Terms Chapter 22 Western Civilization Spielvogel conservatism zemstvo nationalism populism authoritarianism Prince Albert totalitarianism Queen Victoria realpolitik Victorian Age nation building Reform Act of 1867 France Education Act of 1870 Napoleon III United States Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Abraham Lincoln name of his uncle South Carolina fear of class struggle Civil War belief of social progress Fort Sumter Haussmannization Karl Marx Georges-Eugéne Haussmann Friedrich Engels Crimean War Marxism Alexander II socialism Charge of the Light Brigade The Communist Manifest Florence Nightingale Das Kapital Sevastopol’ proletariat Italy anarchism Count Camillo Benso di Cavour materialism Guiseppe Garibaldi Auguste Comte Red Shirts Louis Pasteur Prussia pasteurization Germany rabies Zollverein anesthesia Danish War (1864) sulfuric ether Austro-Prussian War (1866) chloroform Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) Joseph Lister Seven Weeks War antiseptics Otto von Bismarck carbolic acid Austro-Hungarian Empire hospital gangrene dual monarchy Elizabeth Blackwell Ausgleich American Medical Association Magyars Charles Darwin Austrians natural selection Slavs “survival of the fittest Pan-Slavism organic evolution Russia On the Origin of Species serfdom The Descent of Man Great Reforms Realism mir Terms Chapter 23 Western Civilization 102 Spielvogel Second Industrial Revolution wastewater treatment facilities Bessemer Process upper class steel plutocrats chemicals middle class electricity lower class Thomas Edison “The Woman Question” Joseph Swan family planning Alexander Graham Bell Boy Scouts Guglielmo Marconi mass education internal combustion engine English Football Association Gottlieb Daimler American Bowling Congress Henry Ford Rugby Football Union Model-T mass politics Zeppelin airship democracy Kitty Hawk, NC Great Britain Wilbur and Orville Wright Reform Act of 1867 assembly line Reform Act of 1884 tariffs Ireland cartels William Gladstone depression Irish Land League Germany excelled in industry. Charles Parnell So did Russia and Japan. Irish home rule global economy France white-collar jobs Commune prostitution National Assembly Contagious Diseases Acts Spain Josephine Butler Italy socialism Germany as authoritarian German Social Democratic Party (SDP) Otto von Bismarck Marxism Kulturkampf revisionism Austria-Hungary nationalism Emperor Francis Joseph Eduard Bernstein Russia anarchy Russification Public Health Act of 1875 Nicholas Romanov Terms Chapter 24 Western Civilization 102 Spielvogel modernity impressionism Afrikaners Isaac Newton post-impressionism Boers his world machine cubism Boer War atoms abstract painting Cecil Rhodes Marie Curie Morisot apartheid Pierre Curie Pissarro De Beers Mining Company radium Vincent van Gogh Ethiopia and Liberia radiation Paul Cézanne Egypt protons/electrons Picasso Suez Canal paradigm shift Igor Stravinsky Leopold II physics Sergei Diaghilev Henry M. Stanley Max Planck The Firebird Berlin Conference quantum theory Petrushka Battle of Omdurman Albert Einstein The Rite of Spring archipelago theory of relativity Millicent Fawcett Philippines E=mc2 suffrage China Friedrich Nietzsche new women tea Henri Bergson Maria Montessori Manchu Dynasty Georges Sorel anti-Semitism Canton revolutionary socialism pogroms opium trade psychoanalysis Zionism silver Sigmund Freud Theodor Herzl Opium Wars id France Treaty of Nanking of 1842 ego Dreyfus Affair Hong Kong superego Germany Beijing defense mechanisms Emperor William II Japan Charles Darwin Social Democratic Party Commander Matthew Perry Newton of biology Austria-Hungary Korea Herbert Spencer Imperial Russia Egypt Social Darwinism Sergei Witte Muhammad Ali racism Trans-Siberian Railroad Egyptian Nationalist Party Houston Stewart Chamberlain Russo-Japanese War Afghanistan The Foundations of the Tsar Nicholas II Boxer Rebellion Nineteenth Century Revolution of 1905 Society of Harmonious Fists Aryans Father Gapon Meiji Restoration volkish thought Bloody Sunday India Christian response to modernity October Manifesto Three Emperors’ League anticlericalism Duma Balkan States separation of church and state United States Bosnia/Herzegovina modernism movement in Progressive Era Serbia/Montenegro/Romania Christianity Canada Triple Alliance (1882) Salvation Army new imperialism Triple Entente modernism in arts/literature causes of First Balkan War naturalism White Man’s Burden Second Balkan War symbolism Africa Terms Chapter 25 Western Civilization 102 Spielvogel causes of World War I Tsarevich Alexis nationalism Rasputin internal dissent hemophilia militarism March Revolution Balkans Ekaterinburg June 28, 1914 Bolshevik Revolution Archduke Francis Ferdinand Vladimir Lenin Black Hand Alexander Kerensky Serbia Petrograd Soviet Austria Lenin’s Marxism Sarajevo, Bosnia (three ideas of his Marxism) August 4, 1914 Mensheviks trench warfare soviets machine gun communists poison gas (mustard gas) Leon Trotsky u-boats (submarines) Bolsheviks come to power airships (three reasons) airplanes civil war in Russia tank White Army Central Powers Red Army Allied Powers cheka Western Front class enemies No Man’s Land November 11, 1918 Manfred von Richtofen Armistice Red Baron Veteran’s Day Lusitania red vs. pink United States’ entry Treaty of Versailles Schlieffen Plan Pres. Woodrow Wilson April 6, 1917 Fourteen Points Romanov Dynasty League of Nations Tsar Nicholas II David Lloyd George Tsarina Alexandria Handout Chapters 24 – 25 Western Civilization 102 Spielvogel Chapter 24 Einstein’s theory of relativity states two main points: 1. Space and time are not absolute, but are relative to the observer and interwoven into a four-dimensional space- time continuum. 2. Matter is a form of energy. (E=mc2) Each particle of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the velocity of light. This equation became symbolic of the atomic age, because it explains the energy of atoms. Facts about Russia’s Trans-Siberian Railroad (and Russia): 1. Sergei Witte is given credit for construction of this railroad. 2. It spans from Vladivostok (east) to Moscow(west) (continuing on to St. Petersburg as a link) 3. Distance is approximately 5,776 miles from Vladivostok to Moscow 4. It takes about seven days to travel from Vladivostok to Moscow. 5. Watches/clocks have to be re-set during this trip. 6. Russia has 11 time zones and makes up about 1/6of the earth’s land surface. 7. Lake Baikal in eastern Russia is the deepest lake in the world and contains 1/5 of the world’s fresh water. Causes of new imperialism: 1. Social Darwinism and racism – the belief that it was a country’s duty to dominate what they defined as inferior races. The “white man’s burden” became the philosophy for this reasoning that it was acceptable for whites to dominate less-developed nations. 2. religious motive – the belief that Western Christians had a moral responsibility to civilize and proselytize (convert to Christianity) those peoples they defined as inferior or heathen. This was a time of dynamic missionary movements. 3. economic motive – the rationale that Western countries needed raw materials not found in Western countries; thus they should gain control of those regions having those resources, such as tin, rubber, oil. Chapter 25 Causes of World War I 1. nationalism – There began to be increased rivalry among the nation-states as they increasingly defined themselves according to their country. These nations were rather self-absorbed, believing that no other country should rank above them. 2. internal dissent – Europe was more ethnically and culturally divided than the U.S. These various ethnicities, such as the Slavs, desired self-determination. 3. militarism – Because of this internal strife and because of this strong sense of nationalism, European nations had begun amassing weaponry and building large armies. Nations, rather than promoting peace, were preparing for war. Karl Marx’s Marxism depended upon three ideas: 1. Capitalism could only be destroyed by violent revolution. 2. A socialist revolution was possible even in a backward country like Russia, because the masses were poor, thus more eager for revolution that would improve plight. 3. The workers’ party had to be highly disciplined with a dedicated elite group of intellectuals at the top with followers below completely devoted to revolution. Bolsheviks came to power for three reasons: 1. Democracy that was attempted after the overthrow of the tsar was too weak to prevent anarchy; power belonged to those who took it. 2. Superior and determined leadership in Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin, unlike the tsarist government. 3. Broad appeal to the downtrodden; people to whom socialism appealed because it was the only hope, they felt, for a better life.
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