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					                                     Writer’s Draft v1.0 – 4 February 2000
     FM 34-10-6/ST


1                                             CHAPTER 9
2
3          MEASURES AND INSTRUMENTATION INTELLIGENCE
 4                    OPERATIONS (MASINT)
 5
 6
 7   MASINT uses information gathered by technical instruments such as radar, lasers, passive
 8   Electro-optical sensors, radiation detectors, seismic, and other sensors to measure objects
 9   and/or events to identify them by their signatures. Division MASINT sensors are limited to the
10   Ground Surveillance Radar (GSR) and Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System
11   (REMBASS), Improved REMBASS (IREMBASS), and REMBASSII.
12
13   SECTION I – MISSION
14
15   9-1. The GSR and REMBASS provide combat information and targeting data through the
16   detection and location of moving targets. Their primary functions are forward, flank, or rear
17   security and early warning, target acquisition and limited assistance to friendly force movement
18   control.
19
20   SECTION II – EXECUTION
21
22   9-2. The only MASINT units organic to the division are the MASINT Platoon in the DS MI
23   companies of the divisional MI Battalion. The platoons are integrated within the supported
24   brigade’s reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition plan to identify and locate the
25   threat along the brigade’s front, flank, or rear and to provide early warning, surveillance, and
26   target acquisition. They provide coverage on routes or areas not easily accessible or desirable
27   for maneuver forces. The deployment of the Ground Surveliiance Radars (GSRs) and the
28   REMBASS are METT-TC driven.
29
30   MASINT PLATOON
31
32   9-3. The Division XXI MASINT Platoon represents the consolidation of the Army of the GSRs
33   and REMBASS teams into a platoon. The consolidation of the two sections into one platoon
34   however limits the simultaneous use of both systems, since the same prime mover carries both
35   systems. The Platoon consists of a platoon headquarters and two MASINT squads, containing
36   GSR and REMBASS capability. The platoon headquarters collocates with the DS MI Company
37   command post. The two squads deploy forward of the platoon headquarters and form either
38   sensor strings or a GSR baseline.
39
40
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46



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47
48



                                                              MASINT Platoon Headquarters




                                                                    MASINT Squad




                                                                    MASINT Squad




49
50              Figure 9-x. MASINT Plt, DS MI Company, MI Battalion, Division XXI
51
52   Platoon Headquarters.
53
54   9-4. The platoon headquarters consists of a platoon leader and a platoon sergeant. They work
55   together to ensure the subordinate squads are deployed, employed, and supported in
56   accordance with the DS MI Companies operations order and the supported unit commander’s
57   guidance. In accordance with standard troop leading procedures, the platoon leader is
58   responsible for coordinating the movement and link up of platoon elements that might be
59   attached to a battalion or company.
60
61   MASINT Squad.
62
63   9-5. Each squad contains 12 soldiers and has the capability of being deployed in either a GSR
64   or REMBASS mode. The squad has two prime movers carrying all equipment, limiting its ability
65   to perform both missions simultaneously. A squad tasked with both REMBASS and GSR
66   missions may have to emplace the REMBASS and leave a dismounted team to monitor that
67   system while displacing to conduct the GSR mission.
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      FM 34-10-6/ST


 77
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 84
 85                                                     MASINT Section Leader
 86                                                     Five MASINT Operators
 87
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                                                         MASINT Team Leader
 93                                                     Five MASINT Operators
 94
 95
 96                                    Figure 9-2. MASINT Squad
 97
 98   REMBASS OPERATIONS.
 99
100   9-6. The MASINT platoon leader, and squad leaders, in conjunction with the supported unit
101   S2/3, conduct an in-depth map reconnaissance of the desired coverage area prior to REMBASS
102   deployment. Once planned locations for the strings have been plotted and concealed routes to
103   these locations have been selected, a ground reconnaissance is done to verify the map
104   reconnaissance and the deployment plan. During the ground reconnaissance the platoon or
105   team leader may find better locations to employ the sensors and relays than revealed by the
106   map reconnaissance. Upon completion of the ground reconnaissance, the leader briefs the
107   supported S2 either in person or via FM. The sensor strings are emplaced once the plan has
108   been approved. Emplacement, and subsequent maintenance operations on emplaced strings,
109   occur at a time (usually at night) to minimize the chance of compromise by the local population
110   or hostile forces. The S2 provides light data and a local population assessment to help
111   determine the best emplacement time.
112
113   9-7. REMBASS teams require additional support in certain environments. In a SASO, where
114   mines are prevalent, a REMBASS team requires engineer support and MP canine support to
115   temporarily clear the string emplacement areas. Any large-scale obstacles are identified in the
116   ground reconnaissance and cleared by engineers prior to the insertion by the REMBASS team.
117   Prior planning reduces emplacement time and minimizes both the risk of compromise and the
118   physical risk to the soldiers emplacing the sensors. Contingency areas for REMBASS are
119   identified through map reconnaissance and ground reconnaissance well before emplacement,
120   requiring only a quick validation before execution.
121
122   In Bosnia, REMBASS teams had completed map and ground reconnaissance for all resettlement
123   areas not yet opened for resettlement. This allowed the teams to move sensor strings from
124   freshly quiet areas to Of Offensive resettlement
      REMBASS In Supportnewly opened Operations. areas with the majority of support effort already
      accomplished.


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125
126   9-8. Offensive operations, including exploitation and pursuit, present only limited opportunities
127   for REMBASS employment. REMBASS is placed on lightly defended flanks of the advancing
128   forces to provide early warning of enemy threats. REMBASS can also be effective when
129   emplaced deep in the threat’s rear area to provide indications of movement, reinforcement,
130   withdrawal, or threat intentions. However this requires emplacement by special operations
131   forces, long range surveillance personnel or the air dropping of the REMBASS sensors.
132
133   REMBASS In Support of Defensive Operations.
134
135   9-9. REMBASS is used, in the defense, as an early warning system to provide information of
136   enemy movement and locations. The amount of activity detected by each sensor string or field
137   may provide indications of main or supporting attacks. The sensor strings are used to identify
138   threat movement along avenues of approach. REMBASS is also utilized as an economy of
139   force measure on lightly defended flanks to provide early warning of threat attempts to conduct
140   envelopments or to identify unexpected avenues of enemy advance. The sensor grid consists of
141   two or more strings emplaced in rows to monitor the entire area of concern. The grid is usually
142   used for area surveillance to detect penetration or occupation of an area by the threat, when the
143   threat avenue of approach is unknown.
144
145   REMBASS Rear Area Operations.
146
147   9-10. REMBASS provides support to economy of force in protecting the support areas. Sensor
148   strings can be used to cover avenues of approach from the flanks into the support area. Sensor
149   grids can be used to monitor areas that provide the threat with landing zones for air insertions of
150   Special Forces or air assault troops.
151
152   REMBASS In Support Of SASO.
153
154   9-11. In the SASO environment, REMBASS is used for base camp perimeter security and to
155   monitor areas that are of command concern but are not accessible to regular US presence due
156   to force protection, economy of force requirements, or political considerations. Examples
157   include but are not limited to resettlement areas, cleared and uncleared routes, suspected
158   infiltration routes for arms, drugs etc, and weapon storage sites. The commander is then able to
159   cue patrols to potential trouble areas or problems. In many cases, REMBASS operations are
160   integrated into other ongoing operations to give them access to desired emplacement areas.
161
162   GSR OPERATIONS.
163
164   9-12. The MASINT platoon leader, and squad leaders, in conjunction with the supported unit
165   S2/3, conduct an in-depth map reconnaissance of the desired coverage area prior to GSR
166   deployment. This is followed by a ground reconnaissance. In addition to system locations and
167   concealed routes to these locations, the MASINT platoon leaders uses the map and ground
168   reconnaissance to determine alternate positions and exfiltration routes should the GSR team be
169   forced to evacuate their positions due to enemy activity or compromise. Upon completion of the
170   ground reconnaissance, the leader backbriefs the supported S2 in person or via FM.
171   Emplacement of the systems occurs once the new plan has been approved. Emplacement and
172   subsequent maintenance operations occur at a time (usually at night) to minimize the chance of



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      FM 34-10-6/ST


173   compromise by the local population or hostile forces. The S2 provides light data and a local
174   population assessment to help determine the best emplacement time.
175
176   GSR In Support Of Offensive Operations.
177
178   9-13. GSRs are primarily limited to flank security during offensive operations due to the speed at
179   which the situation develops. The flank security provides early warning to help prevent
180   envelopment of the supported unit. However, during consolidation after offensive operations,
181   GSRS are layered with reconnaissance elements to help determine the threat’s forward trace in
182   order to prevent surprise from a counterattack.
183
184   GSR In Support Of Defensive Operations.
185
186   9-14. GSR is used to:
187
188      Monitor choke points and other critical points such as bridges and defiles. The GSR can
189       cue artillery and combat engineer units as the threat enters these critical points.
190
191      Search likely avenues of approach into defensive areas. GSRs used on the flanks detect
192       threat movement at the maximum range. Early detection of a possible envelopment force is
193       crucial to the supported commander’s decision cycle. This role is especially crucial during
194       hours of darkness and reduced visibility.
195
196      Cue the fire support system as the threat enters designated kill zones. With proper planning
197       and employment, GSR increases the timeliness and effectiveness of long-range fires.
198       Additionally, GSRs assist target acquisition during darkness or limited visibility.
199
200      Provide coverage of areas not otherwise observed. Because of its wide capability, GSRs
201       are an effective economy of force asset. It provides coverage of areas where patrols,
202       outposts, or other elements are unable to operate in or cover.
203
204   GSR In Support Of Rear Area Operations.
205
206   9-15. GSR provide support to economy of force in protecting the support areas. Can be used to
207   monitor approaches to primary threat rear targets. Provide coverage to areas that provide the
208   threat with landing zones for air insertions of Special Forces or air assault troops.
209
210   GSR In Support Of SASO.
211
212   9-16. In the SASO environment, REMBASS is used for base camp perimeter security and to
213   monitor areas that are of command concern but are not accessible to regular US presence due
214   to force protection, economy of force, or political considerations. Examples include but are not
215   limited to resettlement areas, cleared and uncleared routes, suspected infiltration routes for
216   arms, drugs etc, and weapon storage sites. The commander is then able to cue patrols to
217   potential trouble areas or problems. In many cases, REMBASS operations are integrated into
218   other ongoing operations to give them access to desired emplacement areas.
219
220



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221   SECTION III – COMMAND, CONTROL, AND COMMUNICATIONS
222
223   9-17. Effective MASINT operations require the clear designation of the support relationships,
224   leaders, facilities, and communications channels that support dissemination of MASINT
225   products and enable command and control of the MASINT Platoon.
226
227   COMMAND AND CONTROL
228
229   9-18. The MI battalion commander through the DS MI Company directs the deployment,
230   operations, and redeployment of the MASINT platoon. Normally, the chain of command runs as
231   follows: Brigade, DS MI Company, MASINT platoon, MASINT Squad, teams. Under specific
232   METT-TC task organization, the chain of command could be brigade, battalion, MASINT
233   platoon, MASINT squad, and teams. Several variations are possible, but these are METT-TC
234   driven and will be completely spelled out in the OPORD for the mission.
235
236   Mission Management.
237
238   9-19. The Brigade S2 is responsible for providing the DS MI Company commander with the
239   NAIs, specific information requirements, high pay-off target lists, the attack guidance matrix, and
240   current order of battle information, ISR graphics, threat databases, and target identifications,
241   necessary to conduct collection missions. In the case of the platoon being attached to a
242   battalion, the battalion S2 provides the MASINT platoon leader with the above information. The
243   DS MI Company Commander provides the above named information tailored to the needs of the
244   MASINT platoon along with the operations graphics and order.
245
246   Terrain Management.
247
248   9-20. The MI Battalion S3 through the DS MI Company commander coordinates with the
249   maneuver brigade S3 for movement and sites within the brigade’s area of control. The DS MI
250   Company commander coordinates with the maneuver battalion S3s and appropriate
251   subordinate units for movement and sites within the brigade’s forward area. Coordination for
252   sites within the forward area should include arrangements for the physical security of the site
253   and medical evacuation procedures. The MASINT platoon leader coordinates with the platoon
254   leader(s) where his squads are operating to ensuring site deconfliction and fratricide prevention.
255   In the case of the MASINT platoon being attached to a maneuver battalion, the battalion S3 is
256   responsible for coordinating the MASINT platoons operations sites with the company and
257   separate units under the battalion’s control.
258
259   COMMUNICATIONS ---------------------------UNDER CONSTRUCTION------------------------------
260
261   9-21. The MASINT Platoon operates several communications and processing systems. These
262   systems provide the framework needed to coordinate the tasking, reporting, command and
263   control, and service support of MASINT teams spread across the width and depth of the area of
264   operations. Communications redundancy ensures the loss of any one system or command post
265   does not severely disrupt operations. When tasked with simultaneous REMBASS and GSR
266   missions, the MASINT squad has to be capable of monitoring two communications nets (it may
267   be providing GS to the brigade with its REMBASS while simultaneously provide DS to a




      9-6                              Writer’s Draft v1.0 – 4 February 2000
                                       Writer’s Draft v1.0 – 4 February 2000
      FM 34-10-6/ST


268   maneuver battalion with its GSR systems. It must likewise be capable of communications in
269   mounted and dismounted modes.
270
271
272                                             ADD FIGURES
273   Reporting
274
275   9-22. The mechanism for reporting will be specifically covered for each specific operation in the
276   OPORD for that mission based off of METT-TC considerations and organization. However, in
277   general the following is the general reporting mechanism when the DS MI Company supports a
278   brigade and its subordinate elements are not attached to maneuver battalions. The MASINT
279   team reports (if operating away from the squad) would report to its squad leader on the
280   assigned FM frequency. The MASINT squad reports its consolidated information to the platoon
281   headquarters. The platoon headquarters reports via the designated means (usually the
282   command net) to the DS MI Company headquarters. The DS MI Company headquarters
283   reports the information on the O/I net to the Brigade S2. If the task organization has the
284   MASINT platoon attached to a maneuver battalion, the team still reports to the squad. The
285   squad reports on the platoon net to the platoon headquarters. The platoon headquarters
286   reports to the attached battalion S2. The battalion S2 reports the information to the Brigade S2.
287   The platoon will still be responsible for reporting administrative and logistical information to the
288   DS MI Company commander, so once the attached relationship ends the command has an
289   accurate status of personnel and equipment issues.




                                       Writer’s Draft v1.0 – 4 February 2000                           9-7

				
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