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					Early years of Roman Catholicism among the Amungme

Nunen, A. van o.f.m. 1998. Material around the hai-thinking of the Amungme. Jayapura, Unpublished ms., 4p.
I'm not certain if this is what I have.... below...

Nunen (1) 1998: four pages
for Father Kammerer, see Woudloper God's, by Jan van Eechout, Amsterdam, 1954

Coenen: mostly in Dutch, Jayapura diocese; only 3 of his articles, written in 1957 about Amungme culture (A
prayer of a mountain Papuan) published in Nieuw Studien 1961. The other articles: On Heavenly Movements
and Ending of a War)

Mozes Kilangin, about 30 years ago (1968) wrote some 40p. about his missionizing activities in the Tsingga
and Muemba valleys '54-'60. Orginal mms. lost, so Nunen requests another one, some 50p. But then he finds the
original in The Netherlands. Some points different. He is putting them into his computer... Mozes now about 72,
lives in Timika. Born in Dilua, about 1925. Due to 1928 earthquake, family moves to Tsingga. But also gives
reason that they no longer felt safe as suspicion of withcraft (suangi) gave reason for tribal war. Dilua war in
1925?

Kugapa: Moni enclave in Ekagi territory... the Moni from there maintain relationships with Amung from
Tsingga and neighboring valleys. In 1950, a group of 30 young boys sent to Fak2 for formal education, includes
two Amung: Tom, the big B.

Father Jorna to Amkayagama (Tsingga) and Peters to Bulujaluki (Nuemba)

Mozes writes article in Triton, magazine in Malay published Dept. of Native Affairs.

late 1960s: Akimuga with 2000-odd parishioners; now (1998) about 1100, mostly elderly and schoolchildren.
=======================================================
Nunen, A. o.f.m. 1993. Beberapa catatan tentang daerah dan suku Amungme/Damal. Jayapura, Ts, 13p.
(for Mrs. Carolyn Cook)

names: Enggipilu, Damal and Ugundhuni
Moni pigu=gunung.... Amung pilu???
Damal from CAMA... >>> now KINGMI.... but NOT south...
Amungme: manusia pertama atau orang sejati (true, genuine, real)

Colijn @ base camp:
suku Magel and Wagal.... resembles suku Enggipiloe-dal (where dal=suku); Enggipoeloe = nama seluruh
wilayah Pegunungan Carstenz&Idenburg
they're at kaki Utara Gunung Godman, berdiam suku Aloea (Aroa???)
Aloea rather different from Balal.... NOT related with Enggipiloe; their language very different.... but suku
NAGAI sebelah hulu sungai Kamora, related to Aloea-dal....
So.... Enggipilu = Damal/Amungme...
5 follow then to Babo: want to enter hai...

Enarotali... opens June 1938... Le Roux and de Bruyn NOT south of mts.
Moni south of mts from Dugindoga and Kemandoga valleys moved south of mts several generations ago,
around beginning of 20th cent. and a small group opens a settlement in easternmost Wea Valley... could these
folk be the Aloea??? The Moni of Kugapa have relationships with the Amungme south of range (marriage) so
Tsingga folks to Kugapa where they learn about government and Zending and Catholics...

May 1943: Japs >>> 1948; end 1950 Catholic kids to Fak2: inc.. Tom and Bennie Beanal... who dies in Fak2
sakit paru2 (lungs)

J. D. Veurman starts out 26 June 1950 Ojenagong, Tsingga (hulu Otakwa) dan sugai Ban (Poejasinga) who call
themselves Enggipiloe (nama gunung salju...)... they follow tributary of S. Otomona Barat to Bedo Bedo Taka,
ie Gunung Godman.. EH Mickelson tags...

Father Kammerer March 1949 arrives Enarotali...
        at Kugapa before WWII Father Tillmans opens school in this Moni enclave in fat east Ekari-land
        beginning of 1951 Kammerer gets to Mulbera....
        begin 1953 he wants to get to Tsinga from Kokonau but no guides, fails... then second try from
Kugapa; third try from Kokonau, hasil...

Mozes Kilangin born lembah Noemogong (hulu S. Bloemen) from where parents move to Tsingga... Cornelus
Leftew and all that...

Father Julianus Coenen
based in Atuka... suku Nafaripi, daerah Fakafuku, suku known under names of Pece, kampung Sararowe and
Warowe with 200 and 150 souls... Several times a year visits Mozes; mass for 500, first time...

March/April 1957 Johannes Jorna and Herman Peters (anthro, U. Utrecht)
        Tsingga, 5 kampong w/schools, 350 schoolkids
        Noemba, 7 days's walk east, 400 to 500 schoolkids
        Peters, in Alama, suki (?) TAUME; lenbah Buliwa: TSEVANGKE
                  in kampong Nigisaarama 50 Dani fleeing from Baliem fight...
1959 Jan Koot replaces them

Catholic Mission Ilage opens end 1960

30 April 1958: meeting Kokonau, ass't Bestuur A. Mampioper, Dr. Hanegraaf, Ir. M. Flach along with Mozes
and Paulus Salingki ask gov't to fulfill longing... lousy land, lousy food...
15 April 29 May where Akimuga and Akaro rivers meet... kopi and karet...
rush of folks, not ready yet down below...
Tsingga to Belakmakema and Nuemba to Pusjinera...
Koot: awal 1963, 2500 to 3000... Kiliarma for harbor, Amungun for karet, Aramsolki for landing strip...

1964: school garden, 3 ha. Mozes and Cunrad
1966: Mozesk kepala distrik Akumuga
1975 on 13 Dec. Munninghoff inaugurates church
        kampung: Aramsolki, Amungun, Baru and Amokonomon
        SD Bulujalauki (Aramsolki)


Kuum (two texts...)
penyusun: Mozes Tembak Kilangin; penulus: Antonius Fransiskus Kuum
asking for one to be sent to the redaksi Tifa Irian

legend of origins: gua gelap... named MEPINGAMABUKI, meaning guning asal keluarnya manusia... one day
they want to open the door... four times tried and failed... job given to an old woman from marge
ANGAITMANGIN (Aingaitsin) and a gadis perawan; the old lady gives the girl a stick and she has to say:
SEBONGAMTEK MEMONGKAMTEK....
          three groups in the cave... their leaders and what they took:
1. Wumpalmeki: goes west
2. Womkelaki: bibit2 tanaman dan kewan
3. Kamki (or) Olipumki): all rituals, beliefs, adat...
all go west, toward the area of the mountain MEARAMABUGIN... after several centuries they arrive at
KUJAWAGAI, lembah Balim pertama....
          very cold, fire, chattering so can't speak and be understood properly... diminta api, diberikan batu;
diminta makanan diberikan kayu.... The Amungme were the first to sit next to the fire... So they disperse: some
go west, some north, some east, Amungme go south of Puncak Jaya:
1. Wikangki to Tsingah Valley (Tembagapura)
2. Noemangki to Noemba Valley
3. Womlekalki to Bela Valley
they to to Alama in the east and Arowanop in the west...
          The secret formula:
Penebus (ransom, compensation) Akan Datang
allegory, metaphor, analogy, figure of speech, kiasan:
KOLEVOGOLKI MININGAMO JORE, NADALA ILEGE, NINGANG JELAGE (or) JOLAJE!!
DINGKAKINUNG WONGOMONGKALEKGO IVONGONMOK MUIJE,
AVULKEVENG - AGANJOK DOLLE, NINGALAJE!
Adalah satu daun lembar, telah turun ke barat, akan terbang kembali
Sebabaikan tunas ubi berkemban didalam tanah akan timbul di kaki gunung,
Jaga lihat-lihat saja!

Haijogon (di dalam kebahagiaan)
Haime (orang dari surga)
each daerah has its' hai:
1. Mekawiki Alomang Hai di Kompoliki (Amokoni)
2. Napailanki Tembak Hai di Tsinga (kepala air Otakwa)
3. Novogoilanki Alomang Hai di Putsinara
4. Kenelarogomeki Beanal Hai di Tsinga
good and evil spirits both must be respected

1915 expedition, in team someone haime, from heaven... but malaria kills many of those who went down to the
coast...

In around 1938, eight guys to to trade, 6 from Tsinga, 2 from Wah: tobacco for kapak dan parang... pantai
Koperapoka... on a subsequent expedition, Mozes and Cornelis Lefteuw... trek from Tsinga 5 days... Mozews
about 8 years old when taken in...

        Before WWII he goes to Enarotali w/Tillmans where he meets Matheus Menonal Kibak Beanal... in
1953 he qualifies as a schoolteacher... to Kugapa
        Menonal gets white pig, chicken, Gospels/Injil (in Moni) and returns Tsinga Mulibera dan
Beanaigogom....keterangan agama tentang hai...

Kammerer's first trip from Enaro, only reaches lembah Wea; second trip to Ilaga, but left by his folks and Dani
steal all, lives for 3 months with a family...; for third trip, K requests Matheus Menonal to come to
Kugapa/Enaro from Mulibera: they leave on 22 Nov. 1953, and visit the valleys of Arowanop, Waa, Tsingah,
Wea, Noembah, Bella and Alama; Mozes tags along, and in party Matheus and wife, plus 11 which includes 3
Beanals and the rest Magals. They are from Mulibera Beanogogom and Maga. On 12 Dec. they arrive after 21
days walking from Kugapa, on the trail called Deletamagal; arrive at Nosolanop Waumaagun; a kid for
Kokonau school, Frans Magal. The group goes on to Mulibera, where the kepala kampung, Salingki Paulus
Solme gives them a new team, then first descent to Kokonao... on 24 Dec. they arrive at Waoneripi
(Koperapoka)... the next day, Atuka and Coenen, then Koko....

After New Year 1954, back up to Mulibera where Matheus Menonal and pesta adat, 25 big pigs, and first mass,
whence to valleys Wea, Noemba along with Matheus Menonal Beanal; chair of rotan for Father K. to cross a
river on the way to Wea... In Noemba, perang suku and lots of victims; first mass there; then east to Umpiliga
Valley, then on to Bella Valley whence to Ilaga when K and Mozes to Balim; on the way back, supplies stolen
by Dani, but make it to Ilaga where supplies stowed... then, with 3 kids for school, to Enarotali...

Mozes back... 30 Sept from Kokionau, arrives kampung Kelangin and the next day kampung Amkajagama: for
4 months Mozes works with his people; then he gets two assistant teachers and a visit from Coenen, the first
priest, who visits area between 54 and 56....

Before Mozes first tourney to Noemba, we have Paulus Salingki Solme go there first and stop the perang suku
called Salangwem... Paulus gets a room ready for a guru in Noemba, also in kampungs Bulujalauki and
Umpilaga (Sagalagom)... 1957: Peters and Jorna...

From Bulujalauki in mts, Paulus Salingki opens road to Putsinara (pantai), then Father Jorna goes on this road
and from Putsinara on to Ampongaikonin di Amokonomon before promised meeting with Dr. Hannegraaf;
opens communications between gunung and pantai... initiating meeting with Sempan; then the two bules to
Noemba; Dr. cures penyakit 'boba' or framboesia... This was in 1957, then, in 1958, Flach of Dinas Pertanian...
or was it Landbaw Vlaag????

Jorna to Amkajagama and Peters to Noemba, kapung Bulujalauki... and Peters frequently to Akimuga, and suku
Nafaripi (Sempan)
1959, the two above fathers replaced by Father Koot
#18: opening of Akimugah by Dutch government
on 30 April 1958, Juliana's birthday, at Sagalagom-Umpilikga, present: Bestuur Arnold Mampioper, Dr.
Hannegraaf, Flach and Menink from Dinas Pertanian... pesta adat and babi... Moses and Paulus ask for moving
the folks down to Akimugah...
government post opens by Bestuur Janssen, and called Karangama but Paulus Salingki prefers Kiliarma
(meaning tempat permulaan: beginning, outset, origin, basis = Karangama... the BIG MEETING with Sempan
and Amungme on 10 Oct. 1959 at Kiliarma: land between the two rivers: AMOKONOGONG AND
ASIBAGAMOKINOGONG; the upper part owned by Amungme, marga Ondijoamgau and Amokwame.
1. kepala suku Jawero of Sempan
2. kepala suku Paulus Solme, suku Amungme
3. Meneer Jans(s)en
4. Wakil HPB A. Mampioper
5 juru bahasa suku Sempan
On 01 Jan 1960, Kiliarma opens
on 12 April 1960, the move begins... from mts...
From Tsinga, included from Kampung2 Amkajakama and Kingbera...
from Noemba, Paulus Salingki Solme, kepala suku Noemba, also from Bulujalauki, Sagalagom, Kelakinoga,
Dilua, Malimepsingama, ... and more...
The Tsinga folks to Belakmakama (kepala air Omauga) and Noemba to Putsinara...

Mozes moves from SD Amkajakama [Belakmakama????] (replaced by Conradus Bauw) to SD Bulujalauki...
1961; same year Mozes weds Maria Solin...

Bomogomaki = Aramsolki.... folks from Bulujalauki, Kelakinoga, Dilua, Malimepsin while the folks from
Sagalagom to Putsinara

20 Dec. 1961 problem: woman, Kolakola Djalawe, a Catholic, Roost to the rescue, but he gets beaten up,
clothes torn (dipukul setangah mati), his party chased away to jungle... MAF flight comes in with HPB from
Balim: this matter must be settled in Hollandia...

Mozes asks the bishop for a permanent parish priest in Akimugah, a church, a clinic and place for a doc. a place
for sisters; asrama too... for girls... bishop: this will take 10 to 15 years... bishop visits Bomogomaki on 10 Feb.
1962; also beginning '62, jungle opened near Aramsolki and along the Bomogomaki River....

1963 landing field, named by Father Koot: Aramsolki, lapangan panjang
3 ha. school garden opened in 3 days under Mozes and Curad...
in 1965, the folks move from perkampungan lama to new Bogomaki baru...
1966, Mozes named kepala distrik Agimuga
1973 Mozes moves to Kaimana, back to Kokonau
Dec. 13, 1975, bishop Minninghoff inaugurates church Akimugah, 67 pigs...

1973: two Dutch nurses Agatha Bentvelzen and Margaretha Woudenberg; courses for the ladies from
Aramsolki, Amungun, Amokonomon, Kampung Baru; go home in 1975.

1971, Brother Eddy van Daal, asrama pemuda, named Saudara Santu Johannes; brother teaches about bertani
and beternak... good work, latihan kerja...

1973: Brother Jan Sjereps, bidang pertukangan kayu

July 1975, Suster Cipriana, perawat, and in same year Suster Matida de Wit but to Ambon same year....

1976, sister Josefio, teacher SD Bulujalauki (Aramsolki), also teaches religion, math for gurus of all Kec.
Akimugah

Nov. 1969, the bishop arranges for mantri kesehatan for Aramsolki, Clemens Kotorok, from
Mindiptanah/Merauke... still there (at time of writing...1976)

Michael Kammerer
M. Coenen
Peters&Jorna
Koot
O. Mous: Aramsolki and (Sumapero????)
Hoogenboom: Sempan too, agric. help, 2 sawmills, traktor
Frankenmolen: bahasa daerah...

Coenen, J. o.f.m. 1959. Jachtgebruiken bij de Damalme. NNG 7(5): 2-5. PTFI translation:
Berbagai ragam cara berburu suku Damalme.

literal translation of Dasmalme = anak kodok

Enggipiloedal: the Moni for 1. kawasan Carstensz; 2. putra2 (sons, children) kaw Carstensz.

lembah Singgal (Otakwa), lenbah Wa (Koperapoka), lembah Weja (Ajkimuka)... lembah Beoga (Beura atau
Beurop)
Penduduk2 lembah2 tersebut sangat erat (tight, firm; close - of relationship) dikaitan dengan salju abadi di atas
puncak2 pegunungan Carstensz di dalam legenda2 penciptaan (creating, composition) manusua pertama.

Ungunduni juga berasal dari suku Moni dan adalah nama yang diberikan mereka untuk suku Damal: means: di
dalam pagar. NOT meaning fence around their houses, as this never seen... But, perhaps, refers to usual Damal
practice of offerings to ancestors in a place marked by a fence.

8 valleys: from upper Ajkwa River to upper Djots River in east, between Moni in the west and TAUME in the
east.

Meraka adalah bangsa berbaik hati, bersemangat dan ramah (friendly).
On the average, every family with one pig. Meat eaten once a year. During feasts such as birth, and death,
wedding or harvesting... pigs also killed for war debts and tribute for ancestors: these two as several dozens may
be killed as group gathers from all corners of the kawasan (region, area).

To obtain more meat, traps and snares; hunting w/dogs
traps all on prisip per (spring)

five kinds of snares (jerat)
wang = strong, mighty as in kaloewang or menawang (kuasa kekayaan).

1. Djalawekam: alat perangkap kasuaris; similar one for pigs: iokkam (iok=babi hutan)

2. olkam: for all kinds of marsupials; means alat perangkap binatang marsupalia; but very few marsupials as
price same as a big pig; tree kangaroos more expensive yet.

3. wang: for smaller game as mice, binatang tenggiling (scaly anteater) and marsupials

4. kapoean: for cassowaries and birds; combination of jerat (snare) and jebakan (snake, trap); kaki kasuaris yang
penuh lemak menjadi makanan yang sangat lezat... ayam hutan = maleo? telurnya sangat besar....

5. menagasawan or monomsaman
menaga in Damal = variety of marsupial living in trees; monom = mouse (big or little); saman = perangkap

They need protein... so we should not forbid them to eat things which are disgusting to us, such as tikus, ular,
dll.... they need protein...

game scarce now: more pigs thanks to PTFI/contractor jobs; various honest/dishonest means of earing $ =
protein and status symbol....
==============================================================================
Peters, H. L. o.f.m. 1961. De Amungme in het centrale berland van Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea. NNG 9(2): 11-
13. PTFI translantion: Suku....de kawasan pengunungan tengah Niewu-Guinea-Belanda.
Komite Nasional untuk Nieuw Guinea: Stichring Het Nationaal Nieuw Guinea Comite.

LeRoux offers but 3 pages to this suku... p. 665 Romo Kammerer much more...
Damal: from Ndani, penduduk Baliem... they use it for the Amungme too...

Tsingga: 1500 souls dispersed in 7 villages closed valley
No-ema: 7 days' walk east, sungai No-emogong to Tjemara; 2300 souls in 5 villages; open val
lembah Wea with 200 souls, between Tsingga and No-ema.
To the west of Tsingga, lembah2 Wa dan Arawa; and Bela east of No-ema; 4000 Amung in Tsingga, Wea and
Noema....

before 1954
reason for disputes: thefts, man kawin not paid in time, or not proper/suitable, sometimes leading to open
warfare, with over 50 killed...
Formerly, widows killed (dipanahi) after death of husband as she must follow him; sex outside marriage also
killed if same suku... women suspected of witchcraft elimated/purged....

after 1954
..... sudah....

harapan terpenuhi?
missionaries received as heroes... chairs on shoulders...terhadap suatu harapan tinggi yang minta dikabulkan
(grant a wish, answer a prayer). They hope for a day or a place where there is no sickness, no deaths, where
there are desired objects such as kapak, parang, pakaian, manik2 dll. without effort to obtain... And this time or
place, people should get to while still living, without dying first....
BUT according to their teachings, all men must die, including himself and thus all the Amungme... must work
for goodies... sickness and dying, as before or even more so now... Orang menjadi sedikit kecewa. They leave
the large agglomerations to return to their dispersed settlements; they don't help as before, hard to get porters...
church not full as before... they ask if the priests did not bring sickness, want to run them out, even kill them....
Some shift to valleys where they hope no sickness...

But not all disappointed. Orang Amungme tidak mau terlalu banyak memikir, mereka suka humor dan senang
ketawa.

Dan kini lagu2 cinta yang menggerakan semangat terdengar mengiringi (drive) permainan cinta di dalam
rumah2 pada malam hari, dan kini juga tetap terdengar bunyi tumbukan kaki penari Amungme di atas tanah
semalam suntuk hingga fajar menyingsing.

				
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