ITGS Booklet by fanzhongqing

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 77

									          ITGS Programme


               Basic Concepts of

 Information Technology in Global Society




Prepared by:

                Zakaria Al-Rababa'h

                  2010 - 2011
CONTENTS


1      GETTING STARTED ...........................................................................................................................1
    1.1 NATURE OF THE SUBJECT .......................................................................................................................1
    1.2 AIMS .......................................................................................................................................................1
    1.3 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................1
2 SYLLABUS OUTLINE: ...........................................................................................................................2
    2.1 SECTION 1: SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES ................................................................................................2
       2.1.1 Reliability .......................................................................................................................................2
       2.1.2 Integrity ..........................................................................................................................................2
       2.1.3 Security ...........................................................................................................................................2
       2.1.4 Privacy and anonymity ...................................................................................................................3
       2.1.5 Authenticity .....................................................................................................................................3
       2.1.6 Intellectual property .......................................................................................................................3
       2.1.7 Equality of access ...........................................................................................................................3
       2.1.8 Control............................................................................................................................................3
       2.1.9 Globalization and cultural diversity ...............................................................................................3
       2.1.10 Policies and standards..................................................................................................................3
       2.1.11 People and machines ....................................................................................................................4
    2.2 SECTION 2: IT SYSTEMS IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT .......................................................................................4
    2.2.1 HARDWARE/SOFTWARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ........................................................................4
       2.2.1.1 Types of Computer .......................................................................................................................5
       2.2.1.2 Main Parts of a Personal Computer ............................................................................................9
    2.2.2 HARDWARE .......................................................................................................................................15
       2.2.2.1 Central Processing Unit ............................................................................................................15
       2.2.2.2 Input Devices .............................................................................................................................17
       2.2.2.3 Output Devices ..........................................................................................................................20
    2.2.3 STORAGE ...........................................................................................................................................25
       2.2.3.1 Memory Storage Devices ...........................................................................................................25
       2.2.3.2 Types of Memory .......................................................................................................................27
       2.2.3.3 Measuring Memory....................................................................................................................28
       2.2.3.4 Computer Performance .............................................................................................................29
    2.2.4 SOFTWARE.........................................................................................................................................31
       2.2.4.1 Types of Software.......................................................................................................................31
       2.2.4.2 Operating System Software ........................................................................................................32
       2.2.4.3 Applications Software ................................................................................................................32
       2.2.4.4 Systems Development.................................................................................................................34
    2.2.5 INFORMATION NETWORKS .................................................................................................................35
       2.2.5.1 LAN and WAN ...........................................................................................................................35
       2.2.5.2 The Telephone Network in Computing ......................................................................................36
       2.2.5.3 Electronic Mail ..........................................................................................................................37
       2.2.5.4 The Internet ...............................................................................................................................38
    2.2.6 COMPUTERS IN EVERYDAY LIFE ........................................................................................................41
       2.2.6.1 Computers in the Home .............................................................................................................41
       2.2.6.2 Computers at Work or in Education ..........................................................................................42
       2.2.6.3 Computers in Daily Life.............................................................................................................45
    2.2.7 IT AND SOCIETY ................................................................................................................................49
       2.2.7.1 A Changing World .....................................................................................................................49
       2.2.7.2 A Good Workspace ....................................................................................................................50
       2.2.7.3 Health and Safety.......................................................................................................................51
    2.2.8 SECURITY, COPYRIGHT AND THE LAW...............................................................................................53
      2.2.8.1 Security ......................................................................................................................................53
      2.2.8.2 Computer Viruses ......................................................................................................................56
      2.2.8.3 Copyright ...................................................................................................................................57
      2.2.8.4 Data Protection Act ...................................................................................................................58
   2.3 SECTION 3: AREAS OF IMPACT...............................................................................................................59
      2.3.1 Business and employment .............................................................................................................59
      2.3.2 Education ......................................................................................................................................59
      2.3.3 Health ...........................................................................................................................................59
      2.3.4 Arts, entertainment and leisure .....................................................................................................59
      2.3.5 Science and the environment ........................................................................................................60
      2.3.6 Politics and government ...............................................................................................................60
3 EXERCISES: ............................................................................................................................................61
3.1 GETTING STARTED ...........................................................................................................................61
3.2 HARDWARE .........................................................................................................................................62
3.3 STORAGE .............................................................................................................................................62
3.4 SOFTWARE ..........................................................................................................................................63
3.5 INFORMATION NETWORKS ...........................................................................................................64
3.6 COMPUTERS IN EVERYDAY LIFE ................................................................................................65
3.7 IT AND SOCIETY ................................................................................................................................65
3.8 SECURITY, COPYRIGHT AND THE LAW ....................................................................................66
4 PROJECT EXAMPLE.............................................................................................................................67
1       Getting Started
1.1 Nature of the Subject




1.2 Aims


    

    

    

    




1.3 Objectives




                            1
2 Syllabus Outline:



2.1 Section 1: social and ethical issues




2.1.1 Reliability




2.1.2 Integrity




2.1.3 Security
2.1.4 Privacy and anonymity




2.1.5 Authenticity




2.1.6 Intellectual property




2.1.7 Equality of access




2.1.8 Control




2.1.9 Globalization and cultural diversity




2.1.10 Policies and standards




                                    3
2.1.11 People and machines

   
   
   

   

   
   




2.2 Section 2: IT systems in a social context



2.2.1 Hardware/Software Information Technology


Hardware



Software
Information
Technology
(IT)




2.2.1.1 Types of Computer




What is a
mainframe
computer?




What is a
mini-
computer?




                            5
What is a
super-
computer?




What is the
difference
between a PC
and a Mac?
What is a
networked
computer?




What     are
laptop     &
palmtops
computers?




What is the
difference
between
intelligent
and      dumb
terminals?




                7
Computer
speed    and
capacity
issues
2.2.1.2 Main Parts of a Personal Computer




The    System
Unit




The System
(Mother)
Board




                                 9
The CPU




Memory
(RAM)




ROM-BIOS




Serial Port
Parallel Port




Universal
Serial    Bus
(USB)




The Monitor




The Keyboard




The Mouse




CD-ROM




                11
DVD Drives




Floppy disk




Zip Disc




Hard   (Fixed)
Disk




What is       a
peripheral
device?


Additional
items      or
cards
Sound cards
and speakers




Modems




Printers




Scanners




Recordable
CDs




               13
Tape backup




What     are
input
devices?

What     are
output
devices?

What      is
PCMCIA?
2.2.2 Hardware

2.2.2.1 Central Processing Unit




The      CPU
(Central
Processing
Unit)




                                  15
2.2.2.2 Input Devices
Know some of the main devices for inputting data into a computer such as mice,
keyboards, trackballs, scanners, touch pads, light pens, joysticks etc.

The Mouse




The Keyboard




Tracker Balls




Scanners




Touch Pads




                                      17
Light Pens




Joysticks




Voice   input
for PCs




Web Cams
Digital
Cameras




          19
2.2.2.3 Output Devices




The     VDU
(computer
monitor   or
screen)




Flat  screen
monitors




Screen size
What is VGA
Super   VGA
and XGA?




Graphics   for
games




Computer
presentation
projection
devices




                 21
Different
types        of
printer




Laser printers




Color    laser
printers




Inkjet printers
Dot      Matrix
printers




Printer
Memory




Cost of printer
peripherals




Plotters




                  23
Speakers




Speech
synthesizers
2.2.3 Storage

2.2.3.1 Memory Storage Devices



Internal hard
disks




External hard
disks




Zip drives




                                 25
Jaz drives




Diskettes
(floppy disks)




CD-ROM
Disks




DVD Drives




What is the
difference
between
internal and
external hard
disks?
2.2.3.2 Types of Memory



What       is
RAM?




What       is
ROM?



What is the
ROM-BIOS?




What is flash
BIOS?




The    ROM-
BIOS and the
Year    2000
bug

What is Video
(graphics)
memory?




                          27
2.2.3.3 Measuring Memory



Basic Units of
Data Storage




Bit




Byte

Kilobyte

Megabyte

Gigabyte

Files




Directories
(folders)
Records




2.2.3.4 Computer Performance



Computer
speed




                               29
2.2.4 Software

2.2.4.1 Types of Software



What is an
Operating
System?




What is an
Application
Program?




                            31
2.2.4.2 Operating System Software



What is      a
Graphical
User
Interface?

The                 
advantages          
of using a
GUI
                    

                    



2.2.4.3 Applications Software



Examples of      Microsoft Word http://www.microsoft.com/office/word/default.htm
word-
processing       Lotus Word Pro http://www.lotus.com/home.nsf/welcome/wordpro
applications
                 WordPerfect http://www.corel.com/Office2000


Examples of      Microsoft Excel http://www.microsoft.com/office/excel
spreadsheet
applications     Lotus 123 http://www.lotus.com/home.nsf/welcome/lotus123


Examples of      Microsoft Access http://www.microsoft.com/office/access
database
applications     Lotus Approach http://www.lotus.com/home.nsf/welcome/approach


Examples of      Sage software http://www.sage.com
payroll
applications
Examples of    Microsoft PowerPoint http://www.microsoft.com/office/powerpoint
presentation
applications   Lotus Freelance http://www.lotus.com/home.nsf/welcome/freelance


Examples of    Abode Photoshop http://www.adobe.com
desktop
publishing
applications

Examples of
multimedia
applications




Examples of    Microsoft FrontPage http://www.microsoft.com/frontpage
Web
authoring
applications




                                           33
2.2.4.4 Systems Development



What is a
systems
development
cycle?




              
              
              
              
2.2.5 Information Networks

2.2.5.1 LAN and WAN



What   is   a
LAN?




What is     a
WAN?

What       is
workgroup
computing?




                             35
2.2.5.2 The Telephone Network in Computing




PSDN



ISDN



Satellites


Fax




Telex


Modem




Digital  vs.
analogue




Baud rate
2.2.5.3 Electronic Mail




The Benefits
of E-mail




What        is
required    to
Use E-mail?




                          37
2.2.5.4 The Internet




What is the
Internet and
how     is it
useful?




Internet
Search
Engines
39
The cost of
email     vs.
conventional
mail
2.2.6 Computers in Everyday Life

2.2.6.1 Computers in the Home

Know some of the uses of the PC at home e.g. hobbies, household accounts, working from
home, projects and homework, using e-mail and the Internet.

Computers
and        the
opportunities
offered     by
their use




Computer
games




Home
working




                                         41
Home
Banking




Connecting
to the Web




2.2.6.2 Computers at Work or in Education




CBT
(Computer
Based
Training)


Automated
production
systems

Design
Systems


Types       of
systems used
in business


Stock Control
Accounts       /
Payroll


Voice Mail /
Fax




Email




Word
processing



Spreadsheets




Databases




Presentation




Graphics


Translation
programs




                   43
Where
computers
might       be
more
appropriate
than people




Where people
might       be
more
appropriate
than
computers
2.2.6.3 Computers in Daily Life



Types       of
systems used
in the home




Accounts




                                  45
Games




Educational




Working from
home (Tele-
working)




Internet




Bank 'hole in
the wall' cash
machines




On-line
banking
Smart       ID
cards




Doctors
surgeries




                 47
2.2.7 IT and Society

2.2.7.1 A Changing World



The Concept
of         the
“Information
Society”




Year     2000
issues

E-commerce




                           49
2.2.7.2 A Good Workspace




Good
working
practices
2.2.7.3 Health and Safety




Make     sure
that   cables
are     safely
secured




Make      sure
that    power
points are not
overloaded

Repetitive
Strain Injury
(RSI)




Glare   from
screens




Bad posture




                            51
2.2.8 Security, Copyright and the Law

2.2.8.1 Security




Why do you
need to back
up      your
computer?




Organizing
your
computer for
more efficient
backups

Complete vs.
incremental
backups




                                        53
Why        you
should     use
'off-site'
storage?




Beware       of
'open files'



Passwords




The
Importance of
shutting
down     your
computer




What    is   a
UPS?
Electrical
surge
protection




Things            
computers         
like              

Things       to   
avoid             
                  
                  
                  

                  

                  

                  


What to do if
the computer
breaks down




                      55
2.2.8.2 Computer Viruses



What     are
computer
viruses?




How        do
viruses infect
PCs?




How        to
prevent virus
damage
To make a
diskette read-
only

To password
protect your
computer




2.2.8.3 Copyright




Software
Copyright
Issues




What        is
freeware?




What       is
shareware?




What     about
software that
you find on
the Internet




                    57
What are site
licenses?




2.2.8.4 Data Protection Act



Data
Protection
and Privacy
Issues




Data
Protection
Legislation
2.3 Section 3: areas of impact




2.3.1 Business and employment
  

  

  
  
  
  




2.3.2 Education
  
  

  

  
  
  
  

2.3.3 Health
  
  
  

  
  
  

2.3.4 Arts, entertainment and leisure
  
  
  
  
  

                                        59
  

2.3.5 Science and the environment
  
  
  
  
  

2.3.6 Politics and government
  
  
  
  
  
  
Exercises:


1.1 Getting Started

1.1.1 Hardware/Software Information Technology

   Explain the terms “hardware” and “software”.



1.1.2 Types of Computer

   What is a mainframe computer?
   What is a mini-computer?
   What is the difference between a PC and a Mac?
   What is a networked computer?
   What is a laptop computer?
   What is the difference between intelligent and dumb terminals?
   Explain the role of the CPU type in the overall speed of a computer.
   Explain the role of the computer's clock speed in the overall speed of a computer.
   Explain the role of the amount of RAM in the overall speed of a computer.
   What unit is commonly used to measure the storage capacity of a hard disk?



1.1.3 Main Parts of a Personal Computer

   What is meant by the term "system unit"?
   What is meant by the term system (mother) board?
   What is meant by the term CPU (Central Processing Unit)?
   What is meant by the term RAM (Random Access Memory)?
   What is meant by the term ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory - Basic Input Output System)?
   What does the term serial port mean?
   What does the term parallel port mean?
   What is meant by the term USB (Universal Serial Bus)?
   What does the term monitor mean?
   Briefly compare and contrast floppy disks, hard disks, CD-ROMs and DVDs.
   What is meant by the term Zip disc?
   What does the term peripheral device mean?
   What is the function of a modem?
   What is the function of a printer?
   What is the function of a scanner?
   Explain how a recordable CD may be useful!
   What is the function of a tape backup unit?
   Explain the terms “Input Device” and “Output Device”.
   Where might you use PCMCIA compatible hardware devices?




                                                        61
1.2 Hardware

1.2.1 Central Processing Unit

   Explain the function of the CPU.
   What unit is used to measure the speed of the CPU?




1.2.2 Input Devices

   List types of input devices.




1.2.3 Output Devices

   List types of output devices.
   What is the term VDU short for?
   Explain some of the advantages of flat screen monitors.
   Is screen size normally measured horizontally or diagonally?
   What is VGA short for?
   Contrast VGA with XGA.
   What is a computer projection device and who might use such as device?
   List as many different types of printer as you can.
   Explain the term “printer consumerables”, and their significance in printer running costs.



1.3 Storage

1.3.1 Memory Storage Devices

 Please complete the following table comparing the speed, capacity and cost of a range of different data storage
  devices.

    Device                          Speed               Capacity              Cost
    Internal hard disk
    External hard disk
    Zip and Jaz drives
    Floppy disks (diskettes)
    CD-ROM drives
    DVD drives




1.3.2 Types of Memory
   What is RAM short for?
   What is ROM short for?
   What is RAM used for?
   What is ROM used for?
   What does ROM-BIOS stand for and what is it used for?
   What does the term “flash BIOS” mean and why can it be useful?




1.3.3 Measuring Memory

   What is a “bit”.
   How many bits are there in a byte?
   What does the word binary mean?
   How many bytes are there in 1 KB?
   How many bytes are there in 1 MB?
   How many bytes are there in 1 GB?
   Explain the terms computer files and computer records.




1.3.4 Computer Performance

   List items that affect the overall speed of a computer.



1.4 Software


1.4.1 Types of Software

   What is an Operating System?
   Give examples of different operating systems.
   What is an Application Program?




1.4.2 Operating System Software

   What is a Graphical User Interface?
   List advantages of using a GUI.




1.4.3 Applications Software

   List examples of word-processing applications.
   List examples of spreadsheet applications.
   List examples of database applications.
                                                          63
   List examples of payroll applications.
   List examples of presentation applications.
   List examples of desktop publishing applications.
   List examples of multimedia applications.
   List examples of Web authoring applications.




1.4.4 Systems Development

   What is a systems development cycle?



1.5 Information Networks


1.5.1 LAN and WAN

   What does the term LAN stand for?
   List some of the advantages of using a PC connected to a network.
   What does the term WAN stand for?
   Compare LANs and WANs?
   What is workgroup computing?




1.5.2 The Telephone Network in Computing

   Explain the term PSDN.
   Explain the term ISDN.
   Explain how satellite communications have impacted on the use of a PC.
   Explain the term Fax.
   Explain the term Telex.
   Explain the term Modem.
   Explain the difference between digital vs. analogue.
   Explain the term Baud rate.




1.5.3 Electronic Mail

   Explain some of the benefits of using e-mail.
   What is required to use e-mail?



1.5.4 The Internet

   What is the term WWW short for?
   What is the Internet and how is it useful?
   What is the difference between the Internet and the WWW?
   What is an Internet search engine?
   List examples of commonly used search engines.
   Compare and contrast the use of email vs. conventional mail.




1.6 Computers in Everyday Life

1.6.1 Computers in the Home

   Explain how computers within the home may be used in connection with pursuing a hobby.
   Explain how computers within the home may be used in connection with running the household accounts.
   Explain how computers within the home may be used in connection with working from home.
   Explain how computers within the home may be used to help children with their homework.




1.6.2 Computers at Work or in Education

   Explain the term CBT.
   Explain how automated production systems can increase productivity within industry.
   Explain how computerized design systems can increase producing within the creative design business.
   List types of computer based systems used in business to aid productivity.
   List areas where it would be better to use a computer than a person.


1.6.3 Computers in Daily Life

   List types of computer systems used within the home.
   List types of computer systems used in education.
   Explain ways in which the banks have exploited the use of the computer.
   Explain ways in which the supermarkets have exploited the use of the computer.
   Explain the terms “Smart ID cards”.




1.7 IT and Society

1.7.1 A Changing World

 Explain the concept of the “Information Society”.
 Explain the problems surrounding the “Year 2000 bug” that occurred at the start of this millennium.
 Explain the term “e-commerce”.

                                                        65
1.7.2 A Good Workspace

   List some good working practices with regard to the use of a computer.
   List some bad working practices with regard to the use of a computer.




1.7.3 Health and Safety

   List some of the precautions that you should take to ensure that your computer is safe to use, and does not
    infringe health and safety regulations.
   What is RSI?
   Why is it essential to use a properly designed chair when using a computer?




1.8 Security, Copyright and the Law

1.8.1 Security

   Why do you need to back up your computer?
   How might you organize your computer for more efficient backups?
   Compare complete vs. incremental backups.
   Why should you use 'off-site' storage for data that you have backed up?
   Why is it important to use passwords to protect your computer data?
   Describe the importance of properly shutting down your computer.
   What is a UPS?
   Why might electrical surge protection for your computer be a good idea?



1.8.2 Computer Viruses

   What are computer viruses?
   How do viruses infect PCs?
   How might you protect your PC against virus threats?
   How could you make a diskette read-only?




1.8.3 Copyright

   Describe some of the common software copyright issues connected with the use of a PC.
   What is freeware?
   What is shareware?



1.8.4 Data Protection Act

   List the main points of the Data Protection Act (or similar legislation within your country).




Project Example



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