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					      Contributions by                       Description
       Member States
 1 Algeria              Proposal for new and innovative sources of
                        financing to stimulate research and development
                        (R&D) in respect of diseases disproportionately
                        affecting developing countries
 2   Bangladesh,        Chagas Disease Prize Fund for the Development
     Bolivia, Barbados, of New Treatments, Diagnostics and Vaccines
     Suriname
     Bangladesh,        A Prize Fund to Support Innovation and Access for
     Bolivia, Barbados, Donor Supported Markets
 3   Suriname
 4   Bangladesh,        Proposal for WHO Discussions on a Biomedical
     Bolivia, Barbados, R&D Treaty
     Suriname
 5   Bangladesh,        Prize Fund for Development of Low-Cost Rapid
     Bolivia, Barbados, Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis
     Suriname
     Bolivia,           Prizes as a Reward Mechanism for New Cancer
     Bangladesh,        Treatments and Vaccines in Developing Countries
 6   Suriname
 7   Brazil             Innovative mechnism for R&D for developing
                        countries
                        Brazil’s Proposal
 8   Burkina Faso       Strengthening research and development for
                        disease control
     Costa Rica         Development of innovative sources of financing for
                        health research and technical development in
 9                      Costa Rica
10   Mexico             The Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public
                        Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property. Expert
                        Working Group on R&D Financing
                        Comments by the Ministry of Health

11 Monaco                Innovative funding sources to stimulate research
                         and development relevant to diseases that
                         disproportionately affect developing countries
     Nigeria             Proposal on innovative sources of funding to
                         stimulate research and development related to
                         diseases that disproportionately affect developing
12                       countries
13 Serbia                Broad Submission covering several areas
14 South Africa          New and Innovative sources of funding to stimulate
                         R&D
15 Syria                 Broad Submission covering several areas
                        Source (English)                          Source (original version if applicable)

http://www.who.int/phi/Algeria_En.pdf


                                                             http://www.who.int/phi/Algeria.pdf
http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surinam
e_ChagasPrize.pdf

http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surinam
e_DonorPrize.pdf

http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surinam
e_R_DTreaty.pdf

http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surinam
e_TBPrize.pdf

http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Bolivia_Suriname_Cancer
Prize.pdf

http://www.who.int/phi/Brazil.pdf


http://www.who.int/phi/BurkinaFasoeng.pdf
                                                             http://www.who.int/phi/BurkinaFaso.pdf
http://www.who.int/phi/CostaRica_En.pdf

                                                             http://www.who.int/phi/CostaRica.pdf
http://www.who.int/phi/Mexico_En.pdf



                                                             http://www.who.int/phi/Mexico.pdf
http://www.who.int/phi/Monaco_En.pdf

                                                             http://www.who.int/phi/Monaco.pdf
http://www.who.int/phi/Nigeria.pdf



http://www.who.int/phi/Serbia.PDF
http://www.who.int/phi/SouthAfrica.pdf

http://www.who.int/phi/Syria_En.doc                          http://www.who.int/phi/SyriaArabRepublic.pdf
  Contributions from                    Title
  other Stackholders

1 Sophie Bloemen -     Response to the Expert Working Group
  Health Action        on Alternative Financing
  International
  (HAI),
  Netherlands
2 Michelle Childs -    Submission to the Expert Working Group
  Médecins Sans        on Research and Development Financing
  Frontières, France   Médecins Sans Frontières - Campaign
                       for Access to Essential Medicines

3 Alicia Greenidge -   IFPMA Submission to the Public Hearing
  International        on Proposals for R&D Financing
  Federation of
  Pharmaceutical
  Manufacturers
  Association,
  Switzerland
4 Aidan Hollis -       The Health Impact Fund: Pay-for-
  University of        Performance
  Calgary, Canada,
  also on behalf of
  Thomas Pogge,
  Peter Singer, Carl
  Nathan, Amitava
  Banerjee, Paul
  Grootendorst, and
  Rudolf V. Van
  Puymbroeck

5 Caroline Joiner -   The U.S. Chamber of Commerce
  US Chamber of       Submission to the Expert Working Group
  Commerce, USA       on R&D financing,World Health
                      Organization
6 James Love -        Comments of Knowledge Ecology
  Knowledge           International (KEI) to the WHO public
  Ecology             hearing
  International,      for Proposals for new and innovative
  Switzerland         sources of funding to stimulate R&D
7 Warren Mitchell - Intergovernmental Working Group on
  AIDS Vaccine        Public Health, Innovation & Intellectual
  Advocacy            Property
  Coalition, USA
8 Itaru Nitta - Green Patent Insurance (Green Intellectual
  Intellectual        Property) Scheme:
  Property Project, A financial prescription for neglected
  Switzerland         diseases?
 9 Peter Singer and Commercializing African health
   Abdallah Daar -    research: building life science
   McLaughlin-        convergence platforms
   Rotman Centre
   for Global Health,
   University Health
   Network and
   University of
   Toronto, Canada
10 Rebecca Stevens - Making drugs accessible
   Novartis,          to poor populations: a
   Switzerland        funding model

11 Wayne D. Taylor -   History, Evidence and Reason:
   The Cameron         A review of proposals for and innovative
   Institute, Canada   sources of funding to stimulate R&D
12 Ellen 't Hoen -     The Medicines
   UNITAID,            Patent Pool initiative
   Switzerland
13 Charles W.          Concept note: Innovative Financing
   Wessner - US        Mechanism for Global Health Innovation
   National
   Academies of
   Science, USA
                                   Source


http://www.who.int/phi/HAI.pdf




http://www.who.int/phi/MSF.pdf




http://www.who.int/phi/IFPMA.pdf




http://www.who.int/phi/HIF.pdf




http://www.who.int/phi/USChamberofCommerce.pdf



http://www.who.int/phi/KEI.pdf




http://www.who.int/phi/AVAC.pdf



http://www.who.int/phi/GreenIP.pdf
http://www.who.int/phi/MRC.pdf




http://www.who.int/phi/Novartis.pdf



http://www.who.int/phi/CameronInstitute.pdf


http://www.who.int/phi/UNITAID.pdf


http://www.who.int/phi/SBIR.pdf
      Proposal Name                                       Description                                  Allocation      Source/ Related articles
                                                                                                         (A) vs
                                                                                                       Fundraisi
                                                                                                         ng (F)
1 "Affinity" credit cards   Voluntary consumer contribution on credit card transactions                    F        - Background document for
                                                                                                                    Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                                    "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                                    Finance" (85)
                                                                                                                    Brookings list (17)
                                                                                                                    Overview paper by Pedro
                                                                                                                    Conceicao (13)
                                                                                                                    Additional reading: 186
2 Accelerated approval Type of FDA approval that allows “accelerated approval” of a drug                   A        - Fast track, accelerated
                       or biologic product that provides a meaningful therapeutic benefit                           approval and priority review
                                                                                                                               ‐
                       over existing treatments. The rule allows developers to abbreviate                           (156)
                       clinical trials by using surrogate markers.                                                  - RESIST TB Research
                                                                                                                    Excellence to Stop TB
                                                                                                                    Resistance (158)
3 Advance Market            Legally binding fund to subsidize purchase of an as yet unavailable            A        - Originally proposed by
  Commitment (AMC)          vaccine at a price that includes a profit margin to allow product                       CGDEV (CIPIH submission)
                            developers to recoup their R&D costs. Product profile and price are                     (111)
                            pre-agreed.                                                                             - EWG submission by Third
                                                                                                                    World Network (86)
                                                                                                                    - Background document for
                                                                                                                    Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                                    "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                                    Finance" (85)
                                                                                                                    - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                                    report (45)
                                                                                                                    - Overview paper by Pedro
                                                                                                                    Conceicao (13)
                                                                                                                    - Widdus (98); Barder et al.
                                                                                                                    (99); BVGH (11); Farlow (102)
                                                                                                                    (all CIPIH submissions)
                                                                                                                    - Additional readings: 31, 97,
                                                                                                                    100


4 Airline solidarity        National solidarity tax levied by participating countries on the sale of       F        - EWG submission by
  contribution              airline tickets, the proceeds of which are allocated to support                         UNITAID (19)
                            UNITAID drug procurement. Levy does not currently cover R&D but                         - IFPMA (44)
                            proposal to expand its scope to do so.                                                  - Background document for
                                                                                                                    Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                                    "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                                    Finance" (85)
                                                                                                                    - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                                    report (45)
                                                                                                                    - Overview paper by Pedro
                                                                                                                    Conceicao (13)
                                                                                                                    - Additional readings: 7, 46,
                                                                                                                    210
5 Airline Ticket            Option to make a voluntary charitable contribution when buying an              F        - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
  Voluntary Solidarity      air ticket                                                                              report (45)
  Contribution (VSC)                                                                                                - Overview paper by Pedro
                                                                                                                    Conceicao (13)
                                                                                                                    - Additional readings: 206,
                                                                                                                    207, 208, 209
6 Anti-trust exemptions Allowing pharmaceutical companies to collaborate without                           A        - Grey literature
  for joint biopharma   breaching anti-trust legislation designed to prevent the formation of                       - Additional readings and EU,
  collaborations        monopolies harmful to competition.                                                          US guidelines: 214, 215, 216,
                                                                                                                    217
7 Biomedical R&D            Global system through which R&D would be directed towards public               A        - EWG submissions by Health
  Treaty                    health priorities. The treaty would set minimum obligations for each                    Action International (36),
                            country to finance R&D based on agreed-upon proportions of                              Knowledge Ecology
                            nations’ Gross Domestic Product. Countries could count all                              International (52);
                            qualifying R&D spending on local research and targeting local                           Bangladesh, Barbados,
                            health priorities. Those with little R&D could buy tradeable "credits"                  Bolivia, Suriname (121),
                            from others to reach their spending target. Product developers                          - Overview paper by Pedro
                            would be paid to carry out the research and resulting products                          Conceicao (13)
                            would be sold at generic prices immediately after regulatory                            - 236
                            approval.                                                                               - CPTech (107)
                                                                                                                    - Outterson (110)
                                                                                                                    - Additional readings: 25, 55,
                                                                                                                    114
 8 Brazil's CPMF          0.38% tax levied on Brazilian bank account transactions (e.g.                F   - Alvares de Azevedo (79,
   (Provisional           paying bills online; major withdrawals or deposits). Used to fund                218)
   Contribution on        Brazil's Healthcare and other social programmes. The tax was
   Financial              voted down in 2007.
   Transactions)
 9 BVGH business          Market assessments for developing world diseases providing an                F   - BVGH (11)
   cases                  analysis of the market opportunity and the potential return on                   - BVGH Business Cases
                          investment.                                                                      (150)
10 Cancer Prize Fund      Proposal that developing countries de-monopolize the entire sector           A   - EWG submission by Bolivia,
                          of medicines and vaccines for cancer, and permit free entry by                   Suriname, Bangladesh (124)
                          generic suppliers. In return for ending the monopoly, developing
                          country governments would offer to provide a domestic system of
                          rewards for developers of new medicines and vaccines for cancer
                          that is based on a fixed percentage of the national budget for
                          cancer treatments
11 Cap 2 Fund (C2F)       Proposes to introduce caps on the cumulative profits made by                 A   - EWG submission by
                          private industry during a patent's lifetime during which profits can be          Yekta/Tinnemann (193)
                          made under monopoly protection. Caps would need to be carefully
                          negotiated between the patent holder, the private industry and
                          governments. The introduction of caps is expected to lower the
                          prices for medicines and increase funds for existing or new R&D for
                          diseases that currently do not constitute a profitable market. The
                          model includes several scenarios which could be applied to
                          different product types (e.g. blockbuster, product with significant
                          impact on global disease burden, annually decreasing profit cap,
                          high demand product sold at a low price).

12 Certification of       Mirco, small and medium-sized enterprises developing ATMPs may               A   - Multiple internal papers
   quality/non clinical   submit quality and non-clinical data to the EMEA for certification               collated for research on
   data for advanced      independently of any application for marketing authorisation. The                African drug registration and
   therapy medicinal      aim is to facilitate the evaluation of any future application for clinical       drug certification. See report
   products (ATMP)        trials and MA based on same data.                                                for a shortlist of 37
                                                                                                           references:
                                                                                                           http://www.george.org.au/sha
                                                                                                           domx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.
                                                                                                           cfm?file_uuid=98CF139E-
                                                                                                           F47C-1124-A567-
                                                                                                           E8523C89A999&siteName=ii
                                                                                                           h
13 Chagas Disease Prize   A prize fund to support innovations for the treatment Chagas                 A   - EWG submission by
   Fund for the           disease, there would be several prizes, including making new                     Bangladesh, Barbados,
   Development of New     products and solving technical problems. Prizes would be awared                  Bolivia, Suriname to EWG (6)
   Treatments,            by a committee appointed by WHO or PAHO annually.
   Diagnostics and
   Vaccines
14 Clinical Trial         Streamlining clinical trials to reduce their cost and length OR to           A   - Multiple internal papers
   efficiencies           allow better comparison of trial outcomes e.g. using agreed                      collated for research on
                          endpoints; simplifying age de-escalation steps; coordinated ethical              African clinical trial capacity
                          approval for multi-centre trials                                                 and demand. See report for a
                                                                                                           shortlist of 22
                                                                                                           references:http://www.george.
                                                                                                           org.au/shadomx/apps/fms/fms
                                                                                                           download.cfm?file_uuid=1AB
                                                                                                           DE79C-DA73-20B3-D6E1-
                                                                                                           F7AF25011EC9&siteName=ii
                                                                                                           h

15 Cost sharing for       Proposal for government and pharmaceutical companies to share                F   - Brookings list (17)
   clinical trials        the cost of clinical trials e.g. govt matching industry contributions;           - Additional readings: 262 263
                          public conduct of trials in public hospitals and health centres                  264


                          changed NOW to be done on its own (it is a change to exclusivity
                          periods to allow generics acces)

16 Currency Transaction Proposed 0.005% nationally implemented solidarity levy on all                  F   - Background document for
   Development Levy     currency transactions undertaken in all foreign exchange markets                   Taskforce on IHFS
   (CTDL)               and applied to all foreign exchange instruments, in order to finance               "Landscape of Innovative
                        development in low-income countries.                                               Finance" (85)
                                                                                                           - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                           report (45)
                                                                                                           - North South Institute (63)
                                                                                                           - Additional readings: 132,
                                                                                                           142
17 Debt2Health              Government creditors forgo repayment of a portion of their loan to a      F   - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                            developing country on the condition that the recipient country                report (45)
                            invests an agreed-upon counterpart amount in health. Has been                 - Overview paper by Pedro
                            implemented through investments of freed-up funding in health                 Conceicao (13)
                            systems programmes approved by the GFATM. This instrument                     - Filipp (26)
                            could be partly diverted to R&D.                                              - Additional readings: 197,
                                                                                                          198, 199, 200, 203, 205
18 De-Tax              Earmark a share of VAT revenue for the development of health                   F   - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                       systems. Governments would waive 1% or more of VAT rates on                        report (45)
                       goods and services sold by businesses associated with the                          - Additional readings: 187,
                       initiative, based on consumer choice. Businesses would on a                        188
                       voluntary basis waive a share of their profit on associated
                       transactions if they wish to co-finance development projects.
19 Developed/Reference Engage the major R&D country regulatory agencies ie FDA, EMEA,                 A   - Multiple internal papers
   Country Regulatory  PMDA to better align thoughts, processes and requirements in                       collated for research on
   Alignment           relation to supporting fast and effective development and regulatory               African drug registration and
                       activities for the developing world neglected diseases. The prime                  drug certification. See report
                       objectives would be to help to reduce regulatory hurdles, improve                  for a shortlist of 37
                       transparency, save costs, agree and develop best practices (ie from                references:
                       US voucher system and EMEA Article 58) with the vision of having                   http://www.george.org.au/sha
                       new medicines for the treatment of neglected diseases brought to                   domx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.
                       patients in the most rapid and effective manner. The ICH Global                    cfm?file_uuid=98CF139E-
                       Cooperation Group (GCG) could be the most appropriate forum to                     F47C-1124-A567-
                       undertake initial discussions as this has good representation also                 E8523C89A999&siteName=ii
                       from the developing world.                                                         h

20 Developing Country       Regulatory agencies in developing countries enter in to early             A   - Multiple internal papers
   Regulatory               dialogue and partnership with product license applicant, or their             collated for research on
   Effectiveness            nominee, to agree process and actions in order to expedite a rapid            African drug registration and
                            and efficient development and approval of the product. Regulatory             drug certification. See report
                            agencies conduct fast track clinical trial (where appropriate) and            for a shortlist of 37
                            product application reviews. Neglected disease product                        references:
                            applications should take a priority review, jumping to the front of any       http://www.george.org.au/sha
                            review backlog. Regulatory agencies confirm to waive non-ICH                  domx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.
                            technical requirements, where these exist. Regulatory agencies                cfm?file_uuid=98CF139E-
                            agree to undertake any technical review of the product application            F47C-1124-A567-
                            prior to the CPP being available so that the product can be                   E8523C89A999&siteName=ii
                            approved immediately upon receipt of the CPP.                                 h

21 Diaspora Bonds           Bonds issued by a country to its own diaspora to tap into their           F   - Background document for
                            assets in the adopted developed countries                                     Taskforce on IHFS
                            Examples: State of Israel bonds, RIBs and IMDs from India, also               "Landscape of Innovative
                            bonds issued by Lebanon and Sri Lanka                                         Finance" (85)
                                                                                                          - Additional readings: 129
                                                                                                          (paper and power point)
22 Digital tax, "bit" tax   Proposal to charge internet users a tax based on the quantity of          F   - Background document for
                            data downloaded, number of e-mails sent, etc. Originally proposed             Taskforce on IHFS
                            to fund internet access in developing countries and bridge the digital        "Landscape of Innovative
                            divide.                                                                       Finance" (85)
23 Diversion of money       Reappropriation of money recovered from drug dealers or                   F   - EWG submission by Nigeria
   recovered from drug      corruption cases and use for funding ND R&D.                                  (60)
   dealers or corruption
   cases
24 Donor clubs for          Midsize philanthropists to share information and potentially pool         F   - Brookings list (17)
   midsize                  funding; since many will not have the capacity to conduct conduct             - Additional readings: 139
   philanthropists          due diligence/ solo investments themselves.
25 Double bottom line       Investment strategies that seek to maximise both financial return         F   - Brookings list (17)
   investing                and social good.
26 EC Innovative            The objective of IMI is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of    A   - European Commission (21)
   Medicines Initiative     the drug development process with the long-term goal of producing             - Additional readings: 178,
   (IMI)                    more effective and safer innovative medicines. IMI supports pre-              179, 180, 232, 233
                            competitive collaborative research to address bottlenecks in drug
                            discovery and development. This research is undertaken by
                            industry-academia consortia, also including patient groups,
                            regulators, hospitals, SMEs etc as appropriate. A large portion of
                            the research to be performed will be devoted to the discovery and
                            validation of biomarkers.
27 Electronic billing       Customers donate a proportion of their electronic bills or percentage     F   - Brookings list (17)
   based fundraising        of their sale from eBay/other online auction services to a charitable         - Additional readings: 212,
                            cause.                                                                        213
28 Endowments             Transfer of money to an institution with the stipulation that it be    F   - Background document for
                          invested in R&D                                                            Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                     "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                     Finance" (85)
                                                                                                     - Brookings list (17)
29 ETF (Exchange        Asks individual hedge fund managers to split their fees with the         F   - IAVI (42)
   traded funds) by the Global Fund, I.e. fund managers would create specific funds in               - Anderson (3)
   Global Fund          which their customers would invest in the knowledge that part of the
                        fee for managing these funds goes to the Global Fund (same
                        business model as Red products, but adapted to the finance
                        sector).
30 EU Emissions Trading Selling or auctioning EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowances,            F   - Background document for
   Scheme (ETS)         rather than giving for free, and directing the proceeds to health.           Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                     "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                     Finance" (85)
                                                                                                     - Additional readings: 144,
                                                                                                     145, 146
31 European Union MDG Longer term, more predictable form of general budget support that          F   - Background document for
   contract           the EC expects to launch in a number of countries at the start of              Taskforce on IHFS
                      EDF 10. Key features: 6 year commitment of funds for the full 6                "Landscape of Innovative
                      years of EDF 10; base component of at least 70% of the total                   Finance" (85)
                      commitment; variable performance component of up to 30%,                       - Additional readings: 137,
                                                                                                     141, 177
32 Excess crude oil       Nigerian national account into which all revenues from crude oil       F   - EWG submission by Nigeria
   account                above the budgetary benchmark price set for a given year by the            (60)
                          national assembly are paid.
33 Excise duty on         Part of revenue from tax levied on the production/sale of tobacco      F   - EWG submissions by Serbia
   tobacco and alcohol    and alcohol to be used to fund R&D                                         (71) and South Africa (73)
   consumption                                                                                       - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                     report (45)
                                                                                                     - Overview paper by Pedro
                                                                                                     Conceicao (13)

34 Fast-track option      Fee paid by pharmaceutical company via auction mechanism to            F   - Moran (CIPIH submission)
   (FTO)                  purchase the right to fast-track regulatory review of a drug               (28)
                          candidate of its choice                                                    - Impact Report Volume 5,
                                                                                                     Number 6, FDA’s Fast Track
                                                                                                     Initiative Cut Total Drug
                                                                                                     Development Time by 3
                                                                                                     Years,
                                                                                                     November/December 2003,
                                                                                                     Tufts Center for the Study of
                                                                                                     Drug Development (28b)
                                                                                                     - Impact Report Volume 10,
                                                                                                     Number 5, Fast track
                                                                                                     designations more than
                                                                                                     doubled suring the last 5
                                                                                                     years (28c)
35 Fast-track review      An intensive regulatory approval route offered by the FDA for          A   - Fast track, accelerated
                          specific products. Offers early and frequent interaction with the          approval and priority review
                          FDA to improve trial design; avoid wasted trials; review ongoing           (156)
                          results - a 2009 study by the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug
                          Development found that fast-track designated products had longer
                          clinical development times and higher failure rates (for the FT
                          indication) than standard indications, although overal clinical +
                          approval times were reduced by 4 months.
36 Redesigned 'AMC'       Improvements to the current AMC mechanism to increase its              A   - EWG submission by Health
   model                  potential to restructure the current R&D system, including milestone       Action International (HAI) (36)
                          payments in the form of prizes, coordination with push funding,
                          required licensing/sharing of IP, patent buyouts, cooperative
                          payback with push funders, higher technical requirements for follow
                          on vaccines, bonuses for vaccines that are easier to administer or
                          store, helping developers to fund late stage trials

37 Fund for R&D in        Funds discovery and development of drugs for neglected diseases        A   - EWG submission by Paul
   Neglected Diseases     by all sectors including industry, public research institutes and          Herrling (Novartis) (37)
   (FRIND)                product development partnerships (PDPs). Funding is project                - Additional reading: 231
                          based, full portfolio management.
38 Funding from new       Funding from wealthy countries that currently provide limited          F   - Internal papers. See also
   donor countries        funding to R&D for the developing world                                    Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                     report (45)
39 Global Development        Bonds to raise funds for financing sustainable development needs         F   - Background document for
   Bonds                     of emerging markets; Include investment incentives such as tax               Taskforce on IHFS
                             credit on investment, political risk guarantee, and potentially              "Landscape of Innovative
                             matching government investment at zero or low percent interest.              Finance" (85)
                                                                                                          - Brookings list (17)
40 Global Premium            Share of the interest from savings bonds is paid into a lottery and      F   - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
   Bonds                     goes to the winners of that lottery whereas the remaining proceeds           report (45)
                             are directed towards development.                                            - Additional readings: 195,
                                                                                                          196
41 Government-owned          Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) is a facility that           A   - Brookings list (17)
   Contractor operated       is owned by the government and operated in whole or part by
   (GoCo) facilities         private contractor(s). Private contractors implement smaller portions
                             of the project. The US Department of Energy, for example, has
                             always been managed by other organizations, from the industrial,
                             academic or nonprofit sectors. One of the advantages of a GOCO
                             model is that private businesses have less bureaucratic restrictions
                             than they would as Management and Operating (M&O) contractors.

42 GSK patent pool           Voluntary contribution of patents for nascent technologies to            A   - EWG submission by IFPMA
                             develop new treatments for neglected tropical diseases                       (44),
                                                                                                          - Additional readings: (77),
                                                                                                          (81), (219),( 220), (221)
43 Guarantees by public, Provision of guarantees by governments for loans taken out to fund           F   - Brookings list (17)
   bilaterals or IFIs     R&D for neglected diseases.
   Donor first loss funds

44 Hatch-Waxman              Also known as The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term                 A   - Internal paper
   exclusivities             Restoration Act of 1984, was designed to promote generics while
                             leaving in tact a financial incentive for research and development.
                             Allows generics to win FDA marketing approval by submitting
                             bioequivelence studies (as opposed to clinical data). Also grants a
                             period of additional marketing exclusivity to make up for the time a
                             patented pipeline drug remains in development. This extension
                             cannot exceed five years, and it is in addition to the 20 years
                             exclusivity granted by the issuance of a patent. Another provision of
                             the Hatch-Waxman grants a 30-month stay to drug companies that
                             file suit against generic manufactures that challenge their patents.

45 Health Impact Fund       Offers firms a share of a fixed fund for ten years in proportion to the   A   - EWG submission by
   (HIF)                    health impact of their product compared to all products in the                Thomas Pogge et al. (68)
                            relevant treatment area. In exchange, the firm would give up the              - Hollis (108)
                            opportunity to earn profits on sales of its registered drug and would         - Pogge/Hollis (135)
                            offer a royalty-free open license for generic versions of the product         - Overview paper by Pedro
                            following the reward period. Firms could choose whether to register           Conceicao (13)
                            any particular product for health impact rewards or to exploit their
                            monopoly pricing privilege in the usual way.
46   IAVI Innovation Fund The fund aims to encourage experimentation on pioneering ideas              A   - IAVI (41)
                            and targets early-stage technologies for an AIDS vaccine for which            plus: 266
                            proof of concept may not yet have been established. Technical and
                            scientific resources from IAVI, that may be needed to supplement
                            grantees’projects, can also be provided, along with additional
                            funding and product development for successful projects. The fund
                            is targeted primarily to small- and medium-sized biotech
                            companies.
47   IMF gold sales         The G-20 summit in April 2009 proposed limited gold sales to raise        F   - Brookings list (17)
                            funds for financing for development
48   Income tax donation Specifically for 'high earners in impacted developing countries to           F   - Internal Papers
                            donate a portion of their income tax
49   Incubator for          Creation of business incubators specifically designed for companies       A   - Brookings list (17)
     companies focused      focusing on neglected diseases. This would accelerate the
     on neglected diseases successful development of companies through an array of
                            business support resources and services and increase the
                            likelihood that a start-up company will stay in business for the long
                            term.
50   Industry R&D           Pooled funding aiming to finance industry participation in PDP R&D        A   - Moran (CIPIH submission)
     Faciliation Fund       for neglected diseases; no portfolio management                               (28)
     (IRFF)                                                                                               - Moran (29)
51   Information sharing re Sharing information on R&D portfolios between companies working           A   - Grey literature
     R&D portfolios         on similar diseases.
52   Initiatives to reduce  Initiatives to reduce tax evasions and tax havens, and appropriation      F   - Brookings list (17)
     tax evasions and tax of proceeds for R&D
     havens
53 InnoCentive              Online marketplace where organizations in need of innovation            A   - Overview paper by Pedro
                            (companies, academic institutions, public sector, and not-for-profit)       Conceicao (13)
                            post challenges along with an appropriate award. The award is paid          - Innocentive (48)
                            to the solver who best meets the solution requirements.

54 Innovation promotion     Programmes such as those run by US Defense Advanced                     A   - Results 4 Development/
   funds                    Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that fund short-term                       analysis for the Brookings
                            collaborations of industry, academic and DARPA staff to solve               report
                            specific scientific or technical problems                                   - The Brookings list (17)


55 International Finance    Extension of the current IFF for vaccine purchase to an IFF to          F   - Background document for
   Facility for neglected   finance R&D. Under an IFF, bonds under-written by governments               Taskforce on IHFS
   diseases (IFFnd)         are issued in international capital markets, converting long-term           "Landscape of Innovative
                            government aid pledges into immediate cash                                  Finance" (85)
                                                                                                        - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                        report (45)
56 Internet - advertisingSites 'donate' space for advertising and proceeds are donated to           F   - Internal paper
                         charitable cause
57 KEI Prize (Innovation Large prize funds to give rewards to multiple applications. In the         A   - EWG submission by
   Inducement Prize with health R&D area, awards from a prize fund of a fixed size would be             Knowledge Ecology
   Proportional Reward divided among competitors in part on the basis of the impact of                  International to EWG (52)
   System)               innovations on the improvements in health outcomes.
                         Examples: 2005 and 2007 proposals in the US Congress for a
                         Medical Innovation Prize Fund
58 Life Science          Brings together science, business and capital to integrate diverse         A   - EWG submission by Peter
   Convergence           expertise and interests and facilitate partnerships, provide training          Singer (72)
   Platforms             and offer entrepreneurial support and awareness, provide a focal               - Additional readings, Masum
                         point for the attraction of risk capital. Proposal to establish such           (148)
                         platforms in Africa.
59 Lottery/games of      Using revenue from lottery to fund R&D for neglected diseases.             F   - EWG submission by Serbia
   chance                                                                                               (71)
                                                                                                        - Background document for
                                                                                                        Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                        "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                        Finance" (85)
                                                                                                        - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                        report (45)
60 Minimum Volume           A procurement mechanism that provides a quantity guarantee to           A   - Background document for
   Guarantee                manufacturers in exchange for improved pricing and delivery terms.          Taskforce on IHFS
   (MVG)/Access             By aggregating demand across donor-funded and developing                    "Landscape of Innovative
   Reproductive Health      country government procurers and providing an upfront commitment            Finance" (85)
                            to suppliers, the MVG is able to access improved pricing, delivery          - Additional reading:
                            terms, and provide quality assurances to a broad set of customers.          154,155,157, 169, 45

61 Mobile Phone             Individuals and corporations can make voluntary donations via their     F   - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
   Voluntary Solidarity     monthly mobile phone bill.                                                  report (45)
   Contribution
62 More funding from        More funding from existing donors (e.g. US)                             F   - Background document for
   existing donors (e.g.                                                                                Taskforce on IHFS
   US)                                                                                                  "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                        Finance" (85)
63 More funding from     More funding from State and Local govts                                    F   - EWG submission by Nigeria
   State and Local govts                                                                                (60)

64 National Health          Use of income from National Health Insurance contributions to raise     F   - EWG submission by Nigeria
   insurance scheme to      funds for R&D for neglected diseases.                                       (60)
   raise funds for R&D
65 ND R&D tax breaks        Providing tax breaks to companies for their neglected disease R&D       A   - HM Revenue & Customs
                            investment e.g. UK Vaccine Research Relief                                  (38)
                                                                                                        - Yuthavong submission (125)

66 Neglected Disease        Creating a fund dedicated solely to commercializing Canadian            A   - Wallace 2007 (190)
   Innovation Fund          innovation that has the potential to impact global health. The fund
                            should have resources of approximately US$100 million over 5
                            years.
67 New Global Fund for     Creation of a "Global Fund for R&D" financed by government               A   - Third World Network (86)
   R&D                     contributions, revenue from a mix of levies including a currency             - Oxfam (123)
                           transaction fee, visa fees, etc. The Fund is supported by a global
                           architecture for R&D, which would be headed by a Public Health
                           Council responsible for setting research priorities. The scope of this
                           framework would include Type I, II and III diseases and stresses
                           capacity-building in developing countries.


68 North-South             Collaborations between companies and research institutes in              A   - Nirmal Ganguly (Indian
   collaborations          industrialised and developing countries for R&D for neglected                Open Source Drug Discovery
                           diseases.                                                                    Initiative, OSDD) (118)
69 Open source             Use of open source databases to share research results to                A   - Internal papers
   databases               stimulate R&D
70 Orphan drug             Incentive package aiming to encourage R&D into rare diseases.            A   - Overview paper by Pedro
   legislation             Includes research grants, accelerated regulatory pathway and                 Conceicao (13)
                           market exclusivity for finished product for 7 years (US) or 10 years         - Third World Network
                           (EU).                                                                        submission (86)
                                                                                                        - Grabowski (33)
                                                                                                        - US Orphan Drug Act and the
                                                                                                        price of Oxandrolone (176)

71 Patent fees ("Green     Fee on patent application to finance trust fund that would provide       F   - EWG submission by Itaru
   IP")                    funding for compensation of technology transfer, subsidies for               Nitta (Green Intellectual
                           purchasing drugs in LDCs, and other incentives (medical grants,              Property Project) (61)
                           prizes, AMCs, etc.)                                                          - Additional readings: 143,
                                                                                                        222, 223
72 Pediatric exclusivity   Offers drug sponsors six months of additional market exclusivity if      A   - Internal papers collated for
   act                     those sponsors conduct pediatric studies on new drugs or currently           research into Orphan Drug
                           marketed drugs still under some exclusivity provision.                       legislation (unpublished)
73 Paediatric medicines    To encourage research, development and authorisation of                      - Submitted by the EMEA in
   legislation             medicines for use in children, a system of obligations, incentives           the second public hearing
                           and rewards has been put in place in the EU.                                 see:
                                                                                                        http://www.who.int/phi/public_
                                                                                                        hearings/second/contributions
                                                                                                        /shpublichearing_rdf09/en/ind
                                                                                                        ex.html
74 Priority review         Priority Review reduces the time taken by the FDA to conduct             A   - Additional readings: FDA
                           regulatory review a product application (e.g. by moving the product          guidance (181), DNDi report
                           up the review list). The goal for completing a Priority Review is six
                           months.
75 Priority Review         Offers FDA priority regulatory review on a commercial product in         A   - Overview paper by Pedro
   Voucher (PRV)           return for registration of a ND product                                      Conceicao (13)
                                                                                                        - Third World Network
                                                                                                        submission (86)
                                                                                                        - Grabowski (34)
                                                                                                        - Additional readings: 153,
                                                                                                        170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175
76 Priority Medicines and Prize fund set up to address the need to stimulate R&D in areas of        A   - Submission to IGWG by
   Vaccines Prize Fund medical priority. It rewards both finished products (80% of annual               Barbados and Bolivia in April
   (PMV/pf)               budget) and earlier stages of product development (20% of annual              2008 (194)
                          budget; e.g. smaller technical challenges, completion of
                          benchmarks) for type II and type III diseases as well as new
                          antibiotics and emerging public health threats. A licensing pool
                          would also be established for the winning products.
77 Private Giving         Raising funds from individuals, corporations, major foundations, and      F   - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
   Campaign               religious charitable groups.                                                  report (45)
78 Prize Fund to Support Donors to humanitarian projects would be asked to set aside 10             A   - EWG submission by
   Innovation and         percent of all drug purchase budgets to reward developers who                 Bangladesh, Barbados,
   Access for Donor       license innovations to qualified patent pools. This money would be            Bolivia, Suriname (120)
   Supported Markets      placed in a Licensed Products Prize Fund

79 Economic Prize          Providing incentives for companies or researchers to get involved in     A   - EWG submissions (various)
   Systems                 neglected disease R&D by offering prizes for the solution of specific        - Overview paper by Pedro
                           challenges.                                                                  Conceicao (13)
                                                                                                        - Schwartz paper (CIPIH
                                                                                                        submission) (94)
                                                                                                        - Additional readings: 44, 77

80 Product Development Proposes raising funds for HIV, TB and malaria vaccine Product               A   - Brookings list (17)
   Partnership Financing Development Partnerships through sale of bonds in international                - IAVI (40)
   Facility (PDPFF)      capital markets. Bonds would be repaid from vaccine royalties                  - Additional reading: 62
                         generated in high and middle-income countries, with preferential
                         borrowing rates secured through government underwriting
81 Product Development PDPs are public-health-oriented, not-for-profit organisations that              A   - EWG submissions by
   Partnerships        drive product development for neglected diseases in conjunction                     IFPMA (44), Serbia (71) and
                       with external partners. They develop products that are specifically                 Mexico (57)
                       suitable for use in developing countries using private sector
                       management practices, including portfolio management and
                       industrial project management in their R&D activities. PDP
                       investment and expertise reduce costs and risks for their R&D
                       partners. Noramlly include IP provisions to secure lower-priced
                       product for developing countries (e.g. market segmentation)

82 Promise' of services    Pharmaceutical companies, CROs, manufacturers, distributors,                A   - Grey literature
                           advertising agencies, etc provide service/resources free of charge,
                           or at a discoutn, when required. For example, opening libraries of
                           compounds for screening. Concept could be extended to include
                           other service providers such as marketeers. Management
                           consultants to help 'sell' the concepts to all stakeholders.

83                         Proposal to create a fund that finances discovery and development           A   - EWG submission by
     R&D Neglected         of compounds for NDs. Funding is institution- (e.g. PDP) or project-            IFPMA/Dalberg (16)
     Diseases Fund         based and involves partial portfolio management.

84 Red                     Franchise sold to consumer groups who design specific "Red"                 F   - Brookings list (17)
                           products; 40% of the profit from the sale of these products is given            - Background document for
                           to the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria                                     Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                           "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                           Finance" (85)
                                                                                                           - Additional readings: 204,
                                                                                                           211
85 Regional Health R&D Establishment of regional coordination offices to coordinate R&D for            A   - EWG submission from
   coordination offices neglected diseases in order to avoid duplication of efforts.                       South Africa (73)
86 Research grants      Direct public funding of research e.g. in universities, research               A   - EWG submission from
                        institutes                                                                         Mexico (57) and
                                                                                                           - General internal papers
87 Revolving fund to    The initial investment is reimbursed out of resources generated by             F   - EWG submission by Costa
   finance R&D for NTDs the projects that were financed, to ensure sustainability                          Rica (15)

88 Risk pooling            Risk-mitigation strategy to foster private investment                       F   - Brookings list (17)
   mechanisms /
   portfolio investment
   vehicle for neglected
   diseases
89 Scientific risk         Risk-mitigation strategy to foster private investment                       F   - Brookings list (17)
   insurance
90 Seeding Drug            This is a Wellcome Trust initiative that runs over five years and has       A   - Welcome Trust webpage at:
   Discovery               £91 million in funding. The initiative is designed to provide Strategic         http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/
                           Translation Award funding for applicants with innovative
                           therapeutically relevant biology or chemistry so that they may
                           embark on drug-like compound discovery and/or lead optimisation
                           involving the disciplines of disease biology, medicinal chemistry and
                           pharmacology. The goal is for funded projects to progress to a
                           stage whereby there is sufficient evidence to make the project
                           results, intellectual property and outcomes attractive to follow-on
                           developers/investors who may be from the commercial or not-for-
                           profit sectors. To achieve this it is expected that typical projects will
                           deliver patentable, drug-like lead candidates, with optimised and
                           favourable pharmacological, physicochemical, toxicological and
                           metabolic characteristics.

91 Shared compound         Providing access to libraries of drug compounds held by companies           A   - Grey literature
   libraries               or research institutes.
92 Small Business          A US federal program that grants R&D funds to small businesses.             A   - EWG submission by Charles
   Innovation Research     By law all public procurement agencies with extramural research                 Wessner (US National
   (SBIR)                  budgets in excess of $100 million must spend 2.5% of these                      Academy of Science) (83)
                           budgets on contracts or grants to small businesses. Proposal to use
                           SBIR to incentivise donor investment in small companies in IDCs
                           and industrialized countries to stimulate innovation that addresses
                           local and global health challenges.

93 Small Business          UK version of SBIR, competitive procurement of research contracts           A   - Technology Strategy Board
   Research Initiative     with SMEs                                                                       (78)
   (SBRI)                                                                                                  - Nirmal Ganguly (Indian
                                                                                                           Small Business Innovation
                                                                                                           Research Initiative (SBIRI)
                                                                                                           (118)
 94 SME Initiative          The EMEA provides incentives to help micro, small and medium-             A   - Submitted by the EMEA in
                            sized enterprises (SMEs) overcome the financial and administrative            the second public hearing
                            hurdles associated with pre-marketing authorisation procedures,               see:
                            particularly scientific advice, marketing authorisation application and       http://www.who.int/phi/public_
                            inspection procedures.                                                        hearings/second/contributions
                                                                                                          /shpublichearing_rdf09/en/ind
                                                                                                          ex.html
 95 Sovereign Wealth        Use of income from Sovereign Wealth funds (state owned                    F   - Background document for
    Funds                   investment funds composed of financial assets such as stocks,                 Taskforce on IHFS
                            bonds, property, precious metals and other financial instruments.             "Landscape of Innovative
                            Sovereign wealth funds invest globally)                                       Finance" (85)
                                                                                                          - Additional readings: 182,
                                                                                                          183, 184, 185
 96 Synaptic Leap           Open source online research community focussing on tropical               A   - Everts (23)
                            diseases                                                                      -Additional readings: 224,
                                                                                                          225, 226, 227, 228
 97 Tax on arms trade       Tax on international arms trade to raise funds for R&D.                   F   - Brookings list (17)
                                                                                                          - Background document for
                                                                                                          Taskforce on IHFS
                                                                                                          "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                          Finance" (85)
                                                                                                          - Additional readings: 160,
                                                                                                          161 ,162
 98 Tax on polluters and    This includes taxation of enterprises responsible for noise pollution,    F   - EWG submission by Burkina
    other "bad"             beauty products that are harmful to health, public transport                  Faso (10)
    businesses (Carbon
    tax)
 99 Taxation of company     Taxation of profits made by companies active in various sectors           F   - EWG submission by Nigeria
    profits                 (e.g. telecommunications, banks) and use of revenue to fund R&D.              (60)
    (telecommunications,
    banks)
100 Taxation of             Taxation of pharmaceutical industry profits to create a fund for R&D      F   - EWG submissions by Brazil
    pharmaceutical          for NTDs. Eligible recipients include the pharmaceutical industry             (8) and South Africa (73)
    industry profits        working in partnership with public or private sector laboratories in
                            developing countries
101 TB Diagnostic Prize     $100 million “TB Diagnostic Grand Prize” would be awarded once            A   - EWG submission by
    Fund                    an entrant provided a diagnostic test that satisfies medical and              Bangladesh, Barbados,
                            technical criteria defined by the prize committee. Some proposals             Bolivia, Suriname (122)
                            include intermediate prizes to reward solutions to key technical              - EWG submission by MSF
                            challenges as well as mechanims to ensure that the prize winner               (59)
                            license all patents and know-how to a licensing pool

102 Technology transfer     Agreements designed to strengthen the incentive for initial R&D           A   - EWG submission by Mexico
    agreements between      through licensing of technology (eg patents or software) between              (57)
    countries               countries, eg Article 81 of the EC Treaty.                                    - Grey literature
103 Tobin tax               1% tax on currency trades across borders, named after the                 F   - Background document for
                            economist James Tobin. Original purpose was to stabilize currency             Taskforce on IHFS
                            markets by putting a penalty on short-term currency speculation               "Landscape of Innovative
                                                                                                          Finance" (85)
                                                                                                          - Additional readings: 138,
                                                                                                          140, 149, 151
104 Transferable            Awards a company a patent extension on a product of its choice in         A   - Sukaar (74)
    Intellectual Property   exchange for developing a neglected disease product                           - IFPMA (119)
    Right (TIPR)                                                                                          -Additional reading 229
105 Translation Awards      The Wellcome Trust Translation Awards are response-mode                   A   - Welcome Trust webpage at:
                            funding designed to bridge the funding gap in the commercialisation           http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/
                            of new technologies in the biomedical area. Projects covering any             and internal papers
                            aspect of technology development from a range of disciplines -
                            including physical, computational and life sciences - are considered
                            for translational awards. Projects must address an unmet need in
                            healthcare or in applied medical research, offer a potential new
                            solution, and have a realistic expectation that the innovation will be
                            developed further by the market. Strategic Translation Awards
                            support research projects that are viewed as strategically important
                            to the Wellcome Trust's mission.

                            A separate initiative initiative funds translational research projects
                            that will deliver safe and effective healthcare products for India -
                            and potentially other markets - at affordable costs. A key feature of
                            the scheme is that it encourages innovations that extend access to
                            care to the greatest numbers of beneficiaries, without compromising
                            on quality.
106 Traveller's Tax         Voluntary airline tax, as percentage of ticket cost or fixed sum, for     F     - EWG submission by
                            those travelling to developing countries with a neglected disease               UNITAID (19)
                            problem                                                                         - Taskforce on IHFS WG2
                                                                                                            report (45)
                                                                                                            - See Brookings list (17)
107 UNITAID patent pool     Voluntary airline tax, as percentage of ticket cost or fixed sum, for     A     - EWG submission by
                            those travelling to developing countries with a neglected disease               UNITAID (19)
                            problem                                                                         Additional readings: 191, 192

108 Waiving of regulatory Developed/reference countries waive all fees for regulatory activities      A     - Multiple internal papers
    fees                  associated with product development and registration of medicines                 collated for research on
                          for neglected diseases, including fees for; the provision of scientific           African drug registration and
                          advice; clinical trial applications, product application and for all post         drug certification. See report
                          approval applications (i.e., manufacturing variations, label changes,             for a shortlist of 37
                          renewals, GXP inspections, etc.).                                                 references:
                                                                                                            http://www.george.org.au/sha
                                                                                                            domx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.
                                                                                                            cfm?file_uuid=98CF139E-
                                                                                                            F47C-1124-A567-
                                                                                                            E8523C89A999&siteName=ii
                                                                                                            h
109 Broad submission                                                                                  A/F   - EWG submission by Algeria
    covering many of the                                                                                    (2), Mexico (57), Monaco (58),
    above proposals or                                                                                      Syria (75) and AVAC (4)
    describing ongoing
    initiatives
 No.                 Author                            Article title                   Year                         External link/Source

        1 Abraham, John; Reed         Trading risks for markets: the                   2001     Health, risk & society, 2001, vol. 3, no 1, 113-128
          Tim                         international harmonisation of
                                      Pharmaceuticals regulation
        2 Algeria                     Proposal for new and innovative sources of       2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Algeria_En.pdf
                                      financing to stimulate research and
                                      development (R&D) in respect of diseases
                                      disproportionately affecting developing
                                      countries
        3 Anderson, Tatum             Global Fund looks to boost private sector        2009     http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-
                                      contributions                                             6736(09)60890-4/fulltext
        4 AVAC                        Intergovernmental Working Group on Public        2009     http://www.who.int/phi/AVAC.pdf
                                      Health, Innovation & Intellectual Property

        5 Bailey, Elizabeth, Meg      Venture Capital and Global Health                2005     http://www.commonscapital.com/downloads/Venture_Capital_
          Wirth and David Zapol       A discussion paper in preparation for the                 and_Global_Health.pdf
                                      September 2005 Workshop
                                      Financing Global Health Ventures

        6 Bangladesh, Bolivia,        Chagas Disease Prize Fund for the                2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surina
          Barbados, Suriname          Development of New Treatments,                            me_ChagasPrize.pdf
                                      Diagnostics and Vaccines
        7 Bermudez, Jorge             Global Forum Update on Research for              2009     http://www.globalforumhealth.org/Media-
                                      Health Volume 5                                           Publications/Publications/Global-Forum-Update-on-
                                                                                                Research-for-Health-Volume-5-Fostering-innovation-for-
                                                                                                global-health/Global-Forum-Update-on-Research-for-
                                                                                                Health-Volume-5-Fostering-innovation-for-global-health-
                                                                                                Individual-articles
        8 Brazil                      Innovative mechnism for R&D for developing       2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Brazil.pdf
                                      countries
                                      Brazil’s Proposal
        9 Brogan, David;              Applying the concepts of financial options to    2006     http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v5/n8/full/nrd2035.html?me
          Mossialos, Elias            stimulate vaccine development                             ssage=remove

       10 Burkina Faso                Strengthening research and development for       2009     http://www.who.int/phi/BurkinaFasoeng.pdf
                                      disease control
       11 BVGH                        Tuberculosis Vaccines: The Case for              2006     Paper can be found at the following webpage:
                                      Investment                                                http://www.bvgh.org/Biopharmaceutical-Solutions/Neglected-
                                                                                                Disease-Pipeline/cid/ViewDrugsDetails/ItemID/31.aspx

       12 Callan, Bénédicte;          A path to new medicines                          2007     http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7159/full/449164a
          Gillespie, Iain                                                                       .html

       13 Conceição, Pedro            Financing for Health R&D that Addresses          2009     EWG internal paper.
                                      Challenges of the Poor: Context, Analytical               Available at: http://www.who.int/phi/ewg3rdmeet/en/index.html
                                      Framework, and Initial Compilation of
                                      Options
       14 Concessional Finance        Glossary of selected innovative and              2009     http://www.fininnov.org/img/Glossary%20Innovative%20Finan
          and Global Partnerships     conventional financial instruments and                    cing%20October%209%202009.pdf
          Vice Presidency             mechanisms
          (CFPMI)
       15 Costa Rica                  Development of innovative sources of             2009     http://www.who.int/phi/CostaRica_En.pdf
                                      financing for health research and technical
                                      development in Costa Rica
       16 Dalberg/IFPMA               Initiative for sustainable funding for           2007     http://www.ifpma.org/pdf/2007_11_08_Soren_Peter_Andreas
                                      R&D for neglected diseases                                en.pdf
       17 De Ferranti, David et al.   Innovative financing for global health: tools    2008     http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2008/08_g
          (Brookings)                 for analysing the options                                 lobal_health_de_ferranti/08_global_health_de_ferranti.pdf

       18 DiMasi, Joseph;             Patents and R&D Incentives: Comments on          2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/news/en/Submission3.
          Grabowski, Henry            the Hubbard and Love Trade Framework for                  pdf
                                      Financing Pharmaceutical R&D

       19 Douste-Blazy, Philippe      Proposals for New and Innovative Sources of      2009     http://www.who.int/phi/UNITAID.pdf
                                      Funding
                                      Medicines Patent Pool
       20 Douste-Blazy, Philippe      LIFE - Leading Innovative Financing for          2009     http://imi.europa.eu/docs/imi-general-info-brochure-
                                      Equity                                                    30042008_en.pdf

       21 EC                          Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). Better    2008     EWG internal paper. Available at:
                                      tools for better health                                   http://www.who.int/entity/phi/CompreviewEWGDec09.doc

       22 EC                          Fact sheet IMI                                   2008     http://imi.europa.eu/docs/imi-factsheet_en.pdf
       23 Everts, Sarah               Open-Source Science - Online research            2006     http://pubs.acs.org/cen/science/84/8430sci1.html
                                      communities aim to unite scientists
                                      worldwide to find cures for neglected
                                      diseases
       24 Farlow, Andrew              A Global Medical Research                        2007     http://www.il-rs.org.br/ingles/arquivos/AGlobalMedical.pdf
                                      and Development Treaty
                                      An answer to global health needs?
       25 FDA                         Guidance for Industry                            2008     http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Guida
                                      General Principles for the Development of                 nceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/Vaccines/
                                      Vaccines to Protect Against Global                        ucm078379.pdf
                                      Infectious Diseases
       26 Filipp, Robert              Innovative Financing of the Global Fund:         2008     http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/innovativefinancing/debt2hea
                                      Debt2Health                                               lth/
       27 Fleming, Ann-Marie          Project BioShield – Challenging and              2005     http://www.investorideas.com/BDS/News/Project_BioShield.a
                                      Strengthening the Biodefense Arena                        sp
       28 Moran, Mary (George         Fast Track Options as a fundraising              2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Mary.Mor
          Institute)                  mechanism to                                              an2.pdf
                                      support R&D into Neglected Diseases
28b        Centre for the Study of    FDA’s Fast Track Initiative Cut Total Drug      annual    Impact Report Volume 5, Number 6, November/December
           Drug Development           Development Time by 3 Years                     report    2003, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development

28c        Centre for the Study of    Impact Report Volume 10, Number 5, Fast         annual    Impact Report Volume 10, Number 5, Tufts Center for the
           Drug Development           track designations more than doubled suring     report    Study of Drug Development
                                      the last 5 years
       29 Moran, Mary (George         Funding neglected disease drug R&D: The          2006     http://www.georgeinstitute.org.au/shadomx/apps/fms/fmsdow
          Institute)                  Industry R&D Facilitation Fund (IRFF)                     nload.cfm?file_uuid=F2B06396-EEA0-851E-3049-
                                                                                                C9A030AEDE0F&siteName=iih
       30 GFATM                       Introduction to the Affordable Medicines         2008     http://www.theglobalfund.org/content/pressreleases/pr_0904
                                      Facility - malaria                                        17_Factsheet.pdf
       31 Gianturco, Leone            Status of the AMCs and                           2008     http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/56/41466547.pdf
                                      future applications
       32 Gottron, Frank              Project BioShield - CRS Report for               2003     http://www.fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/20368.pdf
                                      Congress
       33 Grabowski, Henry            Innovation and R&D Incentives for Orphan         2003     www.earth.columbia.edu/cgsd/documents/grabowski.ppt
                                      Drugs and Neglected Diseases

       34 Grabowski, Henry            Priority Review Vouchers to encourage            2009     http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/petrie-
                                      innovation for neglected diseases                         flom/workshops_conferences/2008_workshops/Grabowski.pdf

       35 Griffin, Charles            Innovative Financing for Global Health           2008     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/TF_Brookin
                                      –Overview                                                 gs%20-%20Innovative%20Financing%20for%20GH%20-
                                                                                                %20Tools%20(2008%2010%2007).pdf

       36 Health Action               Response to the Expert Working Group on          2009     http://www.who.int/phi/HAI.pdf
          International (HAI)         Alternative Financing
       37 Herrling, Paul (Novartis)   Making drugs accessible                                   http://www.who.int/phi/Novartis.pdf
                                      to poor populations: a
                                      funding model

       38 HM Revenue & Customs        1 August 2008 changes to the Research &          2008     http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/research/vrr-tax-relief-rules.htm
                                      Development (R&D) and Vaccine Research
                                      Relief (VRR) tax relief rules

       39 Hsu, Jason C. and           A Model of R&D Valuation and the Design          2004     http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=107960
          Schwartz, Eduardo S.        of Research Incentives                                    9
       40 IAVI                        Design and Analysis of the PDP
                                      Financing Facility
       41 IAVI                        IAVI’s Innovation Fund To Bring Novel Early-              http://www.research4development.info/PDF/Outputs/iavi/iavifa
                                      Stage Technologies                                        ctsheetinnovation.pdf
                                      to AIDS Vaccine Research
       42 IAVI                        Innovative Financing Mechanisms                  2009     http://www.iavi.org/Lists/IAVIPublications/attachments/e0df93
                                      To Advance Global Health                                  1a-40d5-439f-8bf4-
                                                                                                78e188f127aa/IAVI_Innovative_Financing_Mechanisms_to_A
                                                                                                dvance_Global_Health_2009_ENG.pdf
       43 IAVI                        Spurring Innovation in AIDS Vaccine R&D:         2009     http://www.iavi.org/Lists/IAVIPublications/attachments/49598
                                      What Will It Take?                                        d4e-146a-4999-bd83-
                                                                                                a7d05f3616df/IAVI_Spurring_Innovation_in_AIDS_Vaccine_
                                                                                                RandD_What_will_it_take_2009_ENG.pdf
       44 IFPMA                       IFPMA Submission to the Public Hearing on                 http://www.who.int/phi/IFPMA.pdf
                                      Proposals for R&D Financing

       45 IHP - Taskforce on          Raising and Channeling Funds. Working            2009     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/IHP%20Upd
          Innovative Financing for    Group 2 report                                            ate%2013/Taskforce/london%20meeting/new/Working%20G
          Health Systems                                                                        roup%202%20First%20Report%20090311.pdf

       46 IHP - Taskforce on          UNITAID                                          2009     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net//CMS_files/doc
          Innovative Financing for                                                              uments/innovative_financing_mechanisms,_EN.pdf
          Health Systems
       47 IHP - Taskforce on          Multi Donor Trust Funds (MDTFs)                  2009     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/TF_Core_S
          Innovative Financing for                                                              cript_-_MDTF%20Handout.pdf
          Health Systems
       48 InnoCentive                 InnoCentive                                               http://www.innocentive.com/docs/Not_For_Profit_Datasheet.p
                                                                                                df
       49 International               The Pharmaceutical Sciences in 2020              2008     http://www.fip.org/pharmaceuticalsciencesAR
          Pharmaceutical
          Federation (FIP)
       50 Kettler, Hannah             Using Intellectual Property Regimes to           2002     Journal of World Intellectual Property, 2002,
                                      Meet Global Health R&D Needs                              Vol. 5, Number 5, pp. 655-684
       51 Kieny, Marie-Paule          Coordination of Vaccine R&D The                  2009
                                      WHO/Initiative for Vaccine Research
                                      approach                                                  www.who.int/phi/CoordinationofVaccineR&D_Jan09.ppt
       52 Knowledge Ecology           Comments of Knowledge Ecology                    2009     http://www.who.int/phi/KEI.pdf
          International (KEI)         International (KEI) to the WHO public
                                      hearing
                                      for Proposals for new and innovative sources
                                      of funding to stimulate R&D
       53 Lakhani, Karim et al.       The Value of Openness                            2007     http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/07-050.pdf
                                      in Scientific Problem
                                      Solving
       54 Love, James; Hubbard,       The big idea: prizes to stimulate R&D for        2007     http://www.keionline.org/misc-docs/bigidea-prizes.pdf
          Tim                         new medicines
       55 Love, James; Hubbard,       A New Trade Framework                            2004     http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbi
          Tim                         for Global Healthcare R&D                                 o.0020052
       56 Maurer, Stephen et al.      Finding Cures for Tropical Diseases:             2004     http://mjlst.umn.edu/uploads/QB/As/QBAsXexmyWkRc0GWX
                                      Is Open Source an Answer?                                 NQNxA/mauer_a3.pdf
       57 Mexico                      The Global Strategy and Plan of Action on        2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Mexico_En.pdf
                                      Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual
                                      Property. Expert Working Group on R&D
                                      Financing
                                      Comments by the Ministry of Health
       58 Monaco                      Innovative funding sources to stimulate          2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Monaco_En.pdf
                                      research and development relevant to
                                      diseases that disproportionately affect
                                      developing countries
       59 MSF                         Submission to the Expert Working Group on        2009     http://www.who.int/phi/MSF.pdf
                                      Research and Development Financing
                                      Médecins Sans Frontières - Campaign for
                                      Access to Essential Medicines

       60 Nigeria                     Proposal on innovative sources of funding to     2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Nigeria.pdf
                                      stimulate research and development related
                                      to diseases that disproportionately affect
                                      developing countries

       61 Nitta, Itaru                Patent Insurance (Green Intellectual             2009     http://www.who.int/phi/GreenIP.pdf
                                      Property) Scheme:
                                      A financial prescription for neglected
                                      diseases?
       62 IAVI                        Financing the Accelerated Development of         2009     On file with WHO
                                      Vaccines for AIDS, TB, and Malaria:
                                      Design of the PDP Financing Facility and
                                      an Analysis of Its Feasibility

       63 North-South Institute       The Currency Transaction Tax: Rate and           2007     http://www.nsi-ins.ca/english/pdf/CTT%20revenue.pdf
                                      Revenue Estimates
       64 OECD                        Background paper for discussion prepared         2007     Internal paper on file with EWG
                                      for the OECD Workshop
                                      on “Accelerating Neglected Diseases Drug
                                      Discovery”
       65 OECD                        OECD high level forum on policy coherence:                Internal paper on file with EWG
                                      availability of medicines for neglected and
                                      emerging infectious diseases

       66 Outterson, Kevin            Patent Buy-Outs for Global Disease               2006     http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/prizefund/files/outterson-
                                      Innovations for Low- and Middle-Income                    buyouts.pdf
                                      Countries
       67 Pelfrene, Eric (EMEA)       Article 58: A route to scientific opinion        2008     http://www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/uploaded_files/Artic
                                                                                                le_58_A_Route_to_Scientific_Adoption_Eric_Pelfrene_5.6.0
                                                                                                8%5B1%5D.pdf
       68 Hollis, Aidan; Thomas       The Health Impact Fund: Pay-for-                 2009     http://www.who.int/phi/HIF.pdf
          Pogge et al.                Performance
       69 Reisen, Helmut              Tobin tax: could it work?                        2002     http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/664/Tobin
                                                                                                _tax:_could_it_work__.html
       70 Ribera, Jaume               IFFImCase Discussion                             2008     Internal Paper on file with WHO
       71 Serbia                      None                                             2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Serbia.PDF
       72 Singer, Peter et al.        Commercializing African health                   2009     http://www.who.int/phi/MRC.pdf
                                      research: building life science
                                      convergence platforms
       73 South Africa                New and Innovative sources of funding to         2009     http://www.who.int/phi/SouthAfrica.pdf
                                      stimulate R&D
       74 Sukkar, Elisabeth           Should pharmaceuticals be allowed to             2005     link no longer available
                                      transfer marketing rights for neglected
                                      diseases?
       75 Syria                                                                        2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Syria_En.doc
       76 Taskforce for Innovative    Working Group 2: Raising and Channelling         2009     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/IHP%20Upd
          International Financing     Funds. Progress report to Taskforce, 13                   ate%2013/Taskforce/london%20meeting/new/Working%20G
          for Health Systems (see     March 2009                                                roup%202%20First%20Report%20090311.pdf
          no. 45)
       77 Taylor, Wayne D             History, Evidence and Reason:                    2009     http://www.who.int/phi/CameronInstitute.pdf
                                      A review of proposals for and innovative
                                      sources of funding to stimulate R&D
       78 Technology Strategy         SBRI                                                      http://www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/SBRI_Intro_Brochure_2.pd
          Board                                                                                 f AND
                                                                                                http://www.ogc.gov.uk/delivering_policy_aims_through_publi
                                                                                                c_procurement_innovation.asp
       79 Thomaz Alvares de           Brazil’s Bolsa Família after the demise of       2008     http://www.coha.org/2008/02/brazil%E2%80%99s-bolsa-
          Azevedo e Almeida           the CPMF tax: extension rather than                       familia-after-the-demise-of-the-cpmf-tax-extension-rather-
                                      extinction                                                than-extinction/
       80 UNITAID/ Douste-Blazy       Proposals for New and Innovative Sources of      2009     http://www.who.int/phi/UNITAID.pdf
          (same as no. 19)            Funding
                                      Medicines Patent Pool
       81 US Chamber of               The U.S. Chamber of Commerce                     2009     http://www.who.int/phi/USChamberofCommerce.pdf
          Commerce                    Submission to the Expert Working Group on
                                      R&D financing,World Health Organization

       82 Webber, David; Kramer,      Perspectives on stimulating industrial           2001     http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
          Michael                     research and                                              0042-96862001000800009
                                      development for neglected infectious
                                      diseases
       83 Wessner, Charles            Concept note: Innovative Financing               2009     http://www.who.int/phi/SBIR.pdf
                                      Mechanism for Global Health Innovation

       84 WHA                         Global strategy and plan of action on public     2008     http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/A61/A61_R21-en.pdf
                                      health,
                                      innovation and intellectual property
       85 World Bank                  Landscape of Innovative Finance                  2009     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net//CMS_files/doc
                                                                                                uments/landscape_of_innovative_financin_EN.pdf

       86 Third World Network         Preliminary note: global framework for R&D       2009     EWG Internal Paper

       87 Outterson, Kevin            Patent Buy-Outs For Global Disease               2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/KevinOutt
                                      Innovations For                                           erson2February.pdf
                                      Low- and Middle-Income Countries (CIPIH
                                      submission)
       88 Outterson, Kevin            Fair followers: Expanding access to generic      2005     Internal Paper on file with WHO
                                      pharmaceuticals for low-income
                                      populations (CIPIH submission)

       89 Drager, Nick                Innovation in Public Health to Reduce Major      2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/N.Drager
                                      Health Risks in Developing countries                      .pdf
                                      (CIPIH submission)
       90 USP                         How Does the Regulatory Framework                2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/USPCIPI
                                      Affect Incentives for Research and                        H.pdf
                                      Development? (CIPIH submission)
       91 Light, Donald W.            Making Practical Markets for Vaccines            2005     http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.p
                                      (CIPIH submission)                                        med.0020271
       92 Hubbard, Tim                Reply to the comments requested by CIPIH         2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Submissi
                                      and WHO to the CPTech proposal for a                      onsHubbard.pdf
                                      Medical Research and Development Treaty
                                      (MRDT) (CIPIH submission)

       93 Orsenigo, Luigi             Comments on proposal of MRDT by                  2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/orsenigo
                                      CPTech                                                    _comments.pdf
       94 Schwartz, Bryan             Economic Prizes: Filling the Gaps in             2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/CIPIHSu
                                      Pharmaceutical Innovation (2005)                          bmissionsBryanSchwartz.pdf
       95 Pammolli, Fabio and         Intellectual Property, Technological             2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/IP-tech-
          Maria Alessandra Rossi      Regimes and Market Dynamics                               reg-final.pdf

       96 World Intellectual          Follow-on on innovation and intellectual         2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Innovation
          Property Secretariat        property                                                  %20&%20Intellectual%20Property%20WIPO.pdf

       97 Kremer, Michael et al.      Briefing note on Advance Purchase                2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/MichealK
                                      Commitments                                               remerKTW_CIPIH_submit_2.pdf
       98 Widdus, Roy                 Considerations in selecting appropriate          2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/WiddusM
                                      instruments for accelerating the public                   ay05.pdf
                                      health impact of vaccination in poorer
                                      countries
       99 Barder, Owen et al.         Answering concerns about Making Markets          2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/BarderSu
                                      for Vaccines                                              bmission.pdf
      100 Taylor, Wendy               Making markets for vaccines - a historic call    2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Taylor.pdf
                                      for action
      101 Lanjouw, Jean               Outline of the Foreign Filing License            2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/ForeignF
                                      Approach                                                  iling.Lanjouw.pdf
      102 Farlow, Andrew              The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, Malaria       2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Farlow.pd
                                      Vaccines, and Purchase Commitments:                       f
                                      What is the Fit? A Response to ‘Making
                                      Markets’ and ‘Strong Medicine’

      103 Morris, Julian et al.       Incentivising research and development           2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Incentivisi
                                      for the diseases of poverty                               ngRD.pdf

      104 Wertheimer, Albert and      Pharmocoevolution: the benefits of               2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Pharmac
          Thomas Santella             incremental innovation                                    oevolution.pdf
      105 International Chamber of    The importance of incremental innovation for     2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Submissi
          Commerce (ICC)              development                                               onsInternationalChamberofCommerce.pdf
      106 Sauer, Corinne and          Reducing Barriers to the Development of          2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Sauerbar
          Robert Sauer                High Quality, Low Cost Medicines: A                       riers.pdf
                                      Proposal for Reforming the Drug Approval
                                      Process
      107 CPTech                      Request to Evaluate Proposal for New             2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/CPTech.
                                      Global Medical R&D Treaty                                 pdf
      108 Hollis, Aidan               Optional rewards for new drugs for               2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/Submissi
                                      developing countries                                      ons.AidanHollis.pdf
      109 Outterson, Kevin            Nonrival access to pharmaceutical                2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/KevinOutt
                                      knowledge                                                 erson3january.pdf
      110 Outterson, Kevin            Resolving dysfunctional pharmaceutical           2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/submissions/en/pharm
                                      arbitrage and counterfeit drugs through the               a_arbitrage.pdf
                                      proposed Pharmaceutical R&D Treaty

      111 Barder, Owen (CGDEV)        Making markets for vaccines - a practical        2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/news/en/SubmissionBa
                                      plan to spark innovations for global health               rder1.pdf

      112 Baker, Dean                 Financing Drug Research: What Are the            2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/news/en/Submission-
                                      Issues?                                                   Baker.pdf
      113 Hollis, Aidan               An efficient reward system for                   2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/news/Submission-
                                      pharmaceutical innovation                                 Hollis6-Oct.pdf
      114 DiMasi, Joseph;             Patents and R&D Incentives: Comments on          2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/news/en/Submission3.
          Grabowski, Henry            the Hubbard and Love Trade Framework for                  pdf
                                      Financing Pharmaceutical R&D

      115 WIPO                        Intellectual property rights, innovation         2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/events/WIPO.pdf
                                      and public health:
                                      prospective WIPO inputs
      116 Essential Inventions        Statement of Essential Inventions to the         2004     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/news/en/eii.pdf
                                      Commission on Intellectual Property Rights,
                                      Innovation and Public Health

      117 Hecht, Robert; Wilson,      Improving Health R&D Financing For               2009     Health Affairs, Vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 974-985
          Paul; Palriwala Amrita      Developing Countries: A Menu Of Innovative
                                      Policy Options
      118 Ganguly, Nirmal             New and Innovative Sources of Funding to         2009     Internal paper on file with WHO
                                      stimulate R & D in India
      119 IFPMA                       The Pharmaceutical Innovation Platform           2004     http://www.ifpma.org/documents/NR1916/PIP_final.pdf

      120 Bangladesh, Bolivia,        A Prize Fund to Support Innovation and           2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surina
          Barbados, Suriname          Access for Donor Supported Markets                        me_DonorPrize.pdf

      121 Bangladesh, Bolivia,        Proposal for WHO Discussions on a                2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surina
          Barbados, Suriname          Biomedical R&D Treaty                                     me_R_DTreaty.pdf
      122 Bangladesh, Bolivia,        Prize Fund for Development of Low-Cost           2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Barbados_Bolivia_Surina
          Barbados, Suriname          Rapid Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis                    me_TBPrize.pdf

      123 Oxfam                       Ending the R&D Crisis in Public Health:          2008     http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/policy/health/downloads/b
                                      Promoting pro-poor medical innovation                     p122_crisis_public_health.pdf

      124 Bolivia, Bangladesh,        Prizes as a Reward Mechanism for New             2009     http://www.who.int/phi/Bangladesh_Bolivia_Suriname_Cance
          Suriname                    Cancer Treatments and Vaccines in                         rPrize.pdf
                                      Developing Countries
      125 Yuthavong, Yongyuth         Establishment of Neglected Diseases R&D          2009     Internal paper on file with WHO
                                      Credit System
      126 The Lancet                  Editorial - Political activism needed for        2009     http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-
                                      patent pools for HIV drugs                                6736(09)61346-5/fulltext
      127 All-Party Parliamentary     The Treatment Timebomb                           2008     http://www.aidsportal.org/repos/APPGTimebomb091.pdf
          Group on AIDS

      128 Schaeffer-Preuss,           Comments and suggestions from Dr Ursula          2009     EWG internal paper
          Ursula                      Schaeffer-Preuss
      129 Ketkar, Suhas; Ratha,       Diaspora Bonds - Track Record and                2007     http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resou
          Dilip                       Potential                                                 rces/334934-1100792545130/Diasporabonds.pdf

      130 Milken Institute            Financial Innovations                            2006     http://www.milkeninstitute.org/pdf/fin_innov_vol2.pdf
                                      for Accelerating Medical Solutions
      131 Energy Future Coalition     Challenge and opportunity - charting a new      no date   http://www.energyfuturecoalition.org/files/webfmuploads/EFC
                                      energy future                                             _Report/EFCReport.pdf
      132 Hillman, David et al.       Implementing a Currency                          2006     http://www.ubuntu.upc.edu/docs/doha/TakingtheNextStep_Intr
                                      Transaction Development Levy                              oducing%20a%20CTDL.pdf
      133 Pearson, Mark               IHP+: Expanding predictable financing for        2008     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/TF_Final%2
                                      health                                                    0Report%20Background%20Paper%20Oct%2023.pdf
                                      systems strengthening and delivering
                                      results
                                      Detailed Analysis of IFFIm
      134 Yekta, Shahla;              Equitable Licencing: Let’s do it left!           2009     Internal paper on file with WHO
          Tinnemann, Peter
      135 Hollis, Aidan; Pogge,       The Health Impact Fund. Making New               2008     http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/igh/hif_book.pdf
          Thomas                      Medicines Accessible for All

      136 Dalberg/United Nations      The Pledge Guarantee for Health (PGH):           2009     http://globalhealthideas.org/wp-
          Foundation                  Achieving Commodity Security in                           content/uploads/2010/04/Pledge-Guarantee-for-Health-
                                      Reproductive Health and Beyond                            Overview-Jan-2009.pdf
      137 European Commission -       The MDG contract - an approach for longer        2008     http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/MDG-
          DG DEVE                     term and more predictable budget support                  Contract-Paper-0608_en.pdf

      138 New Rules for Global        Debating the Tobin tax                           2003     http://www.new-
          Finance Coalition                                                                     rules.org/docs/tobintax/debatingthetobintax.pdf
      139 Rich, Pastricia; Hines,     Membership development: an action plan for       2002     Book
          Dana                        results
      140 Rajan, Ramkishen            The Tobin Tax revisited - a global tax for       2002     http://www.spp.nus.edu.sg/ips/docs/pub/kishen/pa_kishen_Th
                                      global purposes                                           e%20Tobin%20Tax%20Revisited.pdf

      141 Action for Global Health    Briefing paper on MDG contracting                2007     http://www.actionforglobalhealth.eu/uploads/media/MDG_Co
                                                                                                ntracting_position_paper.pdf

      142 Hillman, David              The Currency Transfer Tax                        2008     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/IHP%20Upd
                                                                                                ate%2013/Taskforce/Stamp%20Out%20Poverty%20presenta
                                                                                                tion%20-%20Doha%20Side%20Event.pdf

      143 Nitta, Itaru                Patents and Essential Medicines: an              2008     http://www.greenip.org/
                                      application of the Green IP project
      144 European Commission         Questions & Answers on Emissions Trading         2005     http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/pdf/m06_452_en.pdf
                                      and
                                      National Allocation Plans
      145 Euractiv                    Dossier on EU Emissions Trading Scheme           2009     http://www.euractiv.com/en/climate-change/eu-emissions-
                                                                                                trading-scheme/article-133629#

      146 Defra                       Analysis paper on EU Emissions Trading           2007     http://www.occ.gov.uk/activities/eu_ets/analysis-euets-
                                      Scheme Review options                                     options.pdf

      147 Macalister, Terry           Britain's big polluters accused of abusing       2009     http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/jan/27/industry-
                                      EU's carbon trading scheme                                abusing-ets-carbon-trading

      148 Masum, Hassan; Daar,        Accelerating Health Product                      2007     http://www.mrcglobal.org/files/AcceleratingHealthInnovation
          Abdallah, et al             Innovation in sub-Saharan Africa                          Africa_Fall2007.pdf
      149 Felix, David                The Tobin tax proposal-                          1995     Futures, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 195-208(14)
                                      background,issues,prospects
      150 Taylor, Wendy               Developing Markets                               2004
                                                                                                Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 22, pp. 1075
      151 Raffer, Kunibert            The Tobin Tax: Reviving a Discussion             1998
                                                                                                Elsevier, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 529-538
      152 GFATM                       Report of the affordable medicines facility -    2008     http://www.theglobalfund.org/documents/board/18/GF-B18-
                                      Malaria Ad hoc committee                                  07_ReportAMFmAdHocCommittee.pdf
      153 Kotiya, Rishi               Priority Review Vouchers: An Incremental         2009     http://www.law.emory.edu/fileadmin/GHLPP/Web_Archives/Ri
                                      Step Forward                                              shi_Kotiya.pdf
      154 Reproductive Health         RHInterchange Brochure                           2009     http://rhi.rhsupplies.org/rhi/index.do?locale=en_US
          Interchange Coalition
      155 Dalberg                     The Minimum Volume Guarantee (MVG):              2008     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/IHP%20Upd
                                      Achieving                                                 ate%2013/web%20new/Minimum%20Volume%20Guarantee
                                      Commodity Security in Reproductive Health                 %20-%20Donor%20Ask%20--%20Oct%2014%202008.pdf
                                      and Beyond
      156 FDA                         Fast track, accelerated approval and priority    2009     http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ByAudience/ForPatientAdv
                                      review                                                    ocates/SpeedingAccesstoImportantNewTherapies/ucm1282
                                                                                                91.htm
      157 Dalberg                     The Pledge Guarantee (PG) and                    2008     http://www.rhsupplies.org/fileadmin/user_upload/May_2008_
                                      Minimum Volume Guarantee (MVG):
                                              ‐                                                 meeting_Brussels/Update_to_RHSC_Brussels_FINAL__23
                                      A Path Forward for Action and Impact                      _May_08_.pdf
      158 Dr. Horsburgh for           RESIST TB Research Excellence to Stop             ?       http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/Committe
          RESIST-TB                   TB Resistance                                             esMeetingMaterials/Drugs/Anti-
                                                                                                InfectiveDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM167013.pdf
      159 FDA                         FDA list of drugs approved with accelerated      2009     http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/How
                                      approval                                                  DrugsareDevelopedandApproved/DrugandBiologicApproval
                                                                                                Reports/AcceleratedandRestrictedApprovals/default.htm

      160 Clunies-Ross, Anthony       Resources for Social Development                 2004     http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=908167

      161 Brzoska, Michael            Taxation of the arms trade: An overview of       2001     http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/un
                                      the issues                                                pan000954.pdf
      162 Burrows, Gideon             Arms and the tax man                             2003     http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/216/46
                                                                                                014.html
      163 Caslon Analytics          The byte tax                                      no date   http://www.caslon.com.au/taxationguide2.htm
      164 UNDP                      Human Development Report 1999:                     1999     http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_1999_EN.pdf
                                    Globalisation with a human face
      165 Soete, Luc                Reaction to European Commission, DG                1997     http://www.merit.unimaas.nl/cybertax/response.html
                                    XIII's Bit Tax Proposal Analysis
      166 Basu, Subhajit            To Tax or Not to Tax? That is the question?        2004     http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2004_1/basu/
                                    Overview of Options in Consumption
                                    Taxation of E-Commerce
      167 Milne, Jane et al.        The reality of carbon taxes in the 21st            2009     http://www.vermontlaw.edu/Documents/020309-
          (Vermont Law School)      century                                                     carbonTaxPaper(0).pdf
      168 The Carbon Tax Centre     Website with info on various aspects of           no date   http://www.carbontax.org/
                                    carbon taxes
      169 Dalberg / Reproductive    Designing a Global                                 2008     http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/pdf/IHP%20Upd
          Health Supplies Coalition Financing and Procurement                                   ate%2013/Taskforce/taskforce/Designing%20a%20Global%
                                    Mechanism for Reproductive                                  20Financing%20and%20Procurement%20Mechanism%20fo
                                    Health Supplies                                             r%20Reproductive%20Health%20Supplies%20-
                                                                                                %20June%202008%20Report.pdf
      170 Waltz, Emily Nature         FDA launches priority vouchers for               2008     http://www.emilywaltz.com/FDA_priority_review_vouchers___
          Biotechnology               neglected-disease drugs                                   IP_sharing_report_-_Dec_08.pdf
      171 Kesselheim, Aaron           Drug Development for Neglected Diseases          2008     http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/359/19/1981.pdf
                                      —
                                      The Trouble with FDA Review Vouchers

      172 Pope, Leyla MSF             E-DRUG: The US FDA Priority Review               2008     http://www.essentialdrugs.org/edrug/archive/200812/msg000
                                      Voucher and neglected diseases                            39.php
      173 Goozner, Merrill            FDA and Vouchers for Neglected Diseases:         2008     http://www.huffingtonpost.com/merrill-goozner/fda-and-
                                      A Bad Idea Gone Bad                                       vouchers-for-negl_b_142153.html
      174 FDA                         Guidance for Industry                            2008     http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/FDA-2008-D-
                                      Tropical Disease Priority                                 0530-gdl.pdf
                                      Review Vouchers
      175 McCaughan, Michael          Treat and Trade:                                 2008     http://prvinfo.org/files/RPMTreatTrade.pdf
                                      The New Priority Review Voucher Market

      176 Jamie Love                  US Orphan Drug Act and the price of              1999     http://lists.essential.org/pharm-policy/msg00269.html
                                      Oxandrolone
      177 Europe External Policy      MDG contracting briefing note                    2007     http://www.eepa.be/wcm/dmdocuments/EEPA_MDG-
          Advisors                                                                              Contracting_HR_v1a.pdf
178 European Commission        IMI factsheet                                      no date   ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/fp7/docs/factsheet_imi_en.pdf

179 IMI                        IMI JU Draft Scientific Priorities 2009             2009     http://imi.europa.eu/docs/draft-imi-ju-scientific-priorities-
                                                                                            2009_en.pdf
180 IMI                        Key messages for member states                      2007     http://www.imi-
                                                                                            europe.org/Lists/IMIPublicationDocuments/IMI%20Key%20
                                                                                            Messages%20for%20Member%20States.pdf
181 FDA                        FDA guidance on priority review                     2009     http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ByAudience/ForPatientAdv
                                                                                            ocates/SpeedingAccesstoImportantNewTherapies/ucm1282
                                                                                            91.htm#priorityreview
182 Fernandez, David           Sovereign Wealth Funds: A Bottom-up                 2008     http://cama.anu.edu.au/Events/swf2008/swf2008_papers/Fern
                               Primer                                                       andez_SWF_paper.pdf
183 Johnson, Simon             The Rise of Sovereign Wealth Funds                  2007     http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2007/09/pdf/straight.
                                                                                            pdf
184 Truman, Edward             Sovereign Wealth Funds - the need for               2007     http://www.iie.com/publications/pb/pb07-6.pdf
                               greater transparency and accountability

185 Truman, Edward             A blueprint for SWF best practices                  2008     http://www.petersoninstitute.org/publications/pb/pb08-3.pdf

186 Wells, Libby               Emotional appeal of charging for charity            2000     http://www.bankrate.com/brm/news/cc/20000320.asp
                               rings up the donations for favourite causes

187 Action for Global Health   Tremonti announces “Detax”, a financing             2009     http://old.actionforglobalhealth.eu/news/tremonti_announces_
                               instrument to fight poverty                                  detax_a_financing_instrument_to_fight_poverty

188 Ellmers, Bodo              The de-tax proposal - development finance
                                     ‐                                             2009     http://www.eurodad.org/blog/index.aspx?id=3471&blogid=17
                               Berlusconi-style                                             58
189 Tremonti, Giulio           La De tax: democrazia diretta solidale              2009     http://www.aspeninstitute.it/aspen/files/TREMONTI_Detax.pd
                                                                                            f
190 Wallace                    Changing the Landscape: Public-Private              2007     http://www.gordonfn.org/resfiles/RWallace_FinalReport.pdf
                               Partnerships and the Fight Against
                               Neglected Diseases
191 Crager                     Prizes and Parasites: Incentive Models for          2009     J Law Med Ethics., Vol 37 No 2, pp. 292-304
                               addressing Chagas disease

191 UNITAID                    Medicines Patent Pool - Q&As                        2009     http://www.unitaid.eu/images/NewWeb/documents/en_qa_fin
                                                                                            alrevised_mar10.pdf
192 UNITAID                    The Medicines                                       2009     http://www.who.int/phi/UNITAID.pdf
                               Patent Pool initiative
193 IAVI                       Spurring Innovation for the development of          2009     http://www.path.org/files/aids2031_spurring_innovation.pdf
                               HIV/AIDS technologies
193 Yekta, Shahla;             The “Cap to Fund” Model                             2009     Internal paper on file with WHO
    Tinnemann, Peter;
    Reinhold, Thomas
194 Jamie Love                 The role of prizes in stimulating R&D:              2007     http://www.iprsonline.org/ictsd/Dialogues/2007-10-
                               Comment to WHO IGWG                                          22/16%20Love-KEI_prizes.pdf
194 Barbados and Bolivia       Priority Medicines and Vaccines Prize Fund          2008     http://www.keionline.org/misc-
                               (PMV/pf)                                                     docs/b_b_igwg/prop3_pmv_pf.pdf
195 Addison, Tony;             A Global Lottery and a Global Premium Bond          2003     http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/010
    Chowdhury, Abdur R.                                                                     22/_res/id=sa_File1/
196 http://www.nsandi.com/pr   Premium bonds                                       2009     http://www.nsandi.com/products/pb
    oducts/pb
197 The Global Fund            Debt2Health                                         2009     http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/innovativefinancing/debt2hea
                                                                                            lth/
198 The Global Fund            Debt2Health:                                        2008     http://www.theglobalfund.org/documents/publications/other/D
                               The Debt Conversion Initiative of the Global                 2H/Debt2Health.pdf
                               Fund
199 Cassimon, Danny;           Assessing debt-to-health swaps: a case              2008     http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-
    Renard, Robrecht;          study on the Global Fund Debt2Health                         bin/fulltext/121356688/PDFSTART
    Verbeke, Karel             Conversion Scheme
200 Cassimon, Danny;           Theory, practice and potential of debt for          2007     Economic Systems, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 12-34
    Vaessen, Jos               development swaps in the Asian and Pacific
                               region
201 Ketkar; Ratha              New Paths to Funding: When financing is             2009     http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2009/06/pdf/ketkar.pd
                               scarce, developing countries may try                         f
                               innovative approaches to raise capital

202 Brabham                    Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem                2008     http://www.clickadvisor.com/downloads/Brabham_Crowdsour
                               Solving                                                      cing_Problem_Solving.pdf
203 The Global Fund            Q&A Debt2Health                                     2007     http://www.theglobalfund.org/documents/innovativefinancing/
                                                                                            FAQ_d2h_en.pdf
204 O'Manique, Colleen;        Rethinking (Product) RED                            2008     The Lancet, Vol. 371, pp. 1561-1563
    Labonte, Ronald
205 Pettifor, Ann; Barwa,      Global Fund Debt Conversion: A joint report         2005     http://www.aidsportal.org/store/413.pdf
    Conrad; Zeitz, Paul;       from Advocacy International and the Global
                               AIDS Alliance
206 Millenium Foundation       The Voluntary Solidarity Contribution                        http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net//CMS_files/doc
                                                                                            uments/voluntary_solidarity_contribution_EN.pdf

207 Douste-Blazy, Philippe;    Voluntary solidarity contributions can              2009     http://www.msh-
    Salome, Bernard            compliment air travel levies for treating                    paris.fr/fileadmin/Recherche/PDFs/Financements_innovants
                               pandemic disease                                             /VSC%20report_Millennium%20Foundation%20-
                                                                                            %20FMSH.pdf
208 Jonas, David               GDS firms tackling global medical crises            2009     http://www.thetransnational.travel/news.php?cid=Millennium-
                                                                                            Foundation-Clinton-Amadeus.Sep-09.02
209 Douste-Blazy, Philippe     UNITAID presentation for WHO Expert                 2009
                               Working Group on R&D Financing, Geneva
                               13 January 2009                                              www.who.int/phi/UNITAID_Jan09.ppt
210 UNITAID                    Innovative financing for health: The air tax - a             http://www.unitaid.eu/images/NewWeb/innofinen.pdf
                               journey to access
211 RED                        Product RED FAQs                                    2009     http://www.joinred.com/Learn/AboutRed/FAQs.aspx
212 MissionFish                MissionFish helps nonprofits raise funds on         2009     http://www.missionfish.org/about-us/us_about-us.html
                               eBay
213 eBay                       Selling to benefit nonprofits: eBay Giving          2009     http://pages.ebay.com/help/sell/selling-nonprofit.html
                               Works
214 Rai, Arti K                Fostering cumulative innovation in the              2001     http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=307441
                               biopharmaceutical industry:the role of
                               patents and anti-trust
215 Hull, David W Clancy,      Pharma and biotech in-licensing and                2006/07   http://www.cov.com/files/Publication/d1d690b8-f480-4b3d-
    Michael J                  collaboration agreements: a deal lawyer's                    a1b5-
                               guide to EU anti-trust pitfalls                              2f2efc134087/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/5d16ff2a-
                                                                                            b662-40ac-b33d-33311838ec7f/812.pdf
216 US Department of           Anti-trust Guidelines for the Licensing of          1995     http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/guidelines/0558.htm
    Justice and the Federal    Intellectual Property
    Trade Commission

217 US Department of           Anti-trust Guidelines for collaboration             2000     http://www.ftc.gov/os/2000/04/ftcdojguidelines.pdf
    Justice and the Federal    among competitors
    Trade Commission

218 Thomaz Alvares de          Brazil’s Bolsa Familia at Risk                      2007     http://www.coha.org/2007/12/brazils-bolsa-familia-at-risk/
    Azevedo e Almeida
219 GSK                        Creating a pool of intellectual property to         2009
                               fight neglected tropical diseases                            http://www.gsk.com/collaborations/patentpool.htm
220 MSF                        MSF response to GSK patent pool proposal            2009

                                                                                            http://www.msfaccess.org/media-room/press-releases/press-
                                                                                            release-detail/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=1532&cHash=f8c0eca3b4
221 Businessworld              INTERVIEW                                           2009
                               ‘Patent Pool Will Help Colaborate’
                                                                                            http://www.businessworld.in/index.php/Interviews/Patent-Pool-
                                                                                            Will.html
222 IP Finance                 Patent Insurance: a financial prescription for      2008     http://ipfinance.blogspot.com/2008/12/patent-insurance-
                               neglected diseases?                                          financial-prescription.html
223 IP Watch                   Inside Views: Patent Insurance Scheme:              2008     http://www.ip-watch.org/weblog/2008/07/25/inside-views-
                               Financial Resource For WHO Global IP                         patent-insurance-scheme-financial-resource-for-who-global-
                               Strategy?                                                    ip-strategy/

224 Maurer, Stephen,Rai,       Finding Cures for Tropical Diseases:                2004     http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.p
    Arti ,Sali, Andrej         Is Open Source an Answer?                                    med.0010056
225 Jagadeesh Napa             Open Source Drug Discovery                          2008     http://www.pharmafocusasia.com/strategy/open_source_drug
    Assistant Editor,          A feasible business model?                                   _discovery.htm
    Pharma Focus Asia
226 Leticia Ortı et al         A Kernel for Open Source Drug Discovery             2009     http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0
                               in Tropical                                                  000418
                               Diseases
227 The Economist Science      An open-source shot in the arm?                     2004     The Economist (2004), Economist Technology Quarterly,
    Technology Quarterly                                                                    June 10th

228 The Economist              All together now - New initiatives to cure          2009     The Economist (2009), July 18
                               diseases of the poor world
229 Towse, Aidrian             Final Report for CIPIH - A review of IP and         2005     http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/studies/A.Towse.pdf
                               Non-IP Incentives for R&D for Diseases of
                               Povery
230 Carpenter                  Drug-Review Deadlines and Safety                    2008     See N Engl J Med 2008;358:1354-61.
                               Problems
231 Herrling, Paul             Making drugs accessible to poor                     2008     See Global Forum for Health Research, Global Forum
                               populations: a funding model                                 Update on Research for Health Vol 5
232 EC IMI                     The Innovative Medicines Initiative                 2008     http://imi.europa.eu/docs/imi-infoevent30april08-slides-
                                                                                            1_en.pdf
233 British Council            European RTD insight                                2009     www.ukro.ac.uk/insight/ei0906.doc
237 Light, Donald W.           Advanced Market Commitments: Current                2009     http://www.haiweb.org/31032009/27%20Mar%202009%20A
                               Realities and Alternate Approaches: HAI                      MC%20Current%20Realities%20&%20Alternate%20Appro
                               Paper Series                                                 aches%20FINAL.pdf
238 Swiss Centre for           AMC Baseline Study - Revision of Inception          2009     EWG Internal paper
    International Health       Report
239 Kremer, Michael and        Strong Medicine: Creating Incentives for            2004     Book
    Glennester, Rachel         Pharmaceutical Research on Neglected
                               Diseases. Princeton University Press

241 EMEA                       PROCEDURAL ADVICE ON THE                            2009     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/cat/9962309en.pdf
                               PROVISION OF SCIENTIFIC
                               RECOMMENDATION ON
                               CLASSIFICATION OF ADVANCED
                               THERAPY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS IN
                               ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 17 OF
                               REGULATION (EC) NO 1394/2007
242 EMEA                       SCIENTIFIC GUIDELINE ON THE                         2009     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/cat/48683108en.pdf
                               MINIMUM QUALITY AND NON-
                               CLINICAL DATA
                               FOR CERTIFICATION OF ADVANCED
                               THERAPY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
243 FDA                        Developing Products for Rare Diseases &                      http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/DevelopingProductsforRareD
                               Conditions                                                   iseasesConditions/default.htm
244 EMEA                       Orphan drugs                                                 http://www.emea.europa.eu/htms/human/raguidelines/orphan
                                                                                            s.htm
245 EC                         Regulation (EC) on medicinal products for           2006     (EC) No 1901/2006 and (EC) No 1902/2006)
                               paediatric use
246 EMEA                       Medicines for Children                                       http://www.emea.europa.eu/htms/human/paediatrics/regulatio
                                                                                            n.htm
247 FDA                        Pediatrics                                                   http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/Pediatri
                                                                                            cTherapeuticsResearch/default.htm
248 FDA, EMEA, EC              Press Release                                       2007     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/general/direct/pr/regcoopex
                               Regulatory Cooperation Expanded                              panded.pdf
249 FDA, EMEA, EC              Principles of Interactions:                         2007     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/general/direct/pr/interaction
                               Between EMEA and FDA Pediatric                               s.pdf
                               Therapeutics
250 EMEA                       EMEA Roundtable with SME Stakeholder                2009     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/SME/29026409en.pdf
                               Organisations
251 EMEA                       Update from SME Office                              2007     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/conferenceflyers/sme/1-
                                                                                            2carr.pdf
252 EMEA                       FEE REDUCTIONS/DEFERRALS FOR                        2005     http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/conferenceflyers/sme/1-
                               MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED                                2carr.pdf
                               ENTERPRISES (SMEs)
253 FDA                        Priority Review to Encourage Treatments for         2008     http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/Federal
                               Tropical Diseases                                            FoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/FDCActChapterVDrugs
                                                                                            andDevices/ucm110316.htm
254 EC-IMI                     EC IMI 2009 call for proposals preview              2009     http://imi.europa.eu/docs/imi-ju-2009-call-topics-
                                                                                            14092009_en.pdf
262 essential action           Ensuring Effective Biogenerics Legislation:          ?       http://www.essentialaction.org/access/index.php?/archives/17
    Access to Medicines        The Cost-Sharing Approach to                                 8-Ensuring-Effective-U.S.-Biogenerics-Legislation-The-
    Project                    Compensation for the                                         Cost-Sharing-Approach-to-Compensation-for-the-Cost-of-
                               Cost of Clinical Trials is Preferable to Data                Clinical-Trials-is-Preferable-to-Data-Exclusivity.html
                               Exclusivity

263 Essential Action           Ensuring Effective U.S. Biogenerics                 2009     http://www.essentialaction.org/access/index.php?/archives/17
                               Legislation: The Cost-Sharing Approach to                    8-Ensuring-Effective-U.S.-Biogenerics-Legislation-The-
                               Compensation for the Cost of Clinical Trials                 Cost-Sharing-Approach-to-Compensation-for-the-Cost-of-
                               is Preferable to Data Exclusivity                            Clinical-Trials-is-Preferable-to-Data-Exclusivity.html

264 Sanjuan, Love and          A cost sharing model to protect investments         2006     http://www.essentialaction.org/access/uploads/policybrief-
    Weissman                   in pharmaceutical test data                                  no1-cost-sharing.pdf

265 Weissman                   Public health-friendly options for protecting       2006     http://www.essentialaction.org/access/uploads/IJIPM11-
                               pharmaceutical registration data                             2Paper08.pdf

266 IAVI                       Promoting Innovation and Access through             2007     http://www.iavi.org/Lists/IAVIPublications/attachments/f2b180
                               Effective Management of Intellectual                         e1-c50f-4094-863e-
                               Property                                                     c5932aee45fe/IAVI_Promoting_Innovation_and_Access_thro
                                                                                            ugh_Effective_Management_of_Intellectual_Property_2007_
                                                                                            ENG.pdf
267 No author                  Global Health Innovation Research Award                      various sources

268 Wessner, Charles           Financing social entrepreneurship:                           EWG Internal paper
                               innovation awards to cross the
                               “Valley of Death”
279 Nitta                      Green Intellectual Property Scheme: A                        http://www.who.int/phi/public_hearings/second/contributions_
                               Blueprint for the Eco-/Socio-Friendly Patent                 section2/Section2_NittaItaru-
                               Framework                                                    GreenIntellectualPropertyProject.pdf

				
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