Terms Chapter 22 Western Civilization Spielvogel conservatism .rtf by wangnuanzg


                                      Chapter 22
                                  Western Civilization

conservatism                                   zemstvo
nationalism                                    populism
authoritarianism                               Prince Albert
totalitarianism                                Queen Victoria
realpolitik                                    Victorian Age
nation building                                Reform Act of 1867
France                                         Education Act of 1870
Napoleon III                                   United States
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte                       Abraham Lincoln
  name of his uncle                            South Carolina
  fear of class struggle                       Civil War
  belief of social progress                    Fort Sumter
Haussmannization                               Karl Marx
Georges-Eugéne Haussmann                       Friedrich Engels
Crimean War                                    Marxism
Alexander II                                   socialism
Charge of the Light Brigade                    The Communist Manifest
Florence Nightingale                           Das Kapital
Sevastopol’                                    proletariat
Italy                                          anarchism
Count Camillo Benso di Cavour                  materialism
Guiseppe Garibaldi                             Auguste Comte
Red Shirts                                     Louis Pasteur
Prussia                                        pasteurization
Germany                                        rabies
Zollverein                                     anesthesia
Danish War (1864)                              sulfuric ether
Austro-Prussian War (1866)                     chloroform
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)                Joseph Lister
Seven Weeks War                                antiseptics
Otto von Bismarck                              carbolic acid
Austro-Hungarian Empire                        hospital gangrene
dual monarchy                                  Elizabeth Blackwell
Ausgleich                                      American Medical Association
Magyars                                        Charles Darwin
Austrians                                      natural selection
Slavs                                          “survival of the fittest
Pan-Slavism                                    organic evolution
Russia                                         On the Origin of Species
serfdom                                        The Descent of Man
Great Reforms                                  Realism
                                      Chapter 23
                                Western Civilization 102

Second Industrial Revolution                   wastewater treatment facilities
Bessemer Process                               upper class
steel                                          plutocrats
chemicals                                      middle class
electricity                                    lower class
Thomas Edison                                  “The Woman Question”
Joseph Swan                                    family planning
Alexander Graham Bell                          Boy Scouts
Guglielmo Marconi                              mass education
internal combustion engine                     English Football Association
Gottlieb Daimler                               American Bowling Congress
Henry Ford                                     Rugby Football Union
Model-T                                        mass politics
Zeppelin airship                               democracy
Kitty Hawk, NC                                 Great Britain
Wilbur and Orville Wright                      Reform Act of 1867
assembly line                                  Reform Act of 1884
tariffs                                        Ireland
cartels                                        William Gladstone
depression                                     Irish Land League
Germany excelled in industry.                  Charles Parnell
So did Russia and Japan.                       Irish home rule
global economy                                 France
white-collar jobs                              Commune
prostitution                                   National Assembly
Contagious Diseases Acts                       Spain
Josephine Butler                               Italy
socialism                                      Germany as authoritarian
German Social Democratic Party (SDP)           Otto von Bismarck
Marxism                                        Kulturkampf
revisionism                                    Austria-Hungary
nationalism                                    Emperor Francis Joseph
Eduard Bernstein                               Russia
anarchy                                        Russification
Public Health Act of 1875                      Nicholas Romanov
                                         Chapter 24
                                   Western Civilization 102

modernity                         impressionism               Afrikaners
Isaac Newton                      post-impressionism          Boers
his world machine                 cubism                      Boer War
atoms                             abstract painting           Cecil Rhodes
Marie Curie                       Morisot                     apartheid
Pierre Curie                      Pissarro                    De Beers Mining Company
radium                            Vincent van Gogh            Ethiopia and Liberia
radiation                         Paul Cézanne                Egypt
protons/electrons                 Picasso                     Suez Canal
paradigm shift                    Igor Stravinsky             Leopold II
physics                           Sergei Diaghilev            Henry M. Stanley
Max Planck                        The Firebird                Berlin Conference
quantum theory                    Petrushka                   Battle of Omdurman
Albert Einstein                   The Rite of Spring          archipelago
theory of relativity              Millicent Fawcett           Philippines
E=mc2                             suffrage                    China
Friedrich Nietzsche               new women                   tea
Henri Bergson                     Maria Montessori            Manchu Dynasty
Georges Sorel                     anti-Semitism               Canton
revolutionary socialism           pogroms                     opium trade
psychoanalysis                    Zionism                     silver
Sigmund Freud                     Theodor Herzl               Opium Wars
id                                France                      Treaty of Nanking of 1842
ego                               Dreyfus Affair              Hong Kong
superego                          Germany                     Beijing
defense mechanisms                Emperor William II          Japan
Charles Darwin                    Social Democratic Party     Commander Matthew Perry
Newton of biology                 Austria-Hungary             Korea
Herbert Spencer                   Imperial Russia             Egypt
Social Darwinism                  Sergei Witte                Muhammad Ali
racism                            Trans-Siberian Railroad     Egyptian Nationalist Party
Houston Stewart Chamberlain       Russo-Japanese War          Afghanistan
The Foundations of the            Tsar Nicholas II            Boxer Rebellion
Nineteenth Century                Revolution of 1905          Society of Harmonious Fists
Aryans                            Father Gapon                Meiji Restoration
volkish thought                   Bloody Sunday               India
Christian response to modernity   October Manifesto           Three Emperors’ League
anticlericalism                   Duma                        Balkan States
separation of church and state    United States               Bosnia/Herzegovina
modernism movement in             Progressive Era             Serbia/Montenegro/Romania
Christianity                      Canada                      Triple Alliance (1882)
Salvation Army                    new imperialism             Triple Entente
modernism in arts/literature        causes of                 First Balkan War
naturalism                        White Man’s Burden          Second Balkan War
symbolism                         Africa
                                   Chapter 25
                             Western Civilization 102

causes of World War I                       Tsarevich Alexis
  nationalism                               Rasputin
  internal dissent                          hemophilia
  militarism                                March Revolution
Balkans                                     Ekaterinburg
June 28, 1914                               Bolshevik Revolution
Archduke Francis Ferdinand                  Vladimir Lenin
Black Hand                                  Alexander Kerensky
Serbia                                      Petrograd Soviet
Austria                                     Lenin’s Marxism
Sarajevo, Bosnia                            (three ideas of his Marxism)
August 4, 1914                              Mensheviks
trench warfare                              soviets
machine gun                                 communists
poison gas (mustard gas)                    Leon Trotsky
u-boats (submarines)                        Bolsheviks come to power
airships                                    (three reasons)
airplanes                                   civil war in Russia
tank                                        White Army
Central Powers                              Red Army
Allied Powers                               cheka
Western Front                               class enemies
No Man’s Land                               November 11, 1918
Manfred von Richtofen                       Armistice
Red Baron                                   Veteran’s Day
Lusitania                                   red vs. pink
United States’ entry                        Treaty of Versailles
Schlieffen Plan                             Pres. Woodrow Wilson
April 6, 1917                               Fourteen Points
Romanov Dynasty                             League of Nations
Tsar Nicholas II                            David Lloyd George
Tsarina Alexandria
                                                    Chapters 24 – 25
                                                 Western Civilization 102

Chapter 24
Einstein’s theory of relativity states two main points:
    1. Space and time are not absolute, but are relative to the observer and interwoven into a four-dimensional space-
         time continuum.
    2. Matter is a form of energy. (E=mc2) Each particle of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the
         velocity of light. This equation became symbolic of the atomic age, because it explains the energy of atoms.

Facts about Russia’s Trans-Siberian Railroad (and Russia):
    1. Sergei Witte is given credit for construction of this railroad.
    2. It spans from Vladivostok (east) to Moscow(west) (continuing on to St. Petersburg as a link)
    3. Distance is approximately 5,776 miles from Vladivostok to Moscow
    4. It takes about seven days to travel from Vladivostok to Moscow.
    5. Watches/clocks have to be re-set during this trip.
    6. Russia has 11 time zones and makes up about 1/6of the earth’s land surface.
    7. Lake Baikal in eastern Russia is the deepest lake in the world and contains 1/5 of the world’s fresh water.

Causes of new imperialism:
    1. Social Darwinism and racism – the belief that it was a country’s duty to dominate what they defined as inferior
        races. The “white man’s burden” became the philosophy for this reasoning that it was acceptable for whites to
        dominate less-developed nations.
    2. religious motive – the belief that Western Christians had a moral responsibility to civilize and proselytize (convert
        to Christianity) those peoples they defined as inferior or heathen. This was a time of dynamic missionary
    3. economic motive – the rationale that Western countries needed raw materials not found in Western countries; thus
        they should gain control of those regions having those resources, such as tin, rubber, oil.

Chapter 25
Causes of World War I
    1. nationalism – There began to be increased rivalry among the nation-states as they increasingly defined themselves
        according to their country. These nations were rather self-absorbed, believing that no other country should rank
        above them.
    2. internal dissent – Europe was more ethnically and culturally divided than the U.S. These various ethnicities, such
        as the Slavs, desired self-determination.
    3. militarism – Because of this internal strife and because of this strong sense of nationalism, European nations had
        begun amassing weaponry and building large armies. Nations, rather than promoting peace, were preparing for

Karl Marx’s Marxism depended upon three ideas:
    1. Capitalism could only be destroyed by violent revolution.
    2. A socialist revolution was possible even in a backward country like Russia, because the masses were poor, thus
        more eager for revolution that would improve plight.
    3. The workers’ party had to be highly disciplined with a dedicated elite group of intellectuals at the top with
        followers below completely devoted to revolution.

Bolsheviks came to power for three reasons:
    1. Democracy that was attempted after the overthrow of the tsar was too weak to prevent anarchy; power belonged
        to those who took it.
    2. Superior and determined leadership in Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin, unlike the tsarist government.
    3. Broad appeal to the downtrodden; people to whom socialism appealed because it was the only hope, they felt, for a
        better life.

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