Thesis Schlstic Achmnt by vrama

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									Scholastic Achievement Test
Class room scholastic achievement is one of the unique requirements for both school as well as college
pupils. In other words, the class room achievement / scholastic achievement of school pupils deserve special
care and attention.
Scholastic achievement refers to performance in class and / or examination. Achievement in school subjects
is wholly learnt by conscious efforts (kuppuswamy 1974). Generally achievement depends upon the
sustained training and interests during childhood and adolescence (kuppuswamy 1974).
The present study aims at developing tests which may measure the class room achievement of pupils of class
XII (different branches). Here scholastic achievement has been defined as success in Commerce, Arts,
Science, English and Hindi subjects.
Commerce measures knowledge of accountancy, business study and economics. Arts measures knowledge
of civics, history, geography, economics and social/ political information where as science measures
knowledge of mathematics, biological science with zoology and botany including physics and chemistry
which is very important for science students.
English includes knowledge of general rules regarding grammar, literature, composition. Hindi includes
knowledge of grammar (vyakaran), literature (sahitya). All these subjects constitute the core subjects in the
school achievement.

Construction of a scholastic achievement
A test is an educational instrument in assessing the educational achievement of pupils. The test makers are
constructing various types of test in various school subjects. Measurement and evaluation play an important
role in the field of education. All teachers job is not only to give instruction but also to measure and to
evaluate the educational outcomes of pupil’s behavior in course of instruction from time to time. Attempts at
examination reforms have given much attention to the improvement of the form of question and method of
scoring and this has given impact us to the use of objective type tests.
Objective type test are becoming increasingly popular with the research work.
Planning for the present study investigator has prepared a self made scholastic achievement test for class XII
students in both the version (English and Hindi).
The availability of standard achievement in any subject is very rare, most of them don’t conform to the
objective and modern evaluation techniques. Many tests lack definite content, areas, validity, reliability and
objectively. Taking these factors into consideration the present test is comprehensive on covering the course
content of class XII of CBSE as well as C.G.State Board. Mainly subject books were referred for the
construction of the tool. Courses of CBSE Board and State Board (book followed by SCERT) for class XII
was referred. Different subject experts helped to construct the questions. Help of experience teachers were
taken. Post graduate and trained teachers who know the pattern `of the questions tried their level best.
Questions were framed in both the languages (English & Hindi). As it was administrated on English and
hindi medium students.
In class XII we have students of different streams mainly science group, Arts group and Commerce group.
They opt the subject in class XI after 10th board only.
Accordingly to the group the investigator has prepared the questions related to their subjects only.
English and Hindi subject were common for all the students as they all study English and Hindi equally. As
it is a compulsory subject.
Test was constructed for the age group of 16 to 18 for both male and female students studying in navodaya
vidyalaya and ashram schools of C.G.

Preparation of the Test
Very finely the investigator has prepared the questions with the help of subject experts in bboth the version.
Same questions are constructed in both the version with equal marks by translation .Total marks for
individual group is 150.
At first questions of English subject were constructed more than 45 questions were prepared by the
investigator. All the questions were of objective type with multiple choice answers. Fill in the blanks,
matching, complete the statement, changing of statement and write the difference.
The pattern of English subject was related with the grammar, to test the grammatical aspect and to measure
their writing ability, quick response, knowledge based to express the view etc.
Some questions were admitted by the subject teacher to remove the ambiguity, defective formation of
questions were removed. After rectifying the questions by the experts 30 questions were left and approved
by the subject teacher.

Standardization Process
Pre-try out (Preliminary try out)
Preliminary time out is very essential for each test
Questions prepared in English subjects were administered on a sample of 100 students. Each and every
questions were printed systematically and was applied on class XII students of different stream by random
method.
After collecting the data, item validity (item analysis) was done by the investigator.
After the items have been written reviewed and carefully edited, they are subjected to a procedure called
item analysis , item analysis is a set of procedures that is applied to know the indices for the truthfulness (or
validity) of items. In other words, item analysis is a technique through which those items which are valid
and suited to the purpose are selected and the rest are either eliminated or modified to suit the purpose. Each
item is an element within a test. The validity of the whole test is dependent upon the validity of the
individual items.
Item analysis is a set of procedures that provides us with the estimate of validity of each items.
Procedure for the item validity, difficulty level and discriminating power for English subject.
After collecting the data on a sample of 100 students.
 Individual scoring of each student was done. Then the scores were noted. Afterwards the scores of 100
students were arranged ion two groups 27 % lower group and 27 % of higher group.
Then a table was drawn where each item no. mentioned and correct response of lower group students and
correct response of upper group students were noted for ex-items-1-correct response of L.G. = 10
Correct response of U.G. = 21 and both the value was seen in Falagan chart where the value is more than .20
is accepted and where the value is less than .20 level then it is rejected. In such a way 15 items were selected
As shown in the complete chart
                                            Table no-3

                                          Item Validity of the items
                                          Item1       .21
                                          Item2       .26
                                          Item3       .21
                                          Item4       .26
                                          Item5       .26
                                          Item6       .21
                                          Item7         .26
                                          Item8         .22
                                          Item9         .22
                                          Item10        .21
                                          Item11        .26
                                          Item12        .21
                                          Item13        .21
                                          Item14        .26
                                          Item15        .22


For Difficulty Level
Difficulty Level: - it is another important part of finding out the difficulty level of the items. The difficulty
level of an item is defined as the proportion or percentage of the examinees or individuals who answer the
item correctly. This proportion or percentage is known as the index of difficulty of an item

Procedure
For the present tool difficulty level was found by using the method of ______________
Example 1: -
Item of the test applied on 100 students solved correctly by 75 students what will be the difficulty level.
N = Number of Students
R = Students solved answer correctly
N = 100                                                                 DL = R / N = 75 / 100
R = 75                                                                         = .75 x 100
= 75 %
Note: - more than   % of difficulty level more simplicity of that item
 % of difficulty level         -       30 %          Difficult
                         More than 30 %              Easy
                                       40 %          Average
Range of difficulty level is between 80 to 30 %
So, after calculating difficulty level of each item was found which is shown in table no – 3.
Table no – 3.

                                       Item          Difficulty Level
                                       1             77
                                       2             77
                                       3             61
                                       4             61
                                       5             65
                                       6             49
                                       7             63
                                       8             54
                                       9             58
                                       10            55
                                        11         61
                                        12         55
                                        13         60
                                        14         41
                                        15         74


Discrimination
The determination of the index of discrimination also known as the item validity index is another important
aspect in item analysis
Index of discrimination is that ability of the item on the basis of which the discrimination or distinction is
made between superior inferior individuals in the trait or group of traits being measured.
The discriminatory power or validity (V) of the item may be defined as the extent to which success and
failure on that item indicate the possession of the trait or achievements being measured.
Process of discriminating power of the present test.
Method applied was
(RU – RL) / 27
RU = Right response of Upper group
RL = Right response of Lower group
27 is the % of 100 students
When the value v is negative, the item displays negative discrimination and thus. It is dropped from the final
form of the test. When the values of v (Net D) of items are above 0.40 they are thought to be discriminating
well between superior and inferior. Net d falling between 0.20 and 0.40 are considered to be discriminating
poorly and those falling below 0.20 are considered to be the index of very little discrimination or negligible
discrimination.
Example: -      To illustrate ; suppose the number of correct responses in the lower group is 70 on an item
and the total number of examinees in each of these two extreme
V = (RU – RL) / N = 10 / 100 = 0.10
The said item has the net D of 0.10 which indicates that the item has negligible discriminatory power. Such
items are ordinarily dropped or suitably modified. Same method was applied and the discriminating power
of each item is mentioned below
Item Δ           (21-10) / 27   = 11 / 27    = 0.40
Table no 3.

                                Item              Discriminating power
                                1                 .40
                                2                 .51
                                3                 .44
                                4                 .62
                                5                 .48
                                6                 .44
                                7                 .48
                                8                 .40
                                9                 .48
                              10                  .40
                              11                  .40
                              12                  .37
                              13                  .40
                              14                  .40
                              15                  .59


In the same way item analysis of Hindi subject was done. 30 questions were selected by the subject experts
from 40 prepared questions. 15 questions were accepted by item analysis (result shown in table no 3. ) was
the same from the sample of 100 students 27 % upper group and 27 % of lower group was selected and
arranged. In the same manner item validity was done
Table no: 3.

                   Item     Item Value      Difficulty level      Discriminating power
                   1        .36             89                    .74
                   2        .26             90                    .62
                   3        .26             89                    .62
                   4        .26             76                    .62
                   5        .21             70                    .51
                   6        .26             70                    .44
                   7        .26             69                    .51
                   8        .21             65                    .44
                   9        .21             69                    .44
                   10       .26             77                    .147
                   11       .21             67                    .44
                   12       .21             66                    .44
                   13       .21             61                    .48
                   14       .30             65                    .66
                   15       .22             79                    .59


15 questions were selected in Hindi subject after the item analysis
Item analysis of Arts subject
For the construction of Arts subject, help of subject teacher were taken – Arts ( Social Science) subject
includes history, civics, geography and economics. Questions were prepared by th e investigator according
to the category wise. It is relevant for the Arts group who study in class XII. All these subjects includes
different information of society, social phenomenon, past and present social issues of our country and world,
environmental factors, geographical aspect, information, war, discovery, economic planning, industrial
development etc which is in their syllabus. 5 to 8 books were referred and the subject experts who are taking
Arts classes helped to construct the tool
Questions were in objective from and choices are given
For Example: -         write the dates, write full form, choose the appropriate answer, write one word, name
the islands, fill in the blanks, name the leaders. Few questions were in statement form like defining,
distinguish between. All the type of questions were equally distributed and the pattern was to follow the
syllabus
        From the prepared 40 questions 30 were selected by the experts and further the item were analysed
after applying on sample of 100 students.
After putting in the formula .20 items were selected after item analysis



                 Item No.       Item Validity   Difficulty level    Discriminating power
                 1              .21             67                  .40
                 2              .21             64                  .33
                 3              .26             68                  .44
                 4              .26             64                  .44
                 5              .21             56                  .40
                 6              .21             59                  .37
                 7              .37             59                  .33
                 8              .26             60                  .37
                 9              .21             60                  .40
                 10             .36             68                  .25
                 11             .26             75                  .44
                 12             .22           60                     .44
                 13             .22           76                     .37
                 14             .21           66                     .33
                 15             .26           66                     .48
                 16             .31           74                     .55
                 17             .21           69                     .44
                 18             .21           59                     .37
                 19             .21           61                     .44
                 20             .26           62                     .55


*Item Analysis of Commerce Subjects
COmmerece Subject Is releated to accountancy ,business studies,economics statics,Cost Acconting.
         Today commerece Subject is is liked & apt by the students after 10th board commerece as a main
stream is taken in the class 10th.in CBSE as well as in state board it is taught as a main stream branch. It has
a significant value in many field like banking,management ,corporate_office,statistics department bussiness
and trade.
                                                     For the preparation of the questions,experts of coaching
classes,school teachers experiences faculty of schools and colleges helped a lot.
50 question were constricted which were all releated to accountancy,economics ,finance markering ,trade .4
options were in each questions.
                                            After that item analysis was done in the same process which
ahs     been     done      in    the    other    subjects    .     upper    27%     &     lower    27%
tekenfromsampleof100studentstheywerearrangedandformulawasapplied.30itemswereselectedandrest20items
wererejectedlistofselecteditemsaregivenbelow.

Item                  Item validity     Difficulty           Discriminating index
1                     .26               77                   0.40
2                     .21               72                   0.44
3                     .21               78                   .48
4                     .21               59                   .51
5                     .21               66                   .40
6                     .31               65                   .51
7                     .26               69                   .55
8                     .22               57                   .51
9                     .21               72                   .40
10                    .26               62                   .51
11                    0.36              69                   .74
12                    .21               58                   .51
13                    .26               72                   .44
14                    .21               70                   .59
15                    .22               66                   .51
16                    .26               66                   .51
17                    .26               62                   .62
18                    .26               55                   .44
19                    .21               62                   .59
20                    .21               58                   .51
21                    .21               58                   .40
22                    .30               66                   .66
23                    .21               64                   .51
24                    .31               57                   .55
25                  .30                  69               .62
26                  .26                  72               .33
27                  .21                  68               .44
28                  .26                  65               .29
29                  .30                  56               .29
30                  .30                  58               .18


                                Table No :-3
                      Table of Selected Items

Item no




              *ITEMS VALIDITY OF SCIENCE SUBJECTS
Insciencetreamwehave2basicsubjectsbiologyandmaths.inbiologystudentsstudybotony,zoology,physics&che
mistryandmathsstudentsstudymaths,phy,chemistrysubjectsissametheyfollowthesamesyllabusandpattern
Forthepresentstudyinvestigatorconstructedseperatlyallthesubjectssubjectteacherhelpedalottoconstructtheques
tionformaths20questionswerereleatedtoalgebra,probality,trignometryetc.allthequestionscarryequalmarkswith
fouroptionsinwhichtheyhavetoselectonlyoneanswereafter
Itemanlyasisonly 10questionswereacceptedand10werereected
Tableisgivenbelow

1                         .31                      67                    .62
2                         .21                      70                    .44
3                         .21                      56                    .55
4                         .21                      59                    .59
5                         .26                      .44                   .44
6                         .36                      56                    .77
7                         .26                      66                    .70
8                         .25                      65                    .55
9                         .34                      68                    .77
10                        .36                      77                    .70


                                Item analysis
                                Physiscssubjects
 20
questionswerepreparedinphysiscthequestionwhichwereconstructedtakenfromnumeriaclbookshandbookandm
aincoursebookofphysics
                                     10questionswereselectedaftertheprocedureofitemanalysis
              Tableisgivenbelow
Validitydifficultydiscrimainatingpower

1                       .21                     60                      .37
2                       .36                     57                      .62
3                       .26                     53                      .44
4                       .26                     59                      .55
5                       .21                     58                      .44
6                       .43                     44                      .59
7                       .21                     54                      .33
8                       .21                     56                      .40
9                       .21                     56                      .40
10                      .22                     58                      .51


*Items analysisofchemistrysubjects
20questions
werepreparedinchemistry,exsubjectsteachershelpedtoconstructtheitems.somebookswerealsofollowedasarefre
nce.
       10questionswerepreapredinwhileitemanalysisprocess

1                       .26                  49                      .51
2                       .31                  46                      .55
3                       .26                  50                      .44
4                       .26                  65                      .48
5                       .22                  68                      .62
6                       .26                  48                      .62
7                       .21                  5                       .44
8                       .31                  56                      .62
9                       .26                  60                      .59
10                      .27                  67                      .66
Forbiologyseperastlybotonyandzoologysubjectswereconstructedforzoology.20questionswereconstructedouto
f20,10 itemswereaccepted
*Itemsanalysisofzoologysubjects

1                      .26                    71                      .70
2                      .21                    59                      .443
3                      .21                    67                      .44
4                      .43                    55                      .55
5                      22                     58                      .59
6                      .26                    68                      .48
7                      .30                    69                      .77
8                      .26                    66                      .48
9                      .30                    73                      .70
10                     .36                    71                      .77
Forbotonysubjects20objectivetypequestionswerepreparedwiththehelpofteachersandbooks.outof20only10item
swereselected,asshowninthetable

1                       .36                     69                      .62
2                       .31                     72                      .66
3                       .26                     53                      .44
4                         .21                70            .40
5                         .26                56            .51
6                         .22                60            .70
7                         .26                56            .51
8                         .36                61            .62
9                         .40                53            .92
10                        .26                64            .62
Instructions:-
Scoring:-
*scoringkey(forenglishsubject)
Correstanswerhavebennshowninparenthesis) total marks(45)
[1](a)of       [2](a)an       [3](a)all
[4](a)nomanismortal
(b)noneofthecloudsarewithoutasilverlining
(c)noneoftheactsoflinconwerefarfrombeinghonest
[5](a)generation
(b)creation
(c)judgment
[6](a)agreement
(b)nightmare
(c)hereticopinion
[7](a)thekeyhasbeeenlost
(b)thetreemustbeplanted
(c)aprizecanbewinbyyou
[8](a)heshoutedthattolettheofficepersongo.
(b)heaskedmewheniwillcome?
(c)hetoldhimthathewasverybusythem.
[9](a)planning
(b)doing
(c)finding
[10](a)raju is more naughtier than vikas.
(b)harsh is taller than all the othr boys
[11](a)about
(b)know
(c)bedrecks
[12](a)rigid
(b)admiration
[13](a)secuar
(b))dull
(c)deney
(d)native
[14](a)Charles dickens
(b)Bernard shaw
[15](a)give me a piece of cake
White is a symbol of peace
*scoring key( for social scince subjects)
(correct answers have been shown in th parnthesis)
[1](a)jan 10,1966
(b)1972
(c)july 1985
(d2000
(e)2001
(f)1999
[ii](a)non aligned movement
(b)interntiona labour organization
(c)food and agriculture prganisaqtion
(d)united nation education science and cultura organsiation
(e)united nation organization
(f)word hath organization
[iii](1)a
(2) b
(3)a
(4) b
(5) c
[iv](1)capital
(2)investment
(3)production
(4)the bartr system
(5)mixed economy
[v](1)mineral ore
(2)mineral oil
(3)rock
(4)offshore drilling
[vi](1)a
(2)b
(3)b
(4)a
[vii](1)kaziranga nationa park
(2)corbett nationa park
[Viii](1)rock cut caves
(2)sun temples
(3)jama maszid
(4)seven wonders of the world
[ix](1)6
(2)1
(3)2
(4)3
(5)7
(6)4
(7)8
(8)5
[x](1)Andaman nicobar isand
(2)maldeep
[xi](1)sunderban
(2)mountains
(3)fundamentals
(4)chid abuse
(5)corruption
[xii](hdi
(2))gdp
(3)dtt
(4)hepatitis
(5)infanticide
[xiii](1)Britain and france
(2)german & Italy
(3)japan
[xiv](1)Kenya
(2)Libya
(3)angola
(4)Madagascar
(5)Nigeria
[xv](1)latin
(2)jyoti basu
(3)Chandra shekar
(4)A.O.Hume
(5)shyam prassd mukherjee
(6)mayawati
[xvi]define in own words..
(a)
(b)
[xvii]Answer in own words..
(a)………..
(b)……………………..
[xviii]ans……….
[Xix]ans in own words.
(1)……………………..
(2)………….
[xx]answers in own words…
*scoring key(commerce subjects)
(1)a            (11)a         (21)a
(2)c            (12)d         (22)b
(3)a            (13)c         (23)c
(4)b            (14)b         (24)c
(5)c            (15)b         (25)c
(6)c            (16)a         (26)c
(7)d            (17)d         (27)c
(8)a            (18)b         (28)b
(9)c            (19)a         (29)c
(10)b           (20)c         (30)d
*scoring key (maths subjects)
(1)a            (6b)
(2)b            (7)c
(3)a            (8)d
(4)c            (9)c
(5)d            (10)d

*scoring key(physics subj.)
(1)b           (6)a
(2)d           (7)b
(3)a           (8)c
(4)c           (9)c
(5)c           (10)a
* scoring key(chemistry sub)
(1)d           (6)a
(2)c           (7)b
(3)c           (8)d
(4)b           (9)a
(5)c           (10b
* scoring key(biology)
1)c            (6)a
(2)a           (7)b
(3)d           (8)c
(4)d           (9)c
(5)c           (10)c
*scoring key(zoology subj)
1)d            (6)d
(2)d           (7)b
(3)b           (8)b
(4)a           (9)c
(5)a           (10)c




Realibility
Reliability is one of the important characteristics of any test.reliabilty refers to the pericisions ,accuracy,of
the measurement of score.
Reliabiity refers to this consistency of scores or measurement which is refaected in thg reproductivity of the
scores.
   A test is said to be consisted over a given period of time when al the examinations retain their same
relative ranks of two separate testing with the same test.a test is ao said to b consisted (when admanished
once)if the examines who obtain high scores on one set of items aso score high on an equivalent set of items

*Methods(or types)of reliability
Thre are four most common methods of estimating the reliability coffecient of test scores.these methods
are:-
(i)test retest reliability
(2)interna consistency reliability and
(3)parallel form reliability or alternate forms reliability.

Internal consistency reliability method was appid in the present research the most common method of
estaminating internal consistency reliability is the split half method.and this method was equal or nerly equal
halves.the common way of splitting the test is the odd even method.
From the sampe of 100 student this method of applied scoring was divided into odd and even metho.
Total of odd items and totra of even items were kept seperatly of one student.
By splitting a tabe was drawn for ach subject
First the scors were arranged in increasing numbers then the calculation was done by using product moment
(pm)correlation to obtain th reliability of the half test.on the basis of this half test reliability the reliability for
th whole test is estimated.

*work sheet for the old even reliabity
Examinee                          No of correct score/on odd no No of even
                                  items
A                                 16                            15
b                                 14                            13
C                                 -                             -

In the tabe no-3 each exam has two scores one for ther odd numbere items and anothers for the even
numberd items.subsequently pm correlation is computd between two sets of scores.this amounts to reaibility
of the half test when the reliability coefficient of the haf test is known
Th spearman brown prophecy formula is usd for estimating the reliability of threw hoe test.
The formua is =r=2r1
                   1+r1

                Small r=the r3eliability coefficient of total test
                R1=reliability coefficient of the two split items of the test.
                R=2*value
                1+value
                To illustrate suppose the reliability coefficient of the half test(.70)
                Hen r=2*0.70
                     1+.070=0.82
                In the present study the investigator has used the spit half method for each and every subjects
                which is prepared for academic achievements test for computing reliability of the test.
                1)Reliability of(English)subject
                The realibility of English subject was 0.5594(.559)which was accepted
                Range according to which the reliability is measured between .64 to .80.

                *The split half reliability of the english subject is .55

                2)Reliability of (Hindi) subject
                After using split half method inn scores of hindi subject .after computing correlation .the split
                half reliability of the hindi subject is .64

                3)Reliablity of (arts)subjects
Scores of arts subjects was computed by split half method and the reliability was .65

4)reliability of (commerce)subject
Same method was applied on commerce subject and the reliability was found to be .673

5)Reliability (maths) subjects
The reliability of maths subjects to be .799

*for the physics subjects reliability was found to be .657
*for the chemistry subjects .4827 was the reliability
*for botony subjects .73236 was found as reliability
*for zoology subjects also .833923 waqs reliability
        All has been cleared in Table No:-
             Table No :-30
Relaibility coefficient for scholastic achievement Test(of different subjects)
                For class xii
Subjects                                          Split half reliability
English                                           .55
Hindi                                             .64
Arts                                              .65
Commerce                                          .673
Maths                                             .799
Physics                                           .657
Chemistry                                         .482
botany                                            .732
Zoology                                           .833

       All correlation values were significant(at .01 level of significant)

       *validity
       Validity means truth or fidelity thus validity refers to the degree to which a test
       measures what it claims to measure.vlildity is not the self correlation of the test,rather
       it iis the correlation with some out side independent criteria
                A test is vaid to the extent that it series the purpose for which it is to be used.
       The correlation coefficient can be calculate by different method.
       Important once being pearsons,biseriece point biseriall ,tetra choricr
       Int the present study according to the importance of the study point biserial method
       was applied for validity of the test(S.A)
                For computing validity scores of 100 students were arrange in two parts ,cut
       off range was kept in two groups.
       First group was ivied in a cut off range of more than 85 marks ,second group was
       divided by marks less than 85%.total scores of the academic achievement was divided
       of sample 100 students in which contains 40 students who scored more than 85 out of
       140 marks.
                In second group 60 studentds scores less than 85 marks out of 140.
       Shown in Table No.-31
       S.No
       1
       2
       3
       4

       6
       7
       8
9
10
11
12
13
14
1
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Mean was compute in both the groups
By using the formula
MP-MQ       *    PQ
 6T

     90.45-55.51        *40*60
      6*T

     =34.94 *2400
     =34.94 *48.9897
      20.25
     =1.72*48.98
     =84.49.05
     =84.4905/100               8449.0
     =0.8449
     Table No:-….

     Validity coefficient for scholastic achievement for class xii
     Cut off range             No. of Student          Mean
     More than 85              40                      90.45
     Less than 8               60                      5.51


     Validity 0.8449

								
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