THSS Research design by vrama


									Research design

The main methodological rule of experimentation is that the experimenter must have precise
control over the experimental situation. Control involves the creation and variation
(Manipulation) of the independent variables. The antecedent event in a proposed causal
sequence is called the independent variables define the experimental condition or the design of
the experimental. At a minimum, the design involves the application of a treatment to one
group of participants and the withholdings of the treatment from a comparison of control
group. Accordingly the dependent variable(s) has (have) to be assessed by consistent measures.
The measured effect in the causal sequence is called the dependent variable. In short if we have
to say about the two variables we explain as, independent variables are those which are
manipulated or changed by the experimenter and the variables upon which the effects of these
changes are observed is called the dependent variables which is observed but not manipulated
by the experimenter. In the present study “the comparative study of cultural determination –

Dependent and independent variables are shown in table no.-03

Table no.-03

Dependent Variable                               Independent Variables

Scholastic Achievement                                  Cultural Determination

                                                        Vocational Aspiration

                                                        Attitude Towards

                                                        Modern trends

                                                        Gender

                                                        School

                                                        Streams

Tool used

       For collecting new, unknown data required for the study of any problem the instrument.

       Employed is known as tool. The selection of suitable tools is of vital importance for
successful research. Different tools are suitable for collecting various kind of information for
various purposes. The research worker may use one or more of the tools in combination for his
purpose. The major tools of research in education can be classified broadly into the following

       (A) Inquiry forms which includes-
             1. Questionnaire

             2. Schedule

             3. Check-list

             4. Rating scale

             5. Score card

             6. Opinionnaire or attitude scale

       (B) Observation

       (C) Interview

       (D) Sociometry

       (E)      Phychological test which includes

                1. Achievement test

                2. Aptitude test

                3. Intelligence test

                4. Interest inventory

                5. Personality measure

Basis of selection of test

For the present study the data were collected with respect to clized tool cultural determination,
attitude towards modern trends and scholastic achievement the details of the tools employed
for their assessment have been provided under separate caption in the following.

                In the present study the investigator has used four tools. Two standardized tool
i.e. culture determination scale and vocational aspiration scale and two self-made tools i.e.
attitude towards modern trends and scholastic achievement test for proper research.

Description of the tools.

Cultural Determination:-

               For the present study the investigator has used English and Hindi version of
cultural determination scale prepared by Dr. N.S. Chauhan. It was published in the year 1985 by
national psychological corporation, Agra.

               The test has been profusely used in doctoral research and remains a meaningful
correlate of personality, religion, and cross-cultural.
               Phycology cultural determination, it has been noted (Sharma, 1979) relates to
value-orientation and religion; cultural conformity in Hindus of high economic status, relates to
the best of value-orientation but the same is noted in Muslims who are culture conforming
belonging to two socio-economic status Hindus shows the most receded value orientation,
cultural determination affects interest of adults (Sharma, 1979) cultural conformity among
Hindus and culture rebellion I Muslims correlate with interest in agricultural pursuits. Among
adults of low socio-economic status. Cultural conformity in Hindus and cultural Rebellion in
Muslim promote interest in craft pursuit’s (Sharma, 1979), cultural rebellion in Muslims
associate with level of aspiration in a characteristic manner.

               It is further noted that cultural determination affects frustration, among adults
of high socio-economic status, cultural conformity promotes aggression frustration in Muslims,
whereas cultural rebellion promotes both fixation and aggression in Hindus (Sharma, 1979).

               Cultural determination remains characteristically sensitive to culture stratum
cast and socio-economic status. Attitude to nationalism and social distance associate with
urban culture conformity and rural cultural rebellion (Singh, 1983). Cultural rebellion in rural
high caste promotes attitudes to social distance and social revolution. Cultural rebellion in rural
high cast of low economic status, associates characteristically to attitudes social change and
social distance. Cultural rebellion in urban scheduled cast people promotes attitudes to social
distance and to nationalism in rural scheduled caste adults (Singh, 1983) C.R. associates with
attitude to social changes in rural people with low economic status. C.C. on the other hand
demotes attitude to liberalism in people of low economic status, C.C. associates with attitude to
social change in rural people of high economic status (Singh, 1983).

About the scale

              The original scale constructed by chauhan and Sharma, 1977 has 25 items with a
seven point scaling; the revised scale has been enlarged to have forty items after a try out by
chauhan (1982). This scale, too, has a seven point scaling.

                The item of the scale have been obtained from 100 elements (25 Hindus who are
traditionists and 25 Hindus who are prograssivistic radicals, 25 traditionist Muslim and 25
radicalists) the obtained item are 145.the item analysis has been done by getting means and
standared deviations selecting only those items that have a mean three times or greater than
their standard deviations.

               The scale contain ‘instructions’ and is self-administrating. Only ticking is required
to respond to items. One out of the possible seven answers is to be chosen. No item is left
without being answered. There is no item limit for answering/ticking.

Completion of the test

Marking /scoring of culture determination.

   Fully       Too much         Much         Average          Less        Very less      Not at all
     7              6              5              4            3              2            1

Criteria of section of the test

We can say that in any scientific study the method and procedure of dal collection processing
are systematic methodological and objective which result in higher dependability and higher
predictability of result. The criteria of section of this test are:-

   1. This test has been prepared especially for cultural determination for the student
      studying in various educational institutions.

   2. Language is simple and can be easily understood by the students.

   3. This is suitable for both English and Hindi medium students.

   4. This test permits freedom of responses both qualitative and quantitative.

   5. This tool can be used for rural and urban students.

Reliability and validity of cultural determination scale.

Reliability of the scale has been determined by the list and retest method. The coefficient of
reliability has been .74 (mean=129.92 and SD=16.40) for the original scale.

            The revised scale of 40 items has a co-efficient of reliability as much as, .81
(mean=131.35 and SD=14.90).

              The coefficient of validity of the revised scale has been determined with ratings
of neighbors knowing the elements intimately. The coefficient of validity has been .63.

                The scale indicates conformity and rebellion towards culture in India through
scoring to the upper and lower ends of the scale, respectively. The scale happens to be a
reliable tool of research in cross-cultural psychology and social science.

II. Vocational aspiration scale (OAS)

Rationale for selecting vocational aspiration scale

               For the present study OAS scale was used by the investigator for proper research

   1) It is suitable for both English and Hindi medium students.

   2) The test was applicable to age group 15-20.

   3) The test was easily available to the investigator.

   4) The reliability and validity of the test has been found to be sufficiently high.
   5) The test is of objective type and easy for scoring.

   6) Easy for administration.

Description of tool

                To measure the vocational aspiration of student’s data was collected with the
help of O.A.S. test designed by Dr. J.S. Grewal (Retd.) professor of education regional college of
education BHOPAL in this list different vocation are kept serially in high; low and medium
standard which is according to student mental and intelligence level.

Occupational aspiration scale

                Acc. To miller 1963 vocational aspiration level sets aim far vocation he designed
OAS in which Ninety (90) vocations are listed. In this 8 objective type question are there in each
question 10 different vocation are given in mixed form. It has been asked which occupational
aspiration will be given preference according to idealism and realism, short term, realism. In
given four groups In idealism, short term, realism and long term each group is evaluated two
times so that the steps become 8 (eight) in number.

Present scale

                Dr. J.S. Grewal designed O.A.S. based on list of vocational given in N.O.R.C. in
Indian context the list which was reduced to 108. It was administered on 200 persons based on
5 point scale the vocations were kept in serial form high to low level.

               The social standing of each vocation was fined by multiply the frequently with
rank of vocation was fired by multiply the frequently with rank of vocational 1, 0, .8, .6, .4, .2 of
between 20 to 95 or more were kept in 0-9 numbers.

Table no 3.2

In given scale every vocation has been used only once. The score were collected with the help
of key the range of each subject is from 0 lowest to highest 9.

               The value ‘9’ indicates the highest honor dignified vocation while ‘0’ indicates
the lowest level of vocation. The individual score of each one range between 0 to 72.

Administration: -

              O.A.S. scale designed by Dr. J.S. Grewal had been administered once group. The
examine had to give answer according to following instructions they are as follows.

Different vocation of your interest have been given. In each question 10 vocation have been
given you have to select only one vocation out of the given 10 vocation. Read carefully each
question. All question are different from each other no question should be left.

Q.1   from the given vocation which vocation is best, which you think you will get surely after
completing your school education.

1.1 Advocate.

1.2 Agriculture Inspector.

1.3 Doctor.

1.4 Primary school teacher.

1.5 Diplomatic in Indian foreign services.

1.6 Barber.

1.7 Psychologists.

1.8 Motor mechanic.

1.9 Salesman.

1.10 Postman.

There is no fixed time for giving answers to these question no answer is right or wrong you have
to select your answer according to your choice they an hour is a sufficient time for the
administration of the test.

                 If required additional answer sheet can be provided but question booklet is
sufficient for it before administration proper instructions should be given.

Scoring instructions:-

              All questions have equal mark in each question there are 10 choices. All the 10
choice have been given marks like this.

Table 3

Alternative                                       Score

1                                                 7

2                                                 4

3                                                 8

4                                                 2
5                                                  9

6                                                  0

7                                                  6

8                                                  3

9                                                  5

10                                                 1

All questions have some marks like given in table so the researcher converts the score into it
score and later on it test have been applied


             The standards have been set up by administrating the scale our 1375 higher
secondary school students based on sex age culture and living place.

Reliability and validity

                 After test-retest method the value of stability was fixed 0.84 for measuring the
internal stability if was again divided into equal parts.

Table 3.6

Both half A & B should internal coefficient of 0.54 which was just different from the reliability of
huller & Muller’s E.A.S. scale whose validity co-efficient was found 0.75.

Application: - the OAS scale is usually used in research significant relationship has been found
between LOA and intelligence (r-0.36 Sharma, 1970) the OAS is also able to distinguish.

About the tool

               Attitude means moving in certain direction it is all concerned with living and
thinking. Thinking from old to progressive discretion various changes which is a part of society
can be seen. Attitude towards modern trends is related to the change or views of modern life
and society. The modern out-look which can be taken from the young generation. Various
changes and progress can be seen in society. What is the real thinking of our generation what is
their view towards modern society. Trends mean a certain fassion or rule which is moving with
time, place and situation.

               There are various aspects in our society. All the social phenomenon are related
to each other each and every thing matter is related to the society its development and growth.
All the views are connected from each and every area. There are several fields for thinking and
showing our attitudes. Some major area are education, social development, social evils poverty,
crime, relationship, behavior of man, believe, faith in god (religion) marriage political issues
social and economical aspect of society, culture, values, ethos, position of man & women in
society. Some social issues like child labor, child marriage social function status of women socio-
economic challenges, all the above areas have their own significant has selected 7 major areas
i.e. politics, relationship, marriage, status of women religion education and socio-economic
factor all the seven areas are very important for knowing the attitude of a man they are
sufficient in them.

Planning of the test

                For the development of inventory the attitude towards modern trend
investigation first planned with the objective of measuring the change in Indian conditions. The
item was selected from daily life situations. The scale was planned to act as sell-administrating
individual as well as group test. Investigator has constructed the tools in both the version i.e.
(Hindi & English).

Section of item:- to construct the inventory 280 statement relating to seven areas (politics,
relationship, marriage, status of women, religion, education and socio-economic cultural factor)
modern attitudes were constructed by the investigator.

               The material of these statements were collected by going through several books
related to social attitudes and values, information regarding science and development,
education, culture, value, philosophical and psychological aspect of life, social status of women,
school books relevant literature news-paper, tests experts statement, opinion of educationists
and other member of the society.

                Items were constructed keeping in view the criterion of items. Question were
prepared in both the languages (Hindi & English) all the items collected for the test were
having their own significance in both the medium as it was the need of research. While
preparation of the items difficulty was found but with the help of experts translation all the
items were arranged properly. Negative and positive statements were framed for each areas.
All were selected for proper investigation of attitudes of the individual may be negative or
positive attitude can change according to need time and place so all the point were kept in
mind while preparing the items.

              First the drafting of test was categorized in seven areas in the first area (politics)
40 statement were constructed by the investigator. For second area (religion) 40 statements
were constructed for the third area (marriage) 40 statements for the fourth area i.e. (status of
women) 40 negative/ positive statement were framed. In fifth area (religion) 40 items were
prepared and for sixth (education) 40 items and seventh area (socio-cultural factor) 40 items
were constructed.
                Equally selection was done the item which seemed to over-lap with one another
were critically examined. After editing the items, the inventory was given to 7 judges to judge
the relevancy of these items for attitude towards modern trends inventory.

                The judges included experts in philosophy, psychology, education, sociology,
science and other knowledge passed in the light of comment made by them some of the items
were either modified or changed and some were reject keeping the psychological content
intact with these, the first draft of the inventory was really and total 140 items were selected.
The first draft of the inventory was administrated to a sample of 30 students to check the
language accuracy etc. after the first draft minor changes were made in the language of some
items. The number of students in the first draft was kept low as it was used only to check the
adequacy of language and ambiguity of items.

Item analysis:-

                 The preliminary form of questionnaire prepared in the manner described earlier
was administered to a random sample of 100 student of high school (XII) of Chhattisgarh state
place Durg and Rajnandgoan district. Their response sheets were scored and were placed in an
ascending order. The top 27% and bottom 27% were selected for item analysis the ‘t’ test was
applied to find out the item discriminating value. The items having significant ‘t’ value were
selected and have been presented in table 3. 70 item in all belonging to seven sub-scales were
selected for the final version of attitude towards modern trends inventory on the basic of
significant ‘t’ values and rank ordering. Which is shown in table no 3.

As is seen from table 3.

10 item (5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to politics, 10 item (5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to relationship, 10
item (5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to marriage, 10 item (5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to status of women, 10
(5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to religion (Faith in god). And 10 (5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to education
and 10 (5+ve, 5-ve) pertaining to socio-culture factors possess adequate discriminability. In
order to have equal distribution of questions it was arranged in a manner of 1 st +ve 7 questions
were related to the 7 areas. Serial no. 8 to 14 –ve questions were related to 7 different areas
no. 15 to 21 again 7 +ve question were arranged 22 to 28 –ve statement related to 7 areas were
arranged 29 to 35 (+ve). 36 to 42 (-ve), 43 to 49 (+ve), 50 to 56 (-ve), 57 to 63 (+ve), 64 to 70 (-
ve). As it is written property in the table no.3

Table no.3

S. no.               Question no.              Statement

1                    1-7                       +ve statement

2                    8-14                      -ve statement

3                    15-21                     +ve statement
4                   22-28                    -ve statement

5                   29-35                    +ve statement

6                   36-42                    -ve statement

7                   43-49                    +ve statement

8                   50-56                    -ve statement

9                   57-63                    +ve statement

10                  64-70                    -ve statement

Area                   Type of item          S. no. of items

     1. Politics       Positive              1,15,29,43,57

                       negative              8,22,36,50,64

     2. Relation       Positive              2,16,30,44,58

                       negative              9,23,37,51,65

     3. Marriage       Positive              3,17,31,45,59

                       negative              10,24,38,52,66

     4. Status of      Positive              4,18,32,46,60
                       negative              11,25,39,53,67

     5. Religion       Positive              5,19,33,47,61

                       negative              12,26,40,54,68

     6. Education      +ve                   6,20,34,48,62

                       -ve                   13,27,41,55,69

     7. Socio-         +ve                   7,21,35,49,63
        factor         -ve                   14,28,42,56,70

Table no.3.1

Result of item analysis and ‘t’ values for attitude towards modern trends (ATMT)
Item    Politics      Relationship Marriage      Status of   Religion      Education Socio-
no.                                              women                               economic

1.      2.58*         2.00           1.61        1.92        2.00          1.16      1.90

2.      3.67**        3.59**         1.12        1.85        4.12**        1.90      2.29*

3.      1.19          2.27*          4.73**      3.35**      1.63          3.82**    5.35**

4.      1.64          1.11           2.98**      1.03        3.46**        4.67**    1.27

5.      2.37*         2.01           1.12        4.78**      1.84          1.89      6.28**

6.      1.64          2.35*          3.38**      3.42**      2.64*         4.98**    1.91

7.      1.76          1.86           1.86        1.08        1.97          6.11**    3.88**

8.      2.17*         3.69**         2.00        5.19**      3.86**        1.76      1.82

9.      2.28*         2.37*          4.58**      3.38**      1.64          4.73**    6.18**

10.     1.89          1.96           2.86**      1.13        2.36*         6.20**    1.74

11.     3.82**        3.05**         3.72**      3.29**      1.79          1.81      3.40**

12.     1.90          4.19**         1.90        4.28**      4.69**        5.21**    1.67

13.     2.14*         1.92           1.76        6.21**      1.82          1.98      5.28**

14.     1.61          3.69**         4.21**      1.26        6.28**        4.37**    1.82

15.     4.97**        1.99           2.69**      1.32        5.02**        1.00      3.62**

16.     1.49          2.62*          3.68**      3.45**      1.81          3.29**    1.84

17.     2.45*         1.86           1.97        1.40        3.81**        2.00      4.89**

18.     1.30          4.17**         5.09**      1.63        1.03          7.94**    1.90

19.     2.61*         1.72           1.90        7.01**      1.10          2.00      5.21**

20.     1.57          1.76           1.20        1.99        4.26**        1.97      2.02

Final table 3

Attitude of item analysis and ‘t’ value for towards modern trends (ATMT)
Item     Politics   Relationship    Marriage     Status of Religion     Education     Socio-
no.                                              women (faith in                      economic
                                                           god)                       factor

1.       2.58*      3.59**          4.73**       3.35**     4.12**      3.82**        2.29*

2.       3.67**     2.27*           2.98**       4.78**     3.46**      4.67**        5.35**

3.       2.37*      2.35*           3.38**       3.42**     2.64*       4.98**        6.28**

4.       2.17*      3.69**          4.58**       5.19**     3.86**      6.11**        3.88**

5.       2.28*      2.37*           2.86**       3.38**     2.36**      4.73**        6.18**

6.       3.82**     3.05**          3.72**       3.29**     4.69        6.20**        3.40**

7.       2.14*      4.19**          4.21**       4.28**     6.28        5.21**        5.28**

8.       4.97**     3.69**          2.69**       6.21**     5.02        4.37**        3.62**

9.       2.45*      2.62*           3.68**       3.45**     3.81        3.29**        4.89**

10.      2.61*      4.17**          5.09**       7.01**     4.26        7.94**        5.21**

70items were kept in the final inventory.

The inventory thus developed is named as attitude towards modern trends inventory (ATMT).


              The reliability of a test or any measuring instrument depends upon the
consistency with which it gauges the ability to whom it is applied. (Garrott, 1973)

                The reliability of the test was measured by test-retest method the result of the
coefficient of correlation of test-retest method which was done with an interval of 15 days
show that an 100 cases the total scale relationship come to be 0.989 which is very high and
significant at 0.1 level of confidence.

The correlation coefficients of different sub-scale have been shown in table no:-3

Procedure of reliability test of ATMT

               Test was applied on 100 students. Score of 7 areas were added of each student
then total of 100 students were done after 15 days the test was again applied to the same 100
student & the score os 7 areas were added of each students and total was done in the same
manner. The total scale relationship come to be 0.99 which is very high and significant at 0.1
level of confidence for finding the correction total scores were taken the value was 0.98901347
after applying the formula.

               r= 2r1/1+r1

               = 2x0.989013471/1+0.989013471

               = 1.978026942/1.989013471

The correlation coefficients of different sub-scale have been shown table:-3

Test-retest reliability method is the simple method of estimating reliability India of a test score.
In test-retest method the single form of a test is administrated twice on the same sample with a
reasonable gap.

In the same way the list was applied twice on the same sample (100) student after 15 days.


Test-retest correlation coefficient of subscales,

S. no.     Areas                                                    Correlation coefficient

I          Politics                                                 0.989

II         Relationship                                             0.981

III        Marriage                                                 0.989

IV         Status of women                                          0.989

V          Religion                                                 0.987

VI         Education                                                0.983

VII        Socio-cultural factor                                    0.974

Validity: - The validity of a test means the degree to which the test actually measures which it
purports to measure.

             There type of validities of attitude towards modern trends inventory were
determined namely face validity, content validity and construct validity.
Face validity:- in the beginning the list of 280 statement were given to 7 experts in education,
psychology, philosophy, sociology and science to judge the relevancy of items with particulars
sub-scale. This unanimity of expert about the items were taken as an indicator of face validity of
the inventory. Total 140 statements were kept of item analysis.

Content validity:- The content areas of the inventory were systematically analyzed the opinion
of 7 expert in the field of psychology, philosophy, sociology conformed that the ATMT inventory
was logically valid and have content validity.

Construct validity:- the construct validity of the ATMT inventory the correlation of different
section of the ATMT inventory with total scale score.

Calculation of the correction of:-

Area 1(Politics) with total scale score was:-

Correlation = 0.707489028

= 1.4149/1.70748

R’ = 0.82864

Area –II (Relationship)

Correlation 0.740737844

= 1.481474/1.740737

R = 0.851064

Area – III (Marriage)

Correlation 0.7182994

= 1.43658/1.7182

R = 0.836049

Area – IV (Status of Woman)


= 1.1742/1.587 = 0.73988

Area – V (Religion)

Correlation 0.778554201

= 2X0.7785542/1+0.77854 = 1.557/1.77884

r = 0.87528
Area – VI (Education)


= 2X0.719828914/1=0.71982891 = 1.43964/1.71982

r = 0.83708

Area = VII (Socio cultural factor)

Correlation 0.831623

= 1.663246/1.831623

= 0.90838

The results of the computation of the correction coefficient have been presented in table 3.

Table 3

Coefficient of correction of total score with score on seven areas

S. no.      Areas                                Correlation coefficient

1.          Politics                             0.82

2.          Relationship                         0.85

3.          Marriage                             0.83

4.          Status of women                      0.73

5.          Religion                             0.87

6.          Education                            0.83

7.          Socio-cultural factor                0.90

                           Administration and instruction

     (I) Testes should be seated comfortably. Before distributing the booklets to the students,
            they should be told clearly not write anything on the booklet until you are told to do
            so read the instructions written on front page of the inventory carefully ask anything
            if it is not clear the test administrator should be removed before hand.

     (II) After the instructions are over the testes should be asked to write the answers in the
             appropriate columns the answers in the appropriate columns due care should be
             given that the students may not omit any questions count the number of booklets
             before the student leave the class.

                               Scoring procedure

                The scoring procedure of the items is very simple the ATMT inventory includes
both positive as well as negative items the maximum score for a positive items to be awarded is
5 and least is 1.

                In case of negative items the scoring procedure id to be reversed as given in
table no.3

Sum of the total score on seven dimensions gives the total ATMT score.

The score to be allowed for different responses are given in the following table.

Table 3

Distribution of items according to response        Response category                     Positive items          Negative items

1.           Fully Agree                           5                       1

2.           Agree                                 4                       2

3.           Undecided                             3                       3

4.           Disagree                              2                       4

5.           Fully disagree                        1                       5

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