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					                                         Unit 4 Study Guide
Operant Conditioning Questions
1. How do classical and operant conditioning differ?



2. Compare positive and negative reinforcement, and give one example each of a primary reinforcer, a
   conditioned reinforcer, an immediate reinforcer, and a delayed reinforcer.



3. How can children’s temper tantrums be explained through operant conditioning? How do children
   negatively reinforce parent’s behavior of "giving in"?



4. Which schedule of reinforcement is best for learning a new behavior? Which schedules are best for
   maintaining an already learned behavior?



5. Some people claim they have tried to use behavior modification and it doesn't work. (This is a complaint
   frequently heard by therapists). According to the principles of effectiveness of reinforcement and
   punishment, why might the behavior modification have been unsuccessful?



6. Discuss the ways negative punishment, positive punishment, and negative reinforcement differ, and list
   some drawbacks of punishment as a behavior-control technique.

Classical Conditioning
1.   Explain the advantages and disadvantages of learning through classical conditioning.



2.   Explain why some dieters confine eating only in the dining area and not in front of TV etc.



3.   Explain the phrase "Old habits die hard".



4.   Discuss how classical conditioning can play a role in shaping our attitudes toward members of various
     ethnic groups.\
5.   Summarize the processes of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination.



6.   Describe some uses of classical conditioning to improve human health and well-being.

Observational Learning
1. Describe the process of observational learning, and explain the importance of the discovery of mirror
   neurons.



2. Describe Bandura’s findings on what determines whether we will imitate a model.



3. Discuss the impact of prosocial modeling.

				
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