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NPA and Recovery Process with respect to Small Scale Industries

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					                                   A

                             Project Report

                                  On

 “NPA and Recovery Process with respect to Small Scale Industries”



                                  At

                       “Bank of Maharashtra”



                                  By

                       SARVAJEET S. PATIL

                        Under the Guidance of

                          Prof. Smita Sovani.


                            Submitted To

                          University of Pune

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

              Master of Business Administration (MBA)



                               Through

               Vishwakarma Institute of Management

                               Pune-48
                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to management of, “Bank
of   Maharashtra”     (Pune     City   Regional     Office)     for   giving   me
an opportunity to work on this project in their organization.


I am indeed grateful to Mr. P.V.Kahalkar, senior manager (Recovery), and
other staff members of bank of Pune City Regional Office of bank of
Maharashtra for extending their kind co-operation to me during my project
work.


I am also thankful to prof smita Sovani of vishwakarma institute of
management for her help, encouragement and resourceful guidance. I am also
thankful to my parents specially my father subhash patil who guided me in
various NPA norms.




Sarvajeet Paitl
Sr.No.                   Topic            Page No.



 01      Executive summary                   1



 02      Company profile                     2



 03      Objectives of the study             3



 04      Research methodology                4



 05      Project title                       5



 06      Analysis and interpretation of      6
         data

 07      Suggestions and conclusions         7



 08      Bibliography                        7
   CHAPTER I:-

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                               Executive summary
With the growing competition in the market and globalization coming into role
it has become essential for any Bank/organization to keep in touch with the
recent technology. My subject of project mainly targets the NPAs in bank with
reference to SSI & the recovery process thus adopted. Thus, for a bank to
survive in a market it is very essential to stick to rules and regulations of RBI,
as it is the governing body of every nationalized bank.
In present economic scenario, we here many things of banks getting close due
to high percentage of NPA. So the question comes in mind, that, what is NPA?
NPA is an asset, which ceases to generate income to the bank. It is basically a
loan for which the interest or installment or both remains unpaid for the period
of 180 days. Thus to keep track of increasing amount of NPAs, banks have set
up recovery Departments. Bank of Maharashtra where I completed my project
is also one of them. Recovery is most important department of Banks.
In many financial services, recovery forms the heart of its operation without
which the organization can’t survive. If there is no satisfactory recovery the
organization will become sick. Bank of Maharashtra has a very effective
recovery department. It has a team of experts controlling the recovery of loan,
who are equipped with very good system. This helps in one side the normal
recovery and on the other side also in timely identification of default cases. The
department acts in more proactive manner than reactive.
With today’s world getting close and considering a world a global village, Bank
of Maharashtra has been successful in expanding its wings by opening new
branches and updating themselves with the latest technologies.
  CHAPTER II:-

COMPANY PROFILE
COMPANY PROFILE – BANK OF MAHARASHTRA


HISTORY-

Known as a common man’s bank since inception, Bank of Maharashtra was
registered on 16th Sept 1935 with an authorized capital of 10.00 lakh and
commenced its business on 8th Feb.1936.
Its initial help to small units gave birth to many of today’s industrial houses.
After nationalization in 1969, the Bank expanded rapidly. It now has 1345
branches (as on 31.03.2007) all over India. The bank has largest network of
branches by any public sector bank in the state of Maharashtra. Believing in the
philosophy of technology with personal touch, Bank of Maharashtra aims to
cater all types of need of the entire family, in the whole country. Its dream is
“One Family, One Bank, Maharashtra Bank”.
Having attained the autonomous status in 1998. it helped in giving more and
more services with simplified procedures without intervention of Government.
AIM-

The bank wishes to cater all types of needs of the entire family, in the whole
country. Its dream is “One Family, One Bank, Maharashtra Bank”.

SOCIAL ASPECT-

The Bank excels in social Banking, overlooking the profit aspect; it has a good
share of priority sector lending having 46% of its branches in rural areas. The
social aspect covers, priority sectors, Agriculture, Small Scale Industries, other
priority sectors, Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), Prime
Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY). Assistance to SC/ST Category Advances to
Minority Communities, Lead Bank Scheme and state level bankers committee.
IMPORTANT SCHEMES /PROJECT OF THE BANK-

New Schemes

The Bank introduced new innovative schemes for extending better services to
the Customers. Schemes like Yuva Yojana & Lok Bachat Yojana were
introduced under savings bank accounts to inculcate savings habbit amongst
youngsters and general public.

Aadhar Scheme for Pensioners

The bank has a special scheme called Aadhar for catering to personal credit
needs of the pensioners. This Scheme has evoked an encouraging response from
the pensioners as it has enabled them to meet their financial needs for medical
expenses, travel plans etc. The Bank’s finance under the scheme increased
23,107 to 32,145.
Other Schemes introduced by the bank includes, Mahabank Salary Gain
Scheme, Mahabank Kisan Credit Card, Finance to Non -conventional sources
of Energy, Laghu udhyami credit card scheme, Maha-Enterpreneur, Women
Empowerment, Micro Finance etc the list goes long.

EXTERNAL DEVELOPMENT-

EXPORTS-
Exports of a bank registered a strong growth of 24.7 percent in 2006.
engineering goods, textile, chemicals, gems and jewellery and petroleum
products being the key drivers of export growth.

IMPORTS

Imports maintained the high growth at 31.55 percent in 2006, led by both oil
and non oil imports, in an environment of buoyant economy.
FOREX RESERVES

Foreign exchance reserves USD 10.1 billion, from a level of USD 141.5 billion

as of march 2005, to USD 151.6 billion by end march 2006.



FUTURE PLANS- VISION 2007 –



    To cross the business of 100000/- crores by march 2008.

    Systematic approach for reducing NPAs below 1 %.

    23 currency chests to be opened.

    Extencive use od Wide Area Network-MAHANET interconnectivity of

      branches by providing more customer centric branches like Any Branch

      Banking Services, Demat etc.

    Extending RTGS facility to almost all branches – RTGS is a software

      package, which provides online settlement of payments between financial

      institutions.
SALIENT FEATURES OF BANKS PERFORMANCE DURING THE
YEAR ENDED 31/03/2007 –



  1. 45 new branches were opened with this total branch network as on

     31.03.2007. comprised of 1345 branches and 13 extension counters.

  2. ATM network was expanded from 145 ATMs to 302 ATMs during the

     year 2006-2007.

  3. Total business of the bank as on 31st march 2007 was Rs. 57381 crore as

     against Rs. 43986 crore last year, thereby registering a growth of 30.46%.

  4. Capital Adequacy Ratio of the bank increased from 11.27% as on

     31.03.2006 to 12.06% as on 31.03.2007.

  5. The ratio of Gross NPA to Gross Advances declined from 5.53% to 3.5%.

  6. The ratio of Net NPA to Net Advances reduced from 2.03% to 1.21%.
      CHAPTER III-

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY




  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To study Non Performing Assets of Bank of Maharashtra wit particular

   reference to SSI/SME.

2. To make right appraisal of customer for giving loan.

3. To recognize the income, assets classification and the provisioning norms

   related to NPAs.

4. To study the recovery process of bank.
     CHAPTER IV-

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
                       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the problems. It may be
understood to study how research is done scientifically. In this, we study
various steps that are generally adopted by the researcher in studing research
problems along with the logic behind them, to understand why we are using
particular method of technique so that the research results are capable of being
evaluated.
During my project work, I have used a lot of data to understand the concept of
NPA and to study the Recovery process. The data collected was interpreted and
then used as information in project.

Data collection –

     To collect journals and magazines form the library of the bank.

     To collect annual report of bank.

Library Data –

I am thankful to library department of the college for extending their support in
order to collect references from various books. The details of books referred
from library are mentioned in later part of the project, in Bibliography.

Use of manual –

As to keep updated from latest norms of RBI for NPA, I have also referred to
the latest RBI manual having guidelines for calculation of NPA.
Internet sites –
The sites thus referred by me for the project were mainly of RBI & banks own
site. The details of which are mentioned in Bibliography.


7
       CHAPTER V:-
PROJECT WORK UNDERTAKEN
                       SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES

Evolution –

A working definition of small scale unit was first evolved in the year 1955
when the Govt had initiated a programme of promotional assistance to Small
Enterprises. At that time, the Small Scale units were which were employing less
than 50 workers if using power and less than 100 workers without use of power
and with capital asset not exceeding Rs. 5 lacs. A review of definition was
taken during 1959 since it was not serving the purpose, of maximization
of utilization of equipment and capital outlay. According, the ceiling on
employment was made applicable to each shift separately to encourage multiple
shift working. However, in the year 1960, the employment limit was deleted
and the investment limit was raised for an ancilliary unit to Rs 10 lacs. With a
gradual picking up of economic and industrial activity after implementation of
various five year plans, need was left to enhance the investment ceiling and
accordingly in the year 1966, it was enhanced to Rs 7.5 lacs (whereby the
investment ment in plant and machinery only ). In the year 1975 the ceiling was
further enhanced to Rs 10 lacs for SSI and Rs 15 lacs for SSI ancillary. Another
revision took place in 1980 when the ceiling was raised to Rs 20 lacs and Rs 25
lacs respectively and then w.e.f.18.3.85 to Rs 35 lacs and Rs 45 lacs
respectively.
However with effect from 21.12.1999 the following requirements are to be
complied with by an industrial undertaking to be graded as Small Scale
Industry:-
An industrial undertaking in which the investment in fixed assets in plant and
machinery wheather held on ownership terms on lease or on hire purchase does
not exceed Rs 10 million. ( Subject to the condition that the unit is not owned,
controlled or subsidiary of any other industrial undertaking)




8
Ancillary Industrial Undertaking-

The following requirements are to be complied with by any industrial
undertaking for being regarded as ancillary industrial undertaking:-
An industrial undertaking which is engaged or is proposed to be engaged in the
manufacture or production of parts, components, subassemblies, tooling or
intermediaries, or the rendering of services and undertaking supplies or renders
or proposed to supply or render not less than 50 percent of its production or
services, as the case may be, to one or more other industrial undertakings and
whose investment in fixed asset in plant and machinery whether held on
ownership terms or on lease or on hire purchase, does not exceed 10 million.

Tiny Enterprises-

Investment limit in plant and machinery in respect to tiny enterprises is Rs 2.5
million irrespective of location of unit.

Women Entrepreneurs-

A Small Scale Industrial unit/ Industry related service or business enterprise,
managed by one or more women entrepreneurs in proprietary concerns, or in
which she/ they individually or jointly have a share capital o not less than 51 %
as partners/ shareholders/ directors of private limited company/ members of co
operative society.

Small Scale Service and Business (Industry Related) Enterprises
(SSSBEs) :-

SSSBEs industry related service/ business enterprises with investment upto Rs
5,00,000 in fixed assets, excluding land and building, are called Small Scale
Service Business Enterprises (SSSBEs). This limit has been raised to Rs 1
million w.e.f. September 2000.



9
SSI Registration-

Small Scale and Ancillary units (i.e. undertaking with investment in plant and
machinery of less than Rs 10 million) should seek registration with Director of
Industries of concerned state Govt.
The main purpose of registration is to maintain statistics and to maintain a role
of such units for the purposes of providing incentives and support services.
States have generally adopted the uniform registration procedures as per the
guidelines. However, there may be some modifications done by states. It must
be noted that small industries is basically a state subject. States use the same
registration scheme for implementing their own policies. It is possible that some
states may have a ‘SIDO registration scheme’ and a ‘state registration scheme’.

Arranging Finance-
No SSI unit can take off without monetary support. This need for finance can be
classified into following types:-

    Long and medium term loans.

    Short term or working capital requirements.

    Risk capital.

    Seed capital/ marginal money.

    Bridge loans.


Financial assistance in India for SSI unit is available from a variety of
institutions.
Following are some institutions:-

SIDBI: Small Industries Development Bank of India (refinance and direct
lending)

SFCs: State Level Financial Corporation e.g. Delhi Financial Corporation.

NSIC: National Small Industry Corporation

Small Industry Development Corporation of various states.

Commercial/ Co-operative Banks.

DIC: District Industry centre.
                              CONCEPT OF NPA

NPA means Non Performing Assets. An asset, including a leased asset,
becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for bank.   As
per RBI Guidelines a Non Performing Asset is a loan or advance where:

   1. Interest and/ or installment of principal remains overdue for a period of
      more than 90 days in respect of term loan,

   2. The account remains ‘out of order’ in respect of an Overdraft/ Cash
      Credit (OD/CC),


   3. The bill remains overdue for the period of more than 90 days in the case
      of bills purchased and discounted.


An asset is classified as non performing asset (NPAs) if dues in form of
principle and interest are not paid by the borrower for a period of 180 days.
However with effect from March 2004 as per RBI guidelines, default status
would be given to a borrower if dues are not paid for 90 days. If any advance or
credit facilities granted by bank to borrower becomes non performing, then the
bank will have to treat all the advances/ credit facilities granted to a borrower as
non performing without having any regard to the fact that there may still exists
certain advances / credit facilities having performing status.




Overdue:-

Any amount due to bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid
on the due date fixed by bank.
Income Recognition

The policy of income recognition has to be objective and based on the record of
recovery. According to the international terms income from non performing
Assets (NPA) is not recognized on accrual basis but is booked as income only
when it is actually received. Therefore, the banks should not change and take to
income account interest on any NPA.

However interest on advances against term deposits, NSCs, IVPs, KVPs, and
life policies may be taken to income account on the due date, provided adequate
margin is available in the accounts.

If the Government guaranteed advances become NPA, the interest on such
advances should not be taken to income account unless the interest has been
realized.


RBI guidelines on income recognition (Interest income on NPAs)

Banks recognized income including interest income on advances on accrual
basis. That is income is accounted for as and when it is earned.


The prime-facie condition for accrual of income is that it should not be
unreasonable to expect its ultimate collection. However, NPAs involves
significant uncertainty with respect to its ultimate collection.

Considering this fact, in accordance with the guidelines for income recognition
issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), banks should not recognize interest
income on such NPAs until it is actually realized.




13
      irregularity – wise master charts, etc. so that follow – up of
   supervised advances is cost effective and efficient.

    Timely receipt, proper scrutiny and interpretation of data to ascertain
     shortcomings in hypothecation stock statements/ Monthly select
     operation Data / Quarterly Information System Returns (as per core
     committee) submitted by the borrowers at the prescribed intervals.

    Constant touch with persons trading with the borrower to obtain market
     report in regard to his trade dealings, solvency, etc.


Follow-up

In the case of deficiencies / irregularities observed, the borrower concerned /
department should be vigorously followed up for rectification of these
irregularities.

    Issue of reminders / notices for deposit installments, overdue interest,
     overdrawing and for realization of overdue bills etc to the borrowers at
     appropriate time.

    Personal contracts with the borrowers at periodic intervals.


    In case of the defaulter in rural areas, letter may be written with full
     particulars of the borrower to the manager of the bank branch and
     secretary of primary Agriculture Credit Society in whose service area the
     borrower resides or operates the activity, with copies to:-


          Controlling officer of the addressee bank/ society

          Lead Bank officer of the district

          Bank’s own district coordinator
Recovery from NPAs : A few Concerns


     whether banks go in for setting up of recovery branches or not, what is more

      important is to strengthen the recovery machinery. In this regard, few aspects of the

      problem need to be worked & should be considered on priority basis. Finally,

      branches, which require close monitoring, also need to be prioritized.



     Diagnostic study has to be considered by each bank in respect of cases lost in the

      court of law during the recent past. The study should highlight the nature of

      deficiencies found by the court authorities in evidences, claims and procedures.

      Conclusion of the study will help in strengthening the recovery system.



     Involvement of the lawyers in suit filed cases should be given utmost importance.

      Unfortunately, they seem to be too busy and, therefore bank cases are not monitored

      in time. In this regard, the present system of empanelment of lawyers needs fresh look.

      Similarly, some incentive schemes should be worked our so that the efficient lawyers

      are rewarded adequately.
   Enforcement of securities has been one of the problem areas. This requires certain

    expertise and contacts with the local people, police department etc. to supplement

    banker’s efforts, services of outside professionals may be employed. But it should be

    ensured that such professionals do not take unlawful measures in taking possession of

    securities. In view of rising number of decreed cases, certain schemes have to be

    worked out to involve professionals in the enforcement of securities.



   It is suggested that banks may jointly promote a subsidiary to act an asset recovery

    agency. It can purchase decreed debts at certain discount. Thereafter, it should be able

    to recover the dues fully from borrowers by creating professional expertise, and

    infrastructure, developing contacts, etc. finally it should work as a profit making

    venture. This will substitute the proposed idea of setting up of Asset Reconstruction

    Fund.

   The list of innovative schemes could be long. If these are implemented, reduction in

    NPAs may take place. But it should be ensured that there would be no more addition

    to the list of NPAs in the future.



The present system of interviewing a borrower, at the time of credit sanction should be

made more meaningful. It can be ensured to elicit the necessary information about the

managerial competence, professional background of an entrepreneur, planning budgeting

and control system, decision- making system, development of staff etc.

With the growing complexities of business and different risks associated with back

lending, it has become essential to upgrade the quality of appraisal for which extensive
use of computers in lending area on one hand and creation of specialized credit appraisal

cadre for for different industries on the other, are called for. Finally the concept of

accountability has to be introduced in management of lending. In this regard, the

corporate office has to work out certain arrangements whereby delegation of authority

and accountability go hand in hand.



Need for Recovery

In the wake of financial sector reforms, generation of profit is the main concern of banks.

In this respect, the Narsimha committee is of the opinion that the viability of banks

should be the sole criterion for survival and growth in the competitive environment. For

this purpose each bank has to maintain low risk bearing advances. Hence, a paramount

task before banks is to bring down Non Performing Advances. This can as well be done

by writing off NPAs which is not feasible due to low profitability of banks. So, they have

to concentrate basically on recovery. In the last year, significant changes have taken place

in system and arrangements relating to recovery of NPAs. Consequently, the percentage

of NPAs to total advances in Bank Of Maharashtra has declined from 5.53% to 3.50 %

(i.e. the ratio of gross NPAs to gross advances ) & Net NPAs to Net advances has been

reduced from 2.03 % in FY 2005-06 to 1.21 % in FY 2006-07. Further, analysis of

achievements of the target set under Mouse shows that there are four areas in which

banks made considerable progress, and reduction in NPAs in one of them. But the banks

have yet to go a long way to go to make full recovery from NPAs. Every bank has its

own policy for recovery. Accordingly, Bank Of Maharashtra also has its own policy for
Recovery. Thus to keep control on the percentage of NPAs Bank has framed the

recovery policy, which includes the following:-




Debt Recovery Tribunal-

Although the data relating to age of NPAs are not available at macro level, banking

circles point out that by and large, avenues for recoveries have now been exhausted and

they are left with mostly handcore NPAs or dead assets. They are mostly age old suit

filed cases and, therefore, recovery has to be effected mostly through court settlements.

But our judicial system is inefficient in timely disposal of bank cases. In this context, the

statement of objects of objects and reasons annexed to Bill on Special Tribunal states that,

as of September 1990, more than 15 lakh cases of the public sector banks were pending

in various courts. On an average, it takes more than 10 years to get a court verdict. So, to

overcome the problem of expeditious court remedies, the government has set up Special

Tribunals in Jaipur and culcatta under the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks & Financial

Institutions Act, 1993.



Recovery Camps-

Tribunals or no tribunals have to continue to deal with NPAs on war footing. In this

regard, Bank Of Maharashtra has a policy of organizing special “ recovery camps”.

Conducting of recovery camps proves to be very helpful to recover the dues, particularly

in rural/ semi urban branches. Participation of all concerned like Bank Staff, Govt
Agencies, etc. if done would be of immense help in ensuring desired result through such

camps. These camps are very effective, less expensive and create congenial atmosphere

for recovery on large scale.




Regional Level Review Committee (RLRC)-

To monitor the Non-Performing Assets meaningfully and systematically the Bank

advised the Regional Offices to activate effectively RLRC to ensure creative dialogue on

NPA accounts every month and devising methods to bring down NPA level expeditiously.



Recovery through Private Agencies-

For improving recovery in decreed account, the bank opted for this option. For this the

Bank gives a specific percentage of commission to the advocates or agents, based on the

amount recovered.



Lok Adalats-

The settlement of NPAs pertaining to Banks through Lok Adalats is already in vogue.

However, on taking review it is observed that expected advantage of Lok Adalats has not

been derived by Banks for settlement of NPAs. Thus for increasing use of the forum of

Lok Adalats to settle banking disputes involving smaller amounts, Reserve Bank Of India

has framed certain guidelines. Based on the said guidelines, Bank Of Maharashtra has

framed certain modalities for effective implementation, which includes cover of NPA
accounts both suit filed and non suit filed classified in Doubtful and Loss category, with

outstanding total dues upto Rs 20.00 lakhs.




Problem Faced in Recovery-

Whenever a bank sanction a loan to a borrower, it applies interest at a specific percentage

on the loan amount. Thus the borrower is expected to repay the whole amount i.e. the

principal amount + interest amount to the bank. The bank takes certain securities against

the loan sanctioned to the borrower. These are in the form of fixed assets or current assets.

The usual observation of the bank is that the fixed asset losses their value over a period of

time, and are also difficult to sell, thus they probably try for the current assets, as they are

liquid in nature and can easily fetch the bank their dues.

Above all the bank practices and above mentioned strategies to recover the dues from the

borrower. Usually for the account turning into NPA has two reasons, first is of willful

default of the borrower & second if the bank do not properly scrutinize the loan account.

In most of the cases it is borrowers fault as they are unable to repay the loans, thus to

recover dues from them the banks adopts the following policies.

Once all the efforts to recover the bank dues are exhausted, the bank is compiled to file

the suit in the court / tribunal. In fact the situation indicates the borrowers non

cooperation and therefore, requires vigorous follow up.
After filing the suit, constant follow up with the court or tribunal through the advocate is

done. As of march 2005 the amount involved in suit filed and decreed accounts is Rs

694.20 crores.

Thus to reduce the number of NPAs and have an efficient recovery the present system of

interviewing the borrower, at the time of credit sanction should be made more meaningful.




It can be ensured to elicit the necessary information about the meaningful competence,

professional background of an entrepreneur, planning budgeting and control system,

decision making system, development staff etc.

     With the growing complexities of business and different risks associated with back

lending, it has become essential to upgrade the quality of appraisal for which extensive

use of computers in lending area on one hand and creation of specialized credit appraisal

cadre for for different industries on the other, are called for. Finally the concept of

accountability has to be introduced in management of lending. In this regard, the

corporate office has to work out certain arrangements whereby delegation of authority

and accountability go hand in hand.

Despite of fact that recovery is most difficult task for every bank, Bank Of Maharashtra is

of the view that it prefers to utilize the provisions of “securitizations act” to bring its

defaulters to the negotiations table and execute compromise deals towards early recovery

of Non Performing Assets.
Following is table showing utilizing securitization act by Bank Of Maharashtra




 Positions of Notices Issued under Securitisation Rs in lacs (2006)

                                                  A/cs              Amount

 Accounts Identified                               151               2439.45

 Notices Issued                                    138               1769.38

 Where 60 days over                                102               1603.05

 Property Seized                                    11                 94.96

 Normal Recovery after Notices                      40                176.89

 Recovery by sale proceeds                           0                     0

 Recovery through compromise                         7                    85

 Total Recovery                                     47                261.89
NPAs of Small Scale Industries (classification) Rs in lacs
2006


REGION : PUNE CITY

Classification
                                   A/C                   Amt


Sub Standard                       229                 391.39

Doubtful                           687                3561.59

Loss                               408                 640.49

TOTAL                             1324                4593.67
Compromise proposal-

A compromise proposal may be called where borrowers agrees to pay a certain amount to

the banker with some concession. A large number of compromise proposals are being

approved by banks with a view to reduce their NPAs and recycling of funds instead of

resorting to legal procedures.

It is an effective tool for speedy recovery of Banks dues in non performing assets through

settlement in which the bank agrees to receive the dues with minimum sacrifice and

borrower agrees to pay the dues by getting certain concessions in full settlement of the

dues.

According to Banks policy, the bank studies the history of the borrower to whom it is

sanctioning the loan. According the loan amount, installment, loan period & interest is

decided. When a borrower fails to repay the full amount of the loan he approaches

towards the bank for a compromise proposal. Accordingly the bank decides as to how

much amount should be compromised. In case of the consortium account the decision

taken by the leader bank is accepted by other banks related to the borrower.
             CHAPTER VI:-

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA
             ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Every bank in order to recover the dues has a recovery process set for them. The usual

legal recovery process adopted by the bank in the following nature.

                               Legal Process of Recovery

                               Personal Visit to the Borrower



                                     Notice to Guarantors


                                   Authority Letter to lawyer


                               Demanding amount through notice




     Receiving amount from                                   Not receiving amount
     client


     Debit note for expenses                                 File case in court



     Recovery expenses                                       Completion of verification



                                                             Lawyers argue before
     Stopped recovery process                                issuing
     after receiving all patment

                                                             Argument in court if court
                                                             satisfied, issue the summons


                                                             Police station serving the
                                                             summons to defaulter
During the project work I came across with cases of compromise proposals. Thus these

cases are taken in order to the practical feel of the Banks compromise offer and recovery

process adopted thereafter.

CASE STUDY 1

Name of the Account:- M/s ABC Co.

Address:- Pune

Constitution:- Partnership

Business Activity:- Processing of Food Graing & puses.

Category of Advance:- SSI

Total Loan sanctioned:- Rs 150 lacs.

CASE HISTORY-

M/s ABC

				
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Description: NPA and Recovery Process with respect to Small Scale Industries