
    1) The larger firm is likely to have a diversified market structure.
     2) The strike is expected to end soon.
     3) We learn English grammar doing many exercises.
     4) Using only a straightedge and a compass the Greeks performed many
Constructions.
     5) While fixing the TV-set I had to ask my neighbor for help.
     6) There are a lot of unsolved problems in mathematics, some of them
having been solved.
     7) Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.
     8) Unfortunately, the agreement was broken.
     9) The student who wrote this letter is my friend
     10)    The molecules forming а nail are, we believe, in motion.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
       Образец:
       1) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические
правила и значительное количество слов.
       1) He is proud of having invited this man to his place.
       2) He likes being invited to his friends.
       3) Smoking is not allowed here.
       4) There are different ways of obtaining this substance.
       5) We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.
       6) He left the room without saying goodbye or looking at us.
       7) I was quite disappointed at not finding the manager at his working
place.
       8) He is against informing them about it now.
       9) One cannot acquire good knowledge without reading much.
       10) I have no intention of going to the south this summer.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
     Образец:
     1) The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".
The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
     1) He said, “I have spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the
machine”.
     2) Dad says, “She will come in the evening”.
     3) He says: "We'll have take a taxi"
     4) He said, "I will give Jack a call."
     5) He said, "I went to New York last week."
     6) Margaret said, "I am cooking dinner."
     7) He will say, “I sent them the catalogue on Tuesday.”
     8) “Don't make so much noise," he says.
     9) Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.
      10) I said to the secretary, “Write to them that we cannot offer the goods
for immediate shipment.”
Variant 9.

                          I.Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 4 и 5
                          абзацы:

                                   Continued Volatility
     When stock markets in the United States, Europe and Asia continued to
plunge, the world’s leading central banks on Oct. 8 took the drastic step of a
coordinated cut in interest rates, with the Federal Reserve cutting its two main rates
by half a point.
     And after a week in which stocks declined almost 20 percent on Wall Street,
European and American officials announced coordinated actions that included
taking equity stakes in major banks, including $250 billion in investments in the
United States. The action prompted a worldwide stock rally, with the Dow rising
936 points, or 11 percent, on Oct. 13.
     But as the prospect of a severe global recession became more evident, such
gains were impossible to sustain. Just two days later, after Ben S. Bernanke, the
Federal Reserve chairman, said there would be no quick economic turnaround
even with the government’s intervention, the Dow plunged 733 points.
     The credit markets, meanwhile, were slow to ease up, as banks used the
injection of government funds to strengthen their balance sheets rather than lend.
By late October, the Treasury had decided to use its $250 billion investment plan
not only to increase banks’ capitalization but also to steer funds to stronger banks
to purchase weaker ones, as in the acquisition of National City, a troubled Ohio-
based bank, by PNC Financial of Pittsburgh.
     The volatility in the stock markets was matched by upheaval in currency
trading as investors sought shelter in the yen and the dollar, driving down the
currencies of developing countries and even the euro and the British pound. The
unwinding of the so-called yen-carry trade, in which investors borrowed money
cheaply in Japan and invested it overseas, made Japanese goods more expensive on
world markets and precipitated a steep plunge in Tokyo stock trading.
     Oil-producing countries were hit by a sudden reversal of fortune, as the record
oil prices reached over the summer were cut in half by October because of the
world economic outlook. Even an agreement on a production cut by the
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries on Oct. 24 failed to stem the
price decline.
     Stock markets remained in upheaval, with the general downward trend
punctuated by events like an 11-percent gain in the Dow on Oct. 28. A day later,
the Fed cut its key lending rate again, to a mere 1 percent. In early November, the
European Central Bank and the Bank of England followed with sharp reductions of
their own.
     Federal officials also moved to put together a plan to aid homeowners at risk
of foreclosure by shouldering some losses for banks that agree to lower monthly
payments. Detroit’s automakers, meanwhile, hard hit by the credit crisis, the
growing economic slump and their belated transition away from big vehicles,
turned to the government for aid of their own, possibly including help in
engineering a merger of General Motors and Chrysler.

    II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
    1. What did the world’s leading central banks do on Oct. 8?
    2. What did banks use to strengthen their balance?
    3.Why had the Treasury decided to use its $250 billion investment plan?
    4.What was the volatility in the stock markets matched?
    5. What made Japanese goods more expensive?
    6. What were oil-producing countries hit by?


                                   Часть 2.
                         Текст для чтения 2: Ignition.
      The mixture of air and petrol vapour delivered to the cylinder from the
carburetor is compressed by the first upstroke of the piston. This heats the gas, and
the higher temperature and pressure facilitate ignition and quick combustion. The
next operation is that of igniting the charge by a spark plug. One electrode is
insulated by porcelain or mica; the other is grounded through the metal of the
plug, and both form part of the secondary circuit of an induction system.
      The principal type of ignition now commonly used is the battery-and-coil
system. The current from the battery flows through the coil and magnetizes the
iron core. When this circuit is interrupted at the distributor points by the
interrupter cam, a current is produced in the primary coil with the assistance of the
condenser. This induces a high-voltage current in the secondary winding. This
secondary high voltage is needed to cause the spark to jump the gap in the spark
plug. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder by the distributor, which
connects the secondary coil to the spark plugs in the several cylinders in their
proper firing sequence. The interrupter cam and distributor are driven from the
same shaft, the number of breaking points on the interrupter cam being the same as
the number of cylinders.
      The electrical equipment controls the starting of the engine, its ignition
system, and the lighting of the car. It consists of the battery, a generator for
charging it when the engine is running, a starter and the necessary wiring.
Electricity also operates various automatic devices and accessories, including
windscreen wipers, directional signals, heating and air conditioning, cigarette
lighters, powered windows and audio equipment.
                  Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     1. пары бензина –
     2. искра –
     3. зажигание –
     4. цепь –
     5. высоковольтный –
     6. распределитель зажигания –
     7. вал –
     8. электрооборудование –
     9. аккумулятор –
     10. сигнал поворота –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
       1) The spark plug consists of a threaded metal base that is screwed into the
cylinder head, a glazed ceramic insulator, and two wires, electrodes to conduct
electricity.
       2) The principal type of ignition now commonly used is the
battery-and-coil system.
       3) The current from the battery flows through the carburetor and
magnetizes the iron core.
       4) One electrode is insulated by copper or nickel; the other is
grounded through the metal of the plug, and both form part of the secondary circuit
of an induction system.
       5) The spark is directed to the proper cylinder by the ignition
system.
       6) The distributor contains a rotating cam driven by the engine's drive.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What is the aim of the ignition system?
       2) What does the ignition system consist of?
       3) What is a battery-and-coil system?
       4) What does the spark plug consist of?
       5) What is called electrical equipment?
       6) What is a battery?
       7) Describe the components of the primary and secondary circuits.


                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
     Образец:
      1) The purpose of this catalist is to accelerate the process of chemical
reaction. Назначение этого катализатора заключается в том чтобы ускорить
процесс химической реакции.
to accelerate – часть составного именного сказуемого
      1) He stopped for a minute to rest.
      2) We are planning to finish the work today.
      3) I was too young to think of such things at the time.
      4) The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and stronger.
      5) This language was difficult to understand.
      6) The method to be outlined is equally applicable to different kinds of
engines.
      7) Everyone watched him walk across the garden.
      8) Diesel engine manufactures frequently specify in detail the quality of fuel
to be burned in their engines.
      9) We are going to build the largest atomic pile in the world.
      10) To know English well you must work hard.
    II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в
простые, употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the
Objective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
     1) The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of
machinery.
The goods to be loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of machinery.
     1) When Michael entered the room, he found that Lissy was cooking
the meal.
     2) They expect that our athletes will win the competition.
     3) We know that electrons travel from the cathode to the anode.
     4) He expects that I shall answer by return.
     5) We observed that applicants were good for the job.
     6) Experiments proved that heat and other forms of energy are mutually
convertible.
     7) We consider that mercuric ions are colorless.
     8) We expect that our group-mates will win the contest.
     9) I consider that this experiment is dangerous.
     10)     We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) It is said that they were in London last month. They are said to have
been in London last month.
     1) It is said that he is a secret agent.
     2) It was reported that many people are homeless after the floods.
     3) It is known that he is a great scientist.
     4) It was reported that many buildings had been damaged by the fire.
     5) It is known that Mendeleev was the greatest scientist of his time.
     6) It seems that the strike will last longer.
     7) It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
     8) It was known from the ancient times that water is denser than air.
     9) It is said that Lora speaks Chinese like Russian.
     10)     It is said that company is losing a lot of money.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The theatre built in the last century needed reconstruction.
Театр, построенный в прошлом веке, нуждался в реконструкции.
     1) While crossing the bridge, we saw Charles talking with an old man.
     2) He will manage the task using your methods.
     3) A second branch of Mathematics is geometry consisting of several
geometries.
     4) Using only a straightedge and a compass the Greeks performed many
Constructions.
     5) While repairing the TV-set I had to ask my neighbor for help.
     6) Being hidden by a cloud, the moon was invisible.
     7) I have solved the problem with the regular polyhedra.
     8) Having been translated into many languages Pushkin’s books became
     9) The method used depends on the chosen material.
     10)    The injured man was taken to hospital.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
      Образец:
      1) He was given an award for saving the life of his comrade.
Он был награжден за спасение жизни своего товарища.
      1) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
      2) We objected to the buyer’s paying only part of the invoice amount.
      3) Is there any possibility of their finding a suitable building material so
soon?
      4) He left the room without saying goodbye or looking at us.
      5) Reading technical books helps in studying special subjects.
      6) There are different ways of obtaining this substance.
      7) He is against informing them about it now.
      8) One cannot acquire good knowledge without reading much.
      9) We insisted on their chartering a vessel at once.
      10) Smoking is not allowed here.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
      Образец:
     1) The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".
The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
     1) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
     2) The girl said, "I was very tired".
     3) John said, “My aunt lives in that high building”.
     4) She says, “Peter has taken my dictionary”.
     5) The teacher asked, “Who knows the answer?"
     6) “Where is your sister?" she asked me.
     7) He asked me, “Where do you live?”
     8) He said, “I go to the park every day.”
     9) The girl said, “ I like ice cream”.
     10) She said to me, "I might be late".
Variant 10.

     I. Прочитайте текст. Письменно переведите 1 и 4 абзацы:

                               The Crisis and the Campaign
     The credit crisis emerged as the dominant issue of the presidential campaign
in the last two months before the election. On Sept. 24, as polls showed Senator
John McCain’s support dropping, he announced that he would suspend his
campaign to try to help forge a deal on the bailout plan. The next day, both he and
Senator Barack Obama met with Congressional leaders and President Bush at the
White House, but their efforts failed to assure passage of the legislation, which
went down to defeat in an initial vote on Sept. 29, a week before it ultimately
passed.
     The weakening stock market and growing credit crisis appeared to benefit Mr.
Obama, who tied Mr. McCain to what he called the failed economic policies of
President Bush and a Republican culture of deregulation of the financial markets.
Polls showed that Mr. Obama’s election on Nov. 4 was partly the fruit of the
economic crisis and the belief among many voters that he was more capable of
handling the economy than Mr. McCain.
     As president-elect, Mr. Obama made confronting the economic crisis the top
priority of his transition. Just three days after his election, he convened a meeting
of his top economic advisers, including the billionaire investor Warren Buffett; two
former Treasury secretaries, Lawrence H. Summers and Robert E. Rubin; Paul A.
Volcker, a former Federal Reserve chairman; and Eric E. Schmidt, the chief
executive of Google. After their Nov. 7 meeting, he called quick passage of an
economic stimulus package, saying it should be taken up by the lame-duck
Congressional session, and that if lawmakers failed to act, it would be his main
economic goal after assuming office Jan. 20.
     Mr. Obama also faced a host of other demands as president-elect, including
calls to bail out the auto industry, particularly General Motors, which warned that
it would run out of cash by mid-2009. And some economists and conservatives
questioned whether, given the economic crisis, he could still meet some of his
pledges from the campaign, like rapidly rolling back the Bush tax cuts, which some
felt would hurt demand, and pushing ahead with his planned expansion of health
care coverage, which could greatly increase a soaring deficit.

     II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:
     6. Why did the weakening stock market and growing credit crisis appear to
         benefit Mr. Obama?
     7. What was the top priority of Mr. Obama’s transition?
     8. What did Mr. Obama do after Nov. 7 meeting?
     9. Why did Mr. Obama call to bail the auto industry, particularly General
         Motors?
     10.What can greatly increase a soaring deficit?
                                   Часть 2.
            Текст для чтения 2: Carburetor or the Ford Engine.
      The carburetor has been defined as a device that vaporizes fuel and supples
the cylinders with the required amounts of vaporized fuel as needed.
      Carburetors, along with other engine components, have been modified and
refined to provide greater engine efficiency. Ford utilizes the downdraft
carburetor in which the air enters the top of the carburetor and travels downward
through the barrel into the engine.
      Ford engines are equipped with single, dual, or four-barrel carburetors. The
type of carburetor used is determined by the design of the engine, and conditions
under which it will operate. The carburetor must be able to deliver to the engine
exactly the right fuel-air mixture for various operating needs. Normal crusing
speeds require an economical mixture; high power output and acceleration
demand a richer mixture; and idling and low speeds call for still another fuel-air
mixture.
      All carburetors installed on Ford engines have one set, or more, of four fuel-
mixing systems: IDLE SYSTEM, MAIN SYSTEM, POWER SYSTEM, and
ACCELERATING SYSTEM.
      In addition to these four basic systems, a fuel inlet system regulates the fuel
supply from the pump, and a choke system provides an enriched mixture to aid in
starting and operating a cold engine.
      The ford Dual Carburetor, standard equipment on the 1960 v-8 292 cubic
inch passenger car engine, is a downdraft, single stage carburetor. A single stage
carburetor contains one set of fuel-air mixing systems. The carburetor has two
main assemblies, the air horn, and the main body.
      The air horn assembly serves as the main body cover and contains the choke
plate assembly and fuel bowl vent. The main body contains the throttle plates, the
accelerating pump assembly, the power valve assembly, and the fuel bowl.

                   Задания к тексту для чтения 2.
     I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите
следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по
одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
     11. топливо –
     12. совершенствовать –
     13. четырёхкамерный –
     14. смесь бензина и воздуха –
     15. ускорение
     16. автоматическая система–
     17. топливоснабжение –
     18. одноступенчатый карбюратор –
     19. воздушная горловина –
     20. клапан экономайзера –
     II. Напишите рядом с каждым утверждением является ли
оно правдой (true-T) или нет (false-F). Если утверждение неверно,
напишите верный ответ.
     7) Carburetor a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion
engine.
      8) Carburetor have been modified and refined to provide greater
engine efficiency.
      9) Ford engines are equipped with three-barrel carburetors.
      10) Normal crusing speeds require an economical mixture.
      11) There five basic systems.
      12) The carburetor has two main assemblies.
      III. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
      1) What is a carburetor?
       2) What does a carburetor consist of?
       3) What type of a carburetor is called a downdraft one?
       4) What systems do most carburetors have?
       5) What are the aims of a fuel inlet system and a choke system?
       6) What type of a carburetor is used on Ford cars?
       7) What system does regulate the fuel supply?


                              Часть 3.
     I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующие
предложения на русский язык; определите форму и функцию
инфинитива.
      Образец:
      1) To weld metals is possible by means of heat produced by a current.
Сваривать металлы можно- посредством тепла, производимого током.
to weld-подлежащее
      1) To design a brake properly the energy to be absorbed in a given length of
time must be known.
      2) The issue to consider next deals with our company.
      3) In the case of gas, the molecules are much too far from each other to repel
each other.
      4) Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
      5) Marie Curie wanted to find out if other chemical substances might emit
similar rays.
      6) To establish the molecular weight of oxygen means to find the number
of atoms in the oxygen molecule.
       7) It was too late to turn back or escape, and Peter just stood still, five
feet from the entrance.
       8) The purpose of these experiments is to observe properties of the element
involved.
       9) He is always the first to come to the University.
       10) To understand the importance of this event you should know all the
facts.
     II. Преобразуйте сложноподчиненные предложения в простые,
употребив «объектный инфинитивный оборот» (the Objective
Infinitive Construction).
     Образец:
     1) We know that the current flows through a conductor easily.
We know the current to flow through a conductor easily.
      1)We consider that our team will take part in the competitions.
      2) The couch believed that he was playing better.
      3) Chemists know that isotopes find wide application both in industry and
agriculture.
      4) I saw that David entered the room.
      5) I have never heard that he spoke English.
      6) The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting that will be held on
August 23.
      7) I consider that this experiment is dangerous.
      8) They thought that information has been published recently.
      9) The goods that were loaded on this steamer consist of different kinds of
machinery.
      10) We consider that mercuric ions are colorless.
     III. Преобразуйте следующие сложноподчиненные
предложения, употребив «субъектный инфинитивный оборот»
(the Subjective Infinitive Construction).
      Образец:
      1) It is known that coal is rather abrasive. Coal is known to be rather
abrasive.
      1)It is said that he works in the field of IT technologies.
      2) It is expected that he will be a good specialist.
      3) It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them.
      4) It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
      5) It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion.
      6) It is known that the rocket is an engine which propels itself by
disintegrating and rejecting the particles of fuel exhausted in the form of gas.
      7) It is known that he is a great book-lover.
      8) It seems that this film is very popular with children.
      9) It is said that the expedition has reached Murmansk.
      10)      It is known that he is reading for his exams.
     IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
Participle I и Participle II.
     Образец:
     1) The gentleman sitting in the car came from St.Petersburg.
Джентльмен, сидящий в машине, приехал из Петербурга.
     1)When driving a car I pay attention to the traffic signs.
     2) Having finished the experiment the students left the laboratory.
     3) Arriving at the station I called a porter.
     4) They watched a drawing up a schedule.
     5) The described modern terminology and symbolism are a relatively new
development.
     6) The doctor insisted on my staying at home.
     7) Unfortunately, the agreement was broken.
     8) The method used depends on the chosen material.
     9) I have solved the problem with the regular polyhedra.
     10) Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads.
    V. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на
герундий.
     Образец:
     1) It is necessary to know grammar rules and a considerable number of
words for reading technical books.
Для чтения технической литературы необходимо знать грамматические
правила и значительное количество слов.
     1) He is against informing them about it now.
     2) He likes being invited to his friends.
     3) I shall write down your telephone number as I am afraid of forgetting it.
     4) This work is far from being easy.
     5) I am thankful to you for answering my letter so quickly.
     6) I have no hope of seeing him soon.
     7) After spending a month in Moscow he went to St.Petersburg.
     8) They insisted on the question being reconsidered.
     9) She was angry with him for losing her credit card.
     10) He tried to find an excuse for being late.
    VI. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в
косвенную.
     Образец:
     1) The mother asked the twins, "Have you tidied up your room?".
The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
     1) He said, “I saw her yesterday”.
     2) He said, “I have been waiting for you since five o’clock.”
     3) The parents told to their son, "Say hello to uncle Jim".
     4) “Don't make so much noise," he says.
     5) He said, "I like this song."
     6) She asked me, “Why don’t you speak English?”
     7) "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.
     8) Helen says, “ I want to tell you something about my holiday in London”.
     9) He asked me, “For what reason did the buyers refuse to accept the
Cargo?”
     10) Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

				
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