Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome Section 1: The Roman Republic Essential Question: How did Rome become a Powerful Empire? Objective 1: Understand geographic features that helped build roman civilization. Peninsula- land that is surrounded by water They have good weather Good farm land Good location They are surrounded so shipping stuff was easier Water made new trade routes Helped Rome gain new territories Rome is built on 7 hills The river of Tiber Objective 2: Analyze what life was like in early Rome society Romulus was thought of to found Rome Aeneas was very important in the Trojan war There were many different legends in Rome Many different leaders Everyone worked in small parts of land. Family was a very important part of their life Many different ways of government Objective 3: Describe how Rome’s republican government was organized Romans political system serves as a model for many of today’s democratic nations Plebeians were commoners. They were allowed to vote but not to hold government office The twelve tables was a written constitution that established basic rights and duties for roman citizen The roman republic established a tripartite government. In this tripartite government there is a legislative branch, judicial branch & executive branch The senate and the assemblies where included in the legislative branch Two consuls led the executive branch; they commanded the army and directed the government for one year. (They had the power to veto and over rule each other.) Plebeians are commoners. They are allowed vote but can’t hold government positions. Patricians were the upper-class wealthy land owners. They also held high government positions. Pleb in plebeians’ means in navy terms new or lowest class. Objective 4: Analyze the causes and effects of Roman Expansion Romans first controlled central Italy then all of the Italian peninsula was under roman control They did not impose harsh rule on conquered areas They offered Rome citizenship and allowed them to govern themselves. And in return new citizens had to pay taxes and provide soldiers for the army A Roman general came up with the plan that forced Hannibal to return to Africa to defend his native city The third Punic war- The romans set Carthage on fire and sold its 50,000 inhabitants into slavery Rome’s empire stretched from Greece to the Iberian peninsula From the what Roman conquerors brought back wealth and slaves Senators could be turned into slaves or gladiators Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome Section 2: Rome Becomes and Empire Essential Question: “how did Rome become a Powerful Empire? I. Trace the events that led to the overthrow of the Roman Republic Some people said the Punic war led to the overthrow of the republic. The Roman republics decline was gradual. Wars and conflicts tore the republic apart. People were elected officials. Some leaders were dictators; they forced people to bring them to power or used army’s. Elected official: Person who came to power by the majority of the people. II. Describe the influence (role) of Julius Caesar on the transition from republic to empire. Not many people like Caesar. He wanted for himself to become the first emperor of Rome. Caesar was a very powerful military leader. Caesar was starting to get a lot of power. The senators were starting to be afraid that he would make himself king. The senators brutally stabbed Caesar to death. Commoners clothing: The clothing of a person who is not low in class but not high in class. III. Describe the influence (role) of Augustus on the transition from republic to empire. Augustus original name was Gaius Octavius Augustus was sickly as a child. He was the first emperor of Rome. He was the nephew of Julius Caesar. Emperor: Ruler of an empire Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome Section 3: The Daily Life of Romans Essential Question: How did Rome become a Powerful Empire? I. Understand how Roman families and society were organized Roman fathers had the most power in the household Women in Rome had some power in the household, but not outside the household All children in Rome got some kind of education. They either went to school or learned from their parents There were three social classes in Rome, upper, middle, and lower class Slave revolts were very common. The most famous slave revolt was led by Spartacus Spartacus was in the Roman army, but then became a slave and was sold to a man who taught gladiators. He was able to escape from a gladiator school with about 70 other men. These men went south towards Mt. Vesuvius and captured the Roman camp that was there. Spartacus died when his slave revolt was ended by Pompey and Crassus Plebeians: commoners who were allowed to vote but no hold government offices Patricians: wealthy landowners who held high government positions Private Schools: school that charges students for admission Cause: motive or reason for doing something II. Trace the influences of other cultures on Roman religious beliefs The Romans worshiped hundreds of spirits Roman religious beliefs were influenced by the Greeks and Etruscans Religion and government were connected in Rome Emperors eventually became gods and were worshiped while alive and dead Shrines: places where sacred religious objects are kept Emperor: person who rules and empire Etruscans: people from Etruria who influenced Roman religion III. Describe what life was like in Roman cities There were almost a million people in the Roman empire at its height, so there was mix of ideas and customs The center of Rome was dirty, noisy, and crowded The Roman government built public bathhouses, sewer and plumbing systems, and aqueducts to increases sanitation The Circus Maximus was also built for chariot races and entertainment Empire: a group of territories and peoples brought together under one supreme ruler Aqueducts: artificial channels that carry water Colosseum: a large, famous arena that was named for a statue of an emperor that stood beside the arena Gladiators: trained Roman warriors Chapter 9: Rise of Rome Section 4: The Development of Christianity Essential Question: How did Rome become a powerful empire? I. Explain the connection between Christianity and Judaism. The Jewish kingdom was conquered by the Romans in 63 b.c. During this history Jews were frequently treated badly. The Jews wanted to be free from foreign rule. Some Jewish sacred writings said about a messiah and many people believed an earthy rule would be sent from god. Some believed that this ruler would be descended from king David, the ruler of Israel in the 900’s B.C. Others believed that a messiah would come and save them. Both religions believed in god, Adam and Eve, and they both believed in the 10 commandments. Also each religion believed in getting a messiah. Jesus, Jew teacher whose taught the base of Christianity Messiah, one believed to come and free the people King David, ruler of Israel in 900 B.C. II. Summarize the key points in the life and teachings of Jesus. As a born Jew in roman province of Judea Jesus from his birth followed many of Judaism teachings. Jesus also taught certain ideas and practices that differed from what others were teaching. Jesus taught the social laws and he wanted them to be enforced. Jesus’ three laws were all are to be viewed as equal, social justice and security, and a good life for all members of the community. We know about Jesus from the gospels four accounts of life of Jesus written after his death by Matthew, mark, Luke, and john. Other gospels made up the new testaments. Told from the gospels Jesus was born in Bethlehem and grew up raised by Mary in Nazareth. As a young adult Jesus was known for being a traveling teacher. Biblical statements tell that he could cure the sick and turned water into wine at a wedding feast in Cana. Jesus began to get followers people that believed in him and believed in what he did. His twelve followers were Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James (son of Alphaeus), Simon, Thaddaeus, and Judas Iscariot. He preached justice and compassion to the coming of god’s kingdom. He often told stories in the form of morals. Jesus’ best morals were Good Samaritan, the Prodigal Son, and the Lost Sheep. The Good Samaritan teaches importance of helping others, the Prodigal Son, deals with god’s call for the lost soul to repent, and the Lost Sheep tells about go’s concern for every individual no matter how lost or seemingly insignificant. Jesus taught his most famous teachings on the sermon. In this sermon, Jesus wanted people not to just obey the law but to also change their hearts. People shouldn’t refrain from killing they should love and prey even if they had to prey for their enemies. People didn’t like that Jesus had forgiven the people who had broken the religious laws. Jewish leaders thought only god could grant this forgiveness. Jesus also associated with sinners the ones other leaders put as outcasts. Gospels were four accounts of life of Jesus written after his death written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Christmas, the day people celebrated because it was the day of Jesus’ birth. Jesus began to get followers otherwise known as disciples, 12 of them. Parables were Jesus’ writings and teachings but he put them in moral form, the form of teaching in which it had taught a lesson with a fake story. Beatitudes were what the sermon usually opened with when Jesus taught it opened with blessings. III. Analyze the activities of the disciples and their efforts to spread the Christian faith after the death of Jesus. The claim that Jesus was the messiah, or Jewish liberator and ruler, threatened the Romans because it questioned their political power and authority. 3 of the gospels said that Jesus’ followers hailed to him as a king when he journeyed to Jerusalem to celebrate the Jewish holy day of Passover. In that city a temple was bring run and Jesus publically criticized how it was being run. For Jesus’ criticism he was arrested and the Romans were to give him a punishment. The person who had sent Jesus to the Romans was a governor named Pontius Pilate. Pontius was the one who gave Jesus his punishment, to be executed on the cross. Jesus was hung on a cross and steaks were wedged into his hands and feet and he lay on the cross until he suffered death. After Jesus had died his body was taken down from the cross and put into a hollowed out tomb. Jesus’ tomb had a circular stone outside at the entrance to block it from being entered or his body from being stolen. On the third day of his death some of Jesus’ followers reported seeing him alive and walking after his death. Then as they found out his tomb lay empty and the rock was moved. Nobody could find out how Jesus had gotten back to life. Jesus’ resurrection stunned people and showed that he was divine. When Jesus didn’t hesitate to be resurrected he just went with it people thought he was giving up his life for the sake of gods kingdom. After this belief this was a new world in which death and life were defeated. According to Christmas Jesus’ crucifixion took place on a Friday and his resurrection was on a Sunday and we celebrate these as holidays, Christmas and Easter. Each of Jesus’ disciples were more interested in telling other people about what Jesus had taught them or Jesus’ stories. Each of Jesus’ disciples were like pupils or students of his class and they called Jesus by what he is, a rabbi or teacher. Passover, a holiday celebrated by the Jewish kingdom. Resurrection, the rebirth of Jesus after his death. Divine, a key term used for working of nice or truly amazing. IV. Describe the early Churches. Jesus’ first disciples were Jews. They developed their beliefs and practices that caused a break from Judaism, they eventually became known as Christians. Jews believed Jesus had fulfilled his destiny as the messiah after a while. The Christian churches strictly forbade practicing charity, helping prisoners, sharing property, and taking common meals. Women and slaves were eager to join and learn because these churches preached all to be welcome. At times Church’s teachings set things apart from religious beliefs. Jesus’ disciples wanted to spread the messages that Jesus had taught. The first members of Christian churches were Jewish converts to Christianity. The conversions were of gentiles or non-Jewish people. Others thought that this practice was unnecessary. At first, Roman leaders ignored the early Christians Being “not of this world” was more in theory than in practice. Most people thought of churches this way but churches weren’t really like this. Conversion, change of belief. Gentiles, non-Jewish people. Sect. a division of Judaism. V. Summarize Paul’s role in spreading Christianity. One of the men who became an early leader of the Christian church was Saul, who had been born a Jew. He had written about a man who had actively opposed the Christian church. Later his faith changed. On the road to Damascus, Saul experienced a conversion. His own belief had said God had revealed Jesus as his son and appointed Saul to claim Jesus among the gentiles. Saul’s cultural and political background helped him convert nonbelievers. Saul had been born in Tarsus, a city in Asia Minor heavily influenced by Greek Culture. Saul held Roman citizenship, which allowed him to travel freely throughout the empire. When traveling Saul used his Roman name Paul. After 3 years Paul was ready to travel as a missionary. Paul made four missionary journeys and they weren’t easy. Each journey took several years. Paul and other Christian missionaries brought about changes that made it possible for Christianity to spread throughout the Roman Empire. Paul argued that a conversion to Judaism was unnecessary. Paul’s beliefs helped separate Christianity from Judaism. As a result Christianity began to spread throughout the empire. Paul started new churches and kept in touch with these churches by writing many letters. Paul’s letters are among the Epistles. In one famous Epistle, Paul said that believing in Jesus broke down barriers with people. Paul wanted to go to Rome to spread his Christian faith. Finally, Paul had reached Rome but not in the way he wanted to. It was rumored and thought to be true when not that Paul had brought Gentiles into the Temple. After 2 years in prison Paul demanded to be tried before Caesar in Rome. When Paul left for his final journey in 59 A.D. late autumn he was under house arrest in early 60 A.D. Paul’s journey had stopped and people say be probably died in Rome. He became known for the Flourishing of Christianity, his letters, and everything he did that made a huge difference in the early world. Paul had preached his beliefs to gentile audiences. In the early churches is where Paul found his second great legacy. Paul was Saul’s Roman name, so he started to be known as that. Missionary, a person sent to do religious work in another place. Epistles, letters that became part of the New Testament. Chapter #10: Rome's Decline and Legacy Section #1: Rome and Christianity Essential Question: "Why did the Roman Empire fall and what is its legacy?" I. Analyze the relationship between Rome and the early Christian church. Rome felt it was rebellious when the Christians refused to worship their gods and they didn't like it when more Gentiles converted to Christianity. Rome felt threatened and became hostile. Some Roman emperors blamed Christians for political and economic troubles. Even though the Christians were being persecuted, imprisoned, and even killed by the Romans, more people converted to Christianity. Christianity grew more popular and powerful and its population was very diverse because the religion was there for everyone whether they were rich or poor, slaves or noblemen and offered them a personal relationship with God. Legacy- Something that has come from an ancestor or predecessor in the past. II. Describe the conversion of Constantine and his impact on the Christian church. Constantine became emperor of Rome in A.D. 306 and was still letting the bad stuff happen to the Christians until he started battling to be the leader of Rome and he prayed for help and saw a Christian cross above him with the words: "In this sign you will conquer." and he won the battle for leader. Constantine ended the persecution of Christians and in the Edict of Milan he made Christianity one of Rome's legal religions. He had many new churches built, put the Christian cross on coins and made Sunday a holy day of rest and worship and when he died, he became a Christian himself. III. Trace the early development of the Roman Catholic Church The Roman Catholic Church began with priests and deacons obeying the local church leaders, bishops. Later the bishop of Rome became the most important bishop known as the pope. The statement of beliefs that the church fathers wrote included the belief in the Trinity- Father, Son, and Holy Spirit and Augustine, a church father from North Africa taught about the grace of God that one needed to be saved. Religious rites were developed like Baptism and communities were formed to live the Christian ideal. The Christians went from a small group to a powerful, wealthy religion. Chapter 10: Rome’s Decline and Legacy Section 2: Decline and Fall of the Empire Essential Question: Why did the Roman Empire fall and what was its legacy? I. Summarize the weaknesses that emerged in the Roman Empire during the A.D. 200’s. Internal problems in the Roman economy weakened Rome Empire stopped expanding in the A.D. 100’s Rome’s army was becoming weak with constant fighting with nomadic people Government officials had trouble getting messages across the empire Nomadic – People who live by herding animals and moving constantly Mercenary - soldier for hire II. Describe Diocletian’s attempt to strengthen the empire by dividing it. Rapidly new emperors took control of the empire Emperor Diocletian split the empire into east and west with Maximilian ruling west and Diocletian ruling west Civil war between four commanders fought but the winner of the civil war was Constantine and he became emperor Diocletian – Roman emperor who restored order and divided Rome into east and west Constantine- Roman emperor who ruled after a civil war broke out and made Christianity a law III. Analyze Constantine’s ongoing efforts at reform in the roman empire. Germanics were barbaric to Roman people. Germans lived beyond the borders of Rome. Bullet Points (Notes) Barbarian – someone is uncivilized and primitive Plunder- to take something by force Clovis- founder of a Frankish kingdom in the former Roman province of Gaul. Chapter 10: Rome’s Decline and Legacy Section 3: The Byzantine Empire Essential Question: What were some of Justinian’s main accomplishments? Summarize the history of the Byzantine Empire The emperor of the Byzantine Empire was an absolute ruler. Absolute ruler had total power. Justinian (ruler) emperor expanded the Byzantine Empire. His wife, the express Theodora, was a power ruler, as well. Justinian began to rebuild Constantinople, which had been damage during the war. He also rebuilds the city walls, constructed schools, hospitals, law courts, and churches. Justinian code is uniform code of laws based on roman laws; it included laws on marriage, slavery, property, women rights, and criminal justice. Hagia Sophia is the most famous church. Its name means “Holy Wisdom.” Constantinople (city) once again became a glorious city. They spoke Greek, Byzantines thought of themselves as part of Roman cultural tradition. Byzantine students studied Latin, Greek, Roman literature and history. Germanic people blended Roman culture with their own. The Byzantine culture contained Greek elements The capital city, Constantinople, had been founded as the capital of Rome o Absolute Ruler- Ruler with all the power Describe how the Byzantine Empire preserved Roman culture Byzantine Empire continued for 1,000 years after the western empire fell. The emperor had all the power, known as absolute ruler. They struggled to keep invaders out; as a result much land was lost. Justinian was able to regain control over some of the land they lost, and expand the empire. His armies reconquered lost territories like Italy, Northern Africa, and Spain. Justinian began to rebuild Constantinople which was, damaged during a revolt. He rebuilt city walls, schools, hospitals, law courts, and churches. Hagia Sophia was the most famous church; its name meant “Holy Wisdom”. Justinian was best remembered for the legal code. He had a committee create a legal code based on Roman law. They got rid of outdated laws and made others more clearly. The new code was called the Justinian code. The code included marriage, slavery, property, women rights, and criminal justice laws. Even though they spoke Greek, the Byzantines considered themselves as Romans. Students studied Latin, Greek, Roman Literature, and history. That was how the east preserved Roman culture. In the west the preserved Roman culture by blending Roman culture with their own. But they lost much of their science/ philosophical knowledge of Greeks and Romans. While the Roman Empire was declining the emperor decided to divide the empire in ½ because he thought it would be easier to control. When the empire in the west collapsed in 476 many libraries and places of learning were destroyed the only part that survived was the eastern half or Rome. Describe the division of the Christian church into the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches The division of the empire also had its effects one Christianity. Different religious practices and limited contact between the two religions caused the east and the west’s differences. One of the major differences and problems was over authority of the empire and church maters. In the east the emperor had power over the church but in the west there was no emperor. As a result the pope began to assume responsibilities as the leader of the empire. The pope started to say he had the power over the east and west churches and that angered the byzantine emperors because they consider themselves the final decider. So the pope sent delegates to try to remove the head of power from the eastern churches. But the refused to and soon the two split. The east was called the Eastern Orthodox church meaning ‘holding established beliefs” and the west became the Roman Catholic Church. The pope claimed the authority over the Christian empire the kings and emperors saw this as a way to influence government and some of the churches and there surrounding lands. Soon then after churches splitting Justinian died (and Justinian was a man who was the emperor who expanded the Byzantine Empire and made the Justinian code witch was uniform code of the law based on Roman law), many riots, religious quarrels, battles over the crown, disease, threats, and attacks from all sides It was the oldest division is Christianity; Christianity is between the Roman Catholic Church, and Eastern Orthodox Church. The Eastern Orthodox shares a common faith common principles common organizations and common liturgical traditions. Chapter 10: Rome’s Decline and Legacy Section 4: The Legacy of Rome 1. Romans valued strength, loyalty, and practicality. 2. Romans engineers were great at finding ways to improve buildings. 3. They used Greek ideas and added their own ideas. 4. Roman architects built arches, vaults, and domes. 5. Vault: and arch that forms a ceiling or roof. 6. Roman culture was Greek Idealism and Roman practicality. 7. Mosaics were commonly found in Rome. 8. Mosaic: pictures made of small pieces of colored tiles, stone and glass on a flat surface 9. Romans were famous for their roads. 10.Roads allowed faster troop movement and better trade. 11.Gladiator games were held on religious Roman holidays. 12.Bas-Relief: sculpture in which slightly raised figures stand out against a flat surface. 13.476A.D. the Western Roman empire falls (pg. 58 Times of Rome) 14.After the Western Empire fell, Christianity was still a major religion. 15.The Romans refused Christianity at first, but later switched. 16.Roman laws promoted properties such as equal treatment under the law and presumptions of innocence for those accused of crimes. 17.The Romans used representative government that many modern countries use. 18.Judges and political leaders established laws that the Stoic ideas of duty and virtue. 19.Romans stressed fairness and common sense. 20.The Colosseum had about 20 entrances and could hold about 50,000 people.
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