Summer training report - mba by vrama

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									                                        A

                            Summer Training Report

                                       On

                EFFECTIVENESS OF QUALITY CIRCLE

                                         At

              “BHARAT ALUMINIUM COMPANY LIMITED
                        KORBA(C.G.)”
          Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of

                 MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

                                        Of

       “Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University”

                                   2008-2010

                                    Submitted By :

                               SHABNAM RAYEEN

                           M.B.A III , AUG-DEC 2009




                       DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

              RUNGTA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

              (Accredited NBA-AICTE, an ISO 9002 Certified Institute)

                     Kohka-Kurud Road, Bhilai-490024, (C.G)

RCET,Bhiali                                                             Page 1
                        ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to pay my sincere gratitude to Mr. SOURABH MISHRA Manager

(HRD) human resource development centre, BALCO who has permitted me to carry
  on this golden opportunity to accomplish my project report on HRD with particular
         emphasis on “BHARAT ALUMINIUM COMPANY LIMITED KORBA(C.G.)”

Every researcher I pursuit of his/her objective collects enormous empirical debt of
gratitude to other and I am no exception to it. Completing task is never one effort; it
is often result of a valuable contribution of number of individual in direct or indirect
way in shaping success or achieving it. Here I take the opportunity to extend my
sincere gratitude to Miss.ADITI AGRAWAL Senior Manager(HR), for allowing me to
experience great work environment in their esteemed organization at BALCO at
Korba.

This acknowledgement is incomplete without giving special thanks to the person who
are directly or indirectly associated with the project.

Last but not the least I’m pay my deep regard to my parents and gratitude to God,
without whom I was not able to complete this project




                                                                   SHABNAM RAYEEN




RCET,Bhiali                                                                         Page 2
                               DECLARATION

I SHABNAM RAYEEN the student of M.B.A in Rungta College of
Engineering and Technology hereby declares that the project entitled
“BHARAT ALUMINIUM COMPANY LIMITED KORBA(C.G.)” is record of
original work done by me and the matters enclosed has not been
submitted by anyone else for the award of any other degree or diploma in
university or anywhere else.




DATE :-                                             SHABNAM RAYEEN

PLACE :- BHILAI                                            M.B.A III




RCET,Bhiali                                                            Page 3
                       TABLE OF CONTENT




                                                                 Page
     CHAPTER                            TOPICS
                                                                 No.
i) Declaration
ii) Certificate
iii) Preface
iv)Acknowledgme
nt


Chapter-I         INTRODUCTION
                       1.1   Introduction of the topic
                       1.2   Objective of the project
                       1.3   Hypothesis
                       1.4   Company profile
                             1.4.1 Introduction of Balco
                             1.4.2 Aluminum High Quality Asset
                             1.4.3 Plant Over View
                             1.4.4 Operational Performance
                             1.4.5 An Overview on Alumina
                     Refinery
Chapter-II        ABOUT THE PROJECT WORK
                       2.1   Quality Circle - A Way to Quality
                  Improve
                       2.2   Genesis of Quality Circle
                       2.3   Organizational Structure
                       2.4   Launching Quality Circle
                       2.5   Problem Statement


Chapter-Ill       METHODOLOGY
                       3.1   Research Method Vs Methodology

RCET,Bhiali                                                      Page 4
                      3.2    Collection of Data
                      3.3    Research design
                      3.4    Sample design



Chapter-IV            4.1 ANALYSIS & DATA INTERPRETATION
                             4.1.1 Interpretation & Analysis
                             4.1.2 Research Instrument
                             4.1.3 Analysis & Test Applied
                             4.1.4 Hypothesis Testing
Chapter-V      FINDINGS & LIMITATION
               5.1   Findings
               5.2   Limitation
Chapter-VI     SUGGESTION
Chapter-VII    CONCLUSION
Chapter-VIII   BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chapter-IX     ANNEXURE




RCET,Bhiali                                                    Page 5
                CHAPTER-I
              INTRODUCTION




RCET,Bhiali                  Page 6
Quality Circle an introduction:-


    •      Voluntary groups of employees who work on similar tasks or share an
           area of responsibility.
    •      Agree to meet on a regular basis to discuss & solve problems related to
           work.
    •      operate on the principle that employee participation in decision-making
           and problem-solving improves the quality of work.


Characteristics:-
-       Volunteers
-       Set Rules and Priorities'..
-       Decisions made by Consensus      |
-       Use of organized approaches to Problem-Solving
-       All members of a Circle need to receive training
-       Members need to be empowered
-       Members need to have the support of Senior Management


Advantages of quality circles:-
    •      Increase Productivity
    •      Improve Quality
    •      Boost Employee Morale




RCET,Bhiali                                                                 Page 7
DISADVANTAGES/PROBLEMS WITH QC


• Inadequate Training
• Unsure of Purpose
• Not truly Voluntary
• Lack of Management Interest
• Quality Circles are not really empowered to make decisions.


       Dear Friends Quality Circles is an efficient instrument to ensure employee
contribution to company efforts to advance quality, effectiveness, to minimize cycle
time, expenditure and rework.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 8
                      OBJECTIVE & CURRICULUM


Training is an important aspect of Quality Circle activity. Many a
time, in their enthusiasm to launch Quality Circle without delay,
many organizations skip the training, thereby jeopardizing the
success of Quality Circles.


The major objectives of this report, to check the effectiveness of Quality Circles in
Balco Plant-II through:
(a)     For a through understanding and assimilation of the concept. For most of us
in India the Quality Circles phenomenon is a new one. Being entirely               different
from all other techniques that we have so far been used to, it           calls         for     a
detailed explanation to be correctly understood. It is also      necessary        to     clarify
many misconceptions that exist with regard to the        concept of Quality Circles.
(b)   To translate the philosophy into practice. Dealing with the employees at               the
Grassroots as the concept does, and having an interface with many                  other
forces that are prevalent in any organization, the subject is a very     delicate            one
therefore has to be handled very carefully. Adequate planning          and       preparations
have to be carried out prior to actual launching of Quality Circles in Balco Plant-II.
(c)     To solve problems systematically in Balco Plant -II through simple technique.
Being £ people-building philosophy and not just a people-        using       one,            the
prospective Quality Circle practitioners are trained to use      simple statistical quality
control and other technique for identifying      problems,    analyzing      and        solving
them.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                              Page 9
(d)    To     improve   communication    capability.   Not   everyone,   even    at   the
       managerial level in Bah Plant, is adept at conducting meetings, making
       others participate in discussions and ensuring proper communication.
(e)    To develop leadership qualities and build up individuals. For the first
       time workers my play the role of leading their colleagues in the activities    of
Quality Circle. In order to discharge this newly found function of     leadership,
prospective.


       Quality Circle practitioners are trained in the principles of able leadership, the
essence        group dynamics vis-a-vis Quality Circle and how to utilize the
opportunity for self an mutual development of individuals in Plant.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                      Page 10
                                  HYPOTHESIS


Hypothesis means a mere assumption or some supposition to be proved or
disproved. But for a researcher hypothesis is a formal question that he intends to
resolve. Thus a hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a set of proposition
set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of
phenomena either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide some
investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.


NULL HYPOTHESIS


Quality Circle is effective in BALCO PLANT-II


ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (µ: Ha):-
Quality Circle is not effective in BALCO PLANT-II
Started In 1973 with a capacity of 100,000 TPA.
       Fully Integrated Aluminum Complex comprising of )


      Alumina refinery, Soderberg (VSS) smelter & Fabrication Plant.
       270 MW Power Plants.
       Privatized in 2001 with Vedanta acquiring the Majority' Stake.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                       Page 11
Journey 2001 Onwards
      Operational Improvements and Debottlenecking of the old Plant 100 -115
      KTPA.
      Setting up of 245,000 TPA Pre bake Smelter and 540 MW CJPP in a record
      time.
      Successful Ramp up and commissioning of the new Project.
      Achieving Full Capacity and stabilization of the new operations.
       Continuous improvements to achieve Benchmarking Parameters.
       Augmenting the mining capacities in line with increased output.
      Bodai - Daldali Kawardha Deposited:-
      Bauxite deposited - Reserve on 6.3 million tons.




      Korba complex:-
      Alumina refinery - 200,000 tpa alumina.
      (VSS aluminum smelter)


      Alumina refinery-100,000 tpa aluminums
       (Prebake Aluminum smelter)


      Alumina refinery-254,000 tpa aluminum
      (Captive power plant 810 MW)


      Mainpat Miner-


      Bauxite mine - Reserve of 4.6 million tons.




RCET,Bhiali                                                              Page 12
              BALCO PLANT




RCET,Bhiali                 Page 13
              OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE




RCET,Bhiali                             Page 14
RCET,Bhiali   Page 15
              AN OVERVIEW ON ALUMINA REFINERY


Alumina Refinery Process


      Bayer process for Alumina extraction.
       Raw materials.
      Unit Operations involved in Bayer process.
      Key Process Parameters and their influence.
      Process Calculations.
       Product Quality.


Bayer process


      The principal ore for the production of Alumina is bauxite (named after village
      Baux in France where it was first found).
      The age old process for the production of Alumina is the Bayer process.
      The process involves the digestion of Alumina from bauxite at high
      temperature.
      In digestion liquor and then precipitation of the dissolved Alumina from the
      pregnant liquor at low temperature




RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 16
A12O3.3H2O + Na2O --> Na2O.A12O3 + 3H2O
A12O3.H2O + Na2O --> Na2O.Al2O3 + H2O Na2O.A12O3 + 3H2O -->
A12O3.3H2O +Na2O


Mineral Phases In Bauxite;-


Minerals                % in Bxt.             Phase               Structure


Alumina                 78 - 80%              Gibbsite     A12O3.3H2O


(46-47%)                 13-15 %             Boehmite      A12O3. H2O


                          4-5 %              Diaspore      A12O3. H2O


                          3-4 %           Alumino Goethite (Fe, A1)2.03.H2


                          1-2%               Kaolinite     A12O3.2SiO2.2ffi


Silica                    13%                Kaolinite     A12O3.2SiO2H2O
(3 to 5 %)                87%                 Quartz       SiO2
Fe2O3                     40%                Hematite      Fe2O3
(17-20%)                  60%                 Goethite     Fe.OOH(Fe203.H2)


TiO2                      10%                  Rutile      Ti02


(8- 10.0%)                90%                 Anatase      Ti02


Vanadium                  0.2%                             V205


Phosphorous Carbon        0.2%                             P2O5
                          0.2%                Organic      (Humic Matter
                                                           Inorganic)


RCET,Bhiali                                                             Page 17
RCET,Bhiali   Page 18
         UNIT OPERATIONS/PROCESS & EQUIPMENTS

    MAJOR


      Bauxite crushing & Grinding.
      Digestion Liquor Preparation.
      Desalination
      Digestion & Heat Recuperation System
      Dilution
      Settling.
      Counter current Mud Washing & Mud Disposal
      Aluminates Liquor Filtration (Control filtration)
      Aluminates Liquor Cooling
      Precipitation
      Hydrate Filtration
      Hydrate thickening
      Evaporation
      Calcinations




RCET,Bhiali                                               Page 19
              CHAPTER-II
     ABOUT THE PROJECT
                WORK




RCET,Bhiali                Page 20
               Quality Circle-A way to Quality Improvement




       People are the greatest assets of an organization, because, through people
all other resources are converted into utilities. However, management of 'People
Resources has always been a vexed problem ever since the beginning of organized
human activities number of managerial responses have been developed to answer
this question. Participate methods in the workplace are one way to improve both the
work environment for employees and productivity and quality for the company.


       Quality Circle is one of the employee participation methods. It implies
development of skills, capabilities, confidence and creativity of the people the
cumulative process of education, training, work experience and participation. It also ii
the creation of facilitative conditions and environment: of work, which creates and
sustains their motivation and commitment towards work excellence. Quality Circles
have emerged a mechanism to develop and utilize the tremendous potential of
people for improvement product quality and productivity.
as well as the organization. It is "a way of capturing the creative and innovative
power that lies within the work force".




RCET,Bhiali                                                                     Page 21
 PHILOSOPHY


       Quality Circles is a people-building philosophy, providing self-motivation and
happiness in improving environment without any compulsion or monetary benefits. It
represents a philosophy of managing people specially those at the grass root level
as well as a clearly defined mechanism and methodology for translating this
philosophy into practice and a required structure to make it a way of life. It is bound
to succeed where people. I are respected and are involved in decisions, concerning
their work life, and in environments where peoples' capabilities are looked upon as
assets to solve work-area problems.


       The Quality Circle philosophy (falls for a progressive attitude on the part of the
management and their willingness to make adjustments, if necessary, in their style
and culture. If workers are prepared to contribute their ideas, the management must
be willing to create a congenial environment to encourage them to do so.


  CONCEPT
       The concept of Quality Circle is primarily based upon recognition of the value
of the worker as a human being, as someone who willingly activists on his job, his
wisdom, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings. It is based upon the human
resource management considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of
product quality & productivity. Quality Circle concept has three major attributes:
a. Quality Circle is a form of participation management.
b. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique.
c. Quality Circle is a problem solving technique.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                      Page 22
                   ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE


       A Quality Circle has an appropriate organizational structure for its effective
and efficient performance. It varies from industry to industry, organization to
organization. But it is useful to have a basic framework as a model. The structure of
a Quality Circle consists of the following elements.


i.     A steering committee: This is at the top of the structure. It is headed by
       a senior executive and includes representatives from the top management
       personnel and human resources development people. It establishes policy,
       plans and directs the program and meets usually once in a month.


ii.    Co-coordinator:         He may be a Personnel or Administrative officer who
       co-ordinates and supervises the work of the facilitators and administers      the
programme.


iii.   Facilitator: He may be a senior supervisory officer. He co-ordinates the
       works of several quality circles through the Circle leaders.
iv.    Circle leader: Leaders may be from lowest level workers or Supervisors.
       A Circle leader organizes and conducts Circle activities.


v.     Circle members: They may be staff workers. Without circle members the
porgramme cannot exist. They are the lifeblood of quality circles.     They       should
attend all meetings as far as possible, offer suggestions and ideas,          participate
actively in group process, take training seriously with a      receptive attitude. The
roles of Steering Committee, Co-Ordinator,       Facilitator, Circle leader and Circle
members are well defined.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                     Page 23
LAUNCHING QUALITY CIRCLES


         The major prerequisite for initiating Quality Circles in any organization is the
total understanding of, as well as complete conviction and faith in the participative
philosophy, on the part of the top and senior management.


         In the absence of a commitment from the Chief Executive to support the
Quality Circle movement totally, it would be inadvisable to seriously attempt the
starting of Quality Circles. The launching of Quality Circles involves the following
steps:


Expose middle level executives to the concept.


Explain the concept to the employees and invite them to volunteer as members of
Quality Circles.


Nominate senior officers as facilitators.


Form a steering committee.


         Arrange training of co-coordinators, facilitators in basics of Quality Circle
approach,     implementation,    techniques and       operation.     Later   facilitate]   may
provide       training    to    Circle      leaders     and        Circle    members.
A meeting should be fixed preferably one hour a week for the Quality Circle to meet.
Formally inaugurate the Quality Circle. Arrange the necessary facilities for the
Quality Circle meeting and its operation.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                           Page 24
TRAINING


       Appropriate training for different: sections of employees needs to be imparted.
Without a proper understanding of the real concept of Quality Circles, both the
workers and management might look at this philosophy with suspicion. Each group
should know beforehand the commitments and implications involved as well as the
benefit that can be obtained from Quality Circles.


Such training comprises of:


Brief orientation programme for top management.


Programme for middle level executives.


Training of facilitators.


Training for Circle leaders and members




RCET,Bhiali                                                                   Page 25
PROBLEM STATEMENT



       It cannot be over emphasized that operation of Quality Circle is not a bed of
roses am Quality Circle cannot be left on their own after launching; they have to be
constantly nurtured and management must keep it fingers on the pulse of the
movement continuously. It is sensitive and delicate matter because for the first time,
the finer delicate sentiments of workers are being dealt with and as they are to be
motivated through satisfaction of the higher needs of the se|f nejds and self-esteem
and self-actualization, problems in implementation of the concept are to be accepted.


Lack of faith in and support to Quality Circle activities among management
personnel in Balco Plant-II




       Conviction of the top management and senior executive of the company in the
feasibility and utility of Quality Circle is prerequisite for initiating Quality Circle in any
organization. With the passage of time, this faith in the capability of the work force to
contributes towards batter performance gets strengthened as they witness the
achievement Quality Circle from time to time but if for any reason, the operation of
Quality Circles, it will surely effect the further growth of the movement for this reason,
the various steps towards institutionalization for sustaining the involvement, albeit
indirect, of everyone.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                          Page 26
Lack of interest or incompetence of leaders/facilitators in Plant


        Imparting of adequate and systematic training to leaders and deputy leaders
as well as facilitators, with a view to developing in them the necessary leadership
qualities is of great importance because if they do not perform their roles effectively,
members of Quality Circles would lose respect for them and would be deprived of
guidance to conduct their activity effectively. Even after intensive training, members
may need further counseling periodically which facilitators, coordinators and other
executives should not fail to give.


Apathy, fear and misunderstanding among middle level executive in Alumina
Plant


        This is the most common, widely prevalent and most serious of all the pitfalls
that operation of Quality Circle faces. The one consolation is that this problem is not
unique to Indian but been the bane of Quality Circle, in every part of the world.


        The reason for such a negative attitude towards Quality Circles on the part of
executives at the middle management level are not far to seek. Firstly, there is the
fear that if Quality Circles unearth long standing problems, resolve them and show
beneficial results, the executives in charge of the section may be taken to task by
their superiors for having kept the problem unresolved for so long.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                     Page 27
Irregularity of Quality Circle activities


Nothing else demonstrates better to the Quality Circle members the lack of serious
of the part of management for operating Quality Circle, as if the Quality Circle
meetings, presentations and other activities was not conducted on a regular pre-
determine basis. Many an executive tends to ask the Quality Circle members to
postpone their weekly hour-long meeting on the plea of production pressure or for
some other reason. This happened because the executive concerned hasn't realized
that the one hour that the Quality Circle spends at their meeting is worth a lot to the
organization.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                    Page 28
               CHAPTER-III
                RESEARCH
              METHODOLOGY




RCET,Bhiali                  Page 29
RESEARCH METHOD versus METHODOLOGY
       It seems appropriate at this juncture to explain the difference between
research methods and research methodology. Research methods may be
understood as all those methods/techniques that are used for conduction of
research. Research methods or techniques, thus, refer to the methods the
researchers.


       At times, a distinction is also made between research techniques and
research methods .Research techniques refers to the behavior and instruments we
use in performing research operations such as making observations , recording data,
techniques of processing data and the like . Research methS3srfefef to behavior and
instruments used in selecting and constructing research technique. For instance.
From what has been stated above, we can say that methods are more general. It is
the methods that generate techniques. However, in practice, the two terms are taken
as interchangeable and when we talk of research method we do. by implication,
include research techniques within their compass.


       Use in performing research operations. In other words, all those methods
which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his research problem
are termed as research methods. Since the object of research, particularly the
applied research, it to arrive at a solution for a given problem, the available data and
the unknown aspects of the problem have to be related to each other to make a
solution possible.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                     Page 30
Keeping this in view, research methods can be put into the following three groups:
1. In the first group we include those methods which are concerned with the
      collection of data. These methods will be used where the data already
      available are not sufficient to arrive at required solution ;
2. The second group consists of those statistical techniques which are used for
      establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns.
3. The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the
      accuracy of the results obtained.


Research methods falling in the above stated last two groups are generally


Taken as the analytical tools of research.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may
be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we
study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his
research problem along with logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to
know not only the research methods/ techniques but also the methodology.
Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests, how to
calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square,
how to apply particular research techniques, but they also.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                   Page 31
      Need to know which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which
are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. Researchers also need to
understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know
criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be
applicable to certain problems and others will not. All this means that it is necessary
for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ
from problem to problem. For example, an architect, who designs a building , has to
consciously evaluate the basis for his decisions , i.e., he has to evaluate why and on
what basis he selects particular size , number and location of doors, windows and
ventilators , uses particular materials and not others and the like. Similarly, in
research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they
are implemented. He has to specify very clearly and precisely what decisions he
selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also.


      From what has been stated above, we can say that research methodology
has many dimensions and research methods do constitute apart of the research
methodology. The is cope of research methodology is wider than that of research
methods .Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the
research methods but also consider the logic behind theMethods we use in the
context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or
technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of
being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study
has been undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and
why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what
particular method has been adopted, why particular technique of analyzing data has
been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk
of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                    Page 32
                      DATA COLLATION METHOD


     The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined
and research design /plan chalked out. While deciding about the method of data
collection to be used for the study, the research should keep in mind two types of
data viz., Primary and Secondary.


COLLECTON OF PRIMARY DATA

      We collect primary data during the course of doing experiments in an
experimental research but in case we do research of the descriptive type the perform
surveys, whether .sample surveys, or census surveys, then we can obtain primary
data either through observation or through communication with respondent with one
form or another or through personal interview.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                 Page 33
METHODS OF PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION:-
      Observation Method
      Interview Method
      Questionnaires Method
      Scheduling Method


METHODS OF SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION:-
Secondary data means data that they are already available i.e. they refer to the data
which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else.


      Various Publication of the Central, State & Local Govt.
       Books, Magazines and Newspapers.
      Public Records and Statistics, Historical Documents.
       Case Study Method.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 34
               RESEARCH APPROACHES & DESIGN


       The above description of the types of research brings to light the fact that
there are to basic approaches to research, viz., quantitative approach and qualitative
approach .The former involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can
be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid fashion. This
approach can be further sub- classified into inferential, experimental and simulation
approaches to research.


The purpose of inferential approach to research is to form a data base from which to
infer characteristics or relationships of population. This usually means survey
research where a sample of population is studied (questioned or observed) to
determine its characteristics, and it is then inferred that the population has the same
characteristics. Experimental approach is characterized by much greater control over
the research environment and in this case some variables are manipulated to
observe their effect on other variables. Simulation approach involves the
construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data
can be generated. This permits an observation of the dynamic behavior of a system
(or its sub-system) under controlled conditions. The term 'simulation' in the context of
business and social sciences application refers to the operation of a numerical model
that represents the structure of a dynamic process. Given the values of initial
conditions, parameters and exogenous variables, a simulation is run to represent the
behavior of the process overtime. Simulation approach can also be useful in building
models for understanding future conditions.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                     Page 35
      Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of
attitudes, opinions and behavior. Research in such a situation is a function of
researcher' insights and impressions. Such as approach to research generates
results either in non-quantitative form or in the form which are not subjected to
rigorous quantitative analysis Generally, the techniques of focus group interviews,
protective techniques and depth interviews are used:




RCET,Bhiali                                                                Page 36
                             SAMPLING METHOD


Sampling may be define as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on
the basis of which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made.
The stages of sampling is:


                   Determine relevant population and parameters
                                           ↓
                         Elect appropriate sampling frame
                                           ↓
                                   Specify sampling
                                           ↓
                        Probability & no probability sampling
                                           ↓
                         Select sampling method to be use
                                           ↓
                         Determine necessary sample size
                                           ↓
                       Select sample and gather information
                                           ↓
                                    Validate sample
                                           ↓
                             Analysis data and report result




RCET,Bhiali                                                                Page 37
              CHAPTER-IV
          INTERPRETATION &
              ANALYSIS




RCET,Bhiali                  Page 38
                        RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

Any research has a choice of two main research instruments in collecting primary
data, the questionnaire and mechanical device. The interview is most common tool
in collecting primary data.


While constructing interview we must keep in mind two things:


1) Objective of research.
2) The respondent's point of view.


Interview constructing consists of five steps as follows:


1) Specifying the information need.
2) Determine the type of question to be asked.
3) Deciding the number and sequence of question.
4) Preparing the preliminary draft of questionnaire.
5) Revising and presenting the questionnaire.
The studied are descriptive in nature. It is connected to tidy the present state of
affaire at it exists. The open study ryes to explore the system at present and reports
on it.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                   Page 39
                                      ANALYSIS


3.4 Test Applied:- CHI-SQUARE
Solution:-
              H0 [Null hypothesis=Quality circle are satisfied]
              Ha [Alternative Hypothesis= Not satisfied]


Level of Significance 5%.


Response Observed              Expected         (oij-eij)     (oij-eij)2   (oij-eij)2/eij

              Frequency(oij) Frequency(eij)

1             8                12.5             -4.5          20.25        1.62

2             28               12.5             15.5          240.25       19.22

3             6                12.5             -6.5          42.25        3.38

4             8                12.5             -4.5          20.25        1.62



Oij=Observed Frequence
Eij=Expected Frequence


Formula of Chi-Square :-

    X2=∑(Oij-Eij)2/Eij




RCET,Bhiali                                                                        Page 40
Where,

              Response 1 = Poor

              Response 2 = Satisfactory

              Response 3 = Good

              Response 4 = Excellent



      χ² = ∑ (oij – eij)2/ eij
      χ² = 25.84
Degree of freedom = (n-1)
                     = (4-1) =3


HYPOTHESIS (I) :-
NULL HYPOTHESIS (µ:Hb):-
Quality Circle is effective in BALCO PLANT-II
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (µ.Ha):-
Quality Circle are not effective in BALCO PLANT-II




RCET,Bhiali                                          Page 41
TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS



Degree of freedom:-


The table value of chi-square at 5% level of significance with 3 degree of freedom is
7.815 whereas the calculated value is 25.84 which is more than the table value.
Thus, the alternative hypothesis is accepted.




                                  ONE TAIL TEST




RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 42
              CHAPTER-III

    FINDING & LIMITATION




RCET,Bhiali                 Page 43
                           FINDINGS & LIMITATION
                                  GRAPHS


               Option          Respondent      Percent
                 Poor               15             15%
              Satisfactory          20             20%
                 Good               25             25%
               Excellent            20             20%




RCET,Bhiali                                              Page 44
               Option        Respondent   Percent
                 Poor            10        10%
              Satisfactory       20        20%
                 Good            28        28%
               Excellent         22        22%




RCET,Bhiali                                         Page 45
          Option          Respondent   Percent
      Decision Making         10        10%
        Self Analysis         30        30%
    Sharing our exp and       40        40%
        knowledge




RCET,Bhiali                                      Page 46
              Option     Respondent   Percent
               Agree         20        20%
              Neutral        30        30%
              Disagree       12        12%
              Depends        18        18%




RCET,Bhiali                                     Page 47
              Option     Respondent   Percent
               Agree         35        35%
              Neutral        20        20%
              Disagree       5          5%
              Depends        20        20%




RCET,Bhiali                                     Page 48
              Option     Respondent   Percent
               Agree         33        33%
              Neutral        19        19%
              Disagree       17        17%
              Depends        11        11%




RCET,Bhiali                                     Page 49
               Option          Respondent   Percent
          Level of education      16         16%
                Working           18         18%
              environment
              Productivity        19         19%
          Safety awareness        15         15%




RCET,Bhiali                                           Page 50
              Option            Respondent   Percent
        Reducing work load          35        35%
       Contributing towards         25        25%
          company grow
         Finding out more           20        20%
        efficient & effective
               mode of
       accomplishing a job




RCET,Bhiali                                            Page 51
               Option       Respondent   Percent
              Beneficial        35        35%
                Neutral         25        25%
              Unbenefical       20        20%
              Meaningless       12        12%




RCET,Bhiali                                        Page 52
              Option   Respondent   Percent
               Yes         60        60%
               No          20        20%




RCET,Bhiali                                   Page 53
              Option      Respondent   Percent
                Yes           50        50%
                No            5          5%
              May be          15        15%
              Can’t say       10        10%




RCET,Bhiali                                      Page 54
                                   FINDINGS



After the data observation & according to the information these are the findings of
the survey


1.    Mostly people are interested in Quality Circle.
2.    Quality Circle is effective in BALCO PLANT-II
3.    Aluminum Plant being the less polluted industry; the employee here has to
      avoid high risk, manage medium risk & live with low risk factor.
4.    Employee thinking doesn't curtail any facility which was provided by the
      company previously. This is also one factor they motivate to employee
      participation in Quality Circle programme.
5.    In company arrange all safety equipment timely so, that work does not
      affected, because many new project through Quality Circle are not started
      timely without safety equipment.
6.    Previous success Quality Circle project are work very well in organization, but
      related award or other appraisal programme is pending in long time period so
      employee show less interest to Quality Circle new project.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 55
                                  LIMITATION'S



Time constraint:-


       Our project report is based on primary & secondary data, but this data are
collected by limited time bounding. Some information are vary from time to time in
any organization. This study has been confined to analyze the employee who are
work in Balco Plant-II, is interested in Quality Circle or not. If employee are interested
in Quality Circle then Quality Circle how apply effectively in plant-II


       The limitation of the study is time limited so the survey is done in limited area
and the survey is done in limited area and the parameters of the study were to
analyze the factor determining the effectiveness of Quality Circle in Balco Plant-II.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                       Page 56
                                 CONCLUSION



Quality Circles is a people - building philosophy, providing self-motivation       and
happiness in improving environment without any compulsion or monetary benefits. It
represents a philosophy of managing people specially those at the grass root level
as well as a clearly defined mechanism and methodology for translating this
philosophy into practice and a required structure to make it a way of life. It is bound
to succeed where people are respected and are involved in decisions, concerning
their work life, and in environments where peoples capabilities are looked upon as
assets to solve work-area problems.


The Quality Circle philosophy calls for a progressive attitude on the part of the
management and their willingness to make adjustments, if necessary, in their style
and culture. If workers re prepared to contribute their ideas, the management must
be willing to create a congenial environment to encourage them to do so.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                    Page 57
                                   SUGESSTION
After the data observation & according to the information these are the findings of
the Survey:-
1.     Mostly people are suggest given the some prizes for done good project in
Quality        Circle.
2.     Quality Circle meeting are not regular in many department so make a fix
schedule of Quality Circle.
3.     Many new recruit employee are not aware Quality Circle programme.
4.     Frequencies of Quality Circle meeting are increased in a month.
5.     Many people are demand the technical training to complete the new project.
6.     Employee thinking don't curtail any facility which were provide by the
company        previously.
7.     In company arrange all safety equipment timely so, that work does not
affected.
8.     Reducing      the     shortage   of   man   power   in   many     departments.




RCET,Bhiali                                                                    Page 58
                    BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCE

KOTHARI - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
L.M.PRASAD - ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
S.R.UDPA - QUALITY CIRCLE EN" INDIA
WEB BOOKS:-
http://www.performanceprograms.com
www.pfeiffer.com
www.HRmarketer.com
www.businesssummaries.com
www.Questia.com/Psychologv
www.eurofound.eur
http://www.performancepro.grams.com
www.pfeiffer.com
www. HRmarketer.com
www.Questia.com/Psvchology




RCET,Bhiali                                    Page 59
                                                  ANNEXURE
                                                 Questionnaire


Personal Details :-


NAME …………………………………………………………………………
AGE....................................................................................................................
QUALIFICATION……………………………………………………………..
PERSONALNO………………………………………………………………..
AREA WORKING IN………………………………………………………….


Please fill the boxes :-


1.What is the quality of goods in terms of productivity?
Poor  Satisfactory  Good  Excellent 


2.What kind of quality circle is present in terms of Coordination?
Poor  Satisfactory  Good  Excellent 


3. Quality circle is a process of ?
Decision Making  Self Analysis  Sharing our exp and knowledge 


4.Knowledge is important for Quality circle.
Agree           Neutral           Disagree  Depends 


5.Do Quality circle have positive impact on the employee performance
Agree           Neutral           Disagree  Depends 


6.Did your Quality circle solve any work related                       problem in Alumina ?
Agree           Neutral           Disagree  Depends 




RCET,Bhiali                                                                                                  Page 60
7. Quality circles improve the ? (Give marks out of 10)
(a) Level of education                     ( /20)
(c) Working environment                    ( /20)
(d) Productivity                           ( /20)
(e) Safety awareness                       ( /20)
8.What do you want to achieve from Quality circles?
    Reducing work load                    
    Contributing towards company grow             
    Finding out more efficient & effective mode of accomplishing a job. 


9.) Quality Circle is useful for both employees & management ?


Beneficial           Neutral              Unbenefical         Meaningless 


10.Do you receive positive support from your superiors ?
Yes                        No       


11.Dose the qulitiy circle is better than others
Yes       No      May be        Can’t say 




RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 61
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RCET,Bhiali                                                                  Page 62

								
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