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     “HR      PLANING”
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the
           Award of degree
  Master of Business Administration
          Session 2011-2012
            Submitted by
         RAHUL KUMAR
       Roll No………………..
       Enrollment No. ………..
       MBA - ……………2012

           ERA SYSTEM

This is certify that the project entitled

                               “HR PLANING”

                            Submitted by

Rahul Kumar Roll No. …………… Enrollment No. ………. Has been
examined by the undersigned as a part of the examination for the award of
Master of BusinNess Administration degree of SMU.

Name & Signature of                            Name & Signature of

Internal Examiner                              External Examiner

Date:                                          Date :

                                    Forwarded by


                            Department of Management

 In order to complete any project successfully, functional environment &
 proper guidance of the expert on the subject is inevitable I am really
 indebted to Mr. P.K.SULLERYA.G.M (H.R.D) ERA SYSTEMI learnt
 various subject of management which enabled me to prepare this project

I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to Training
……….& analyze the performance of the shops enabling me to prepare
my project work.


MANAGEMENT, ERA SYSTEM hereby declare that the RESEARCH

project work entitled “HR PLANING” is the record of original work done

by me and the matter enclosed has not been submitted for the award of any

other degree of diploma in the university or anywhere.

Date:                                                     Rahul Kumar


                                                           M.B.A. SEM-V,

                  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of my study at _________________to lay down the
foundation oftraining and development.
The objective of my study about employees training and development to
improve the currentprocess of employees training and development at

· My another objective is to apply my learning in the area of Human Resources
so that Again significant practical and Understand the nature and importance of
training and development and identify the various inputs that should go into any
· Delineate the different stages in a training and development programmed and
describe each step.
· Understand the need for and the ways of training for international

This research provides me with an opportunity to explore in the field of Human
This research also provides the feedback of people involved in the Training and
process Apart from that it would provide me a great deal of exposure to interact
with the high

profile managers of the company.
   Human Resource Planning: an Introduction

A British Foreign Office official looking back over a career spanning the
first half of the twentieth century commented: ‘Year after year the fretters
and worriers would come to me with their awful predictions of the
outbreak of war. I denied it each time. I was only wrong twice!’Some would
see this as the arrogant complacency to be associated with planners. Critics
think of the inaccuracy and over-optimism of forecasting — the ‘hockey
stick’ business growth projections. They regard planning as too inflexible,
slow to respond to change, too conservative in assumptions and risk averse.
These points are made about any sort of planning.

Practical benefits

When it concerns human resources, there are the more specific criticisms that it
is over-quantitative and neglects the qualitative aspects of contribution. The
issue has become not how many people should be employed, but ensuring that
all members of staff are making an effective contribution. And for the future,
the questions are what are the skills that will be required, and how will they be

There are others, though, that still regard the quantitative planning of resources
as important. They do not see its value in trying to predict events, be they wars
or takeovers. Rather, they believe there is a benefit from using planning to
challenge assumptions about the future, to stimulate thinking. For some there is,
moreover, an implicit or explicit wish to get better integration of decision
making and resourcing across the whole organisation, or greater influence by
the centre over devolved operating units.
Cynics would say this is all very well, but the assertion of corporate control has
been tried and rejected. And is it not the talk of the process benefits to be
derived self indulgent nonsense? Can we really afford this kind of intellectual
dilettantism? Whether these criticisms are fair or not, supporters of human
resource planning point to its practical benefits in optimising the use of
resources and identifying ways of making them more flexible. For some
organisations, the need to acquire and grow skills which take time to develop is
paramount. If they fail to identify the business demand, both numerically and in
the skills required, and secure the appropriate supply, then the capacity of the
organisation to fulfill its function will be endangered.

Why human resource planning?

Human Resource Planning: an Introduction was written to draw these issues to
the attention of HR or line managers. We address such questions as:

       what is human resource planning?
       how do organisations undertake this sort of exercise?
       what specific uses does it have?

In dealing with the last point we need to be able to say to hard pressed
managers: why spend time on this activity rather than the other issues bulging
your in tray? The report tries to meet this need by illustrating how human
resource planning techniques can be applied to four key problems. It then
concludes by considering the circumstances is which human resourcing can be
1. Determining the numbers to be employed at a new location

If organisations overdo the size of their workforce it will carry surplus or
underutilised staff. Alternatively, if the opposite misjudgment is made, staff
may be overstretched, making it hard or impossible to meet production or
service deadlines at the quality level expected. So the questions we ask are:

      How can output be improved your through understanding the interrelation
       between productivity, work organisation and technological development?
       What does this mean for staff numbers?
      What techniques can be used to establish workforce requirements?
      Have more flexible work arrangements been considered?
      How are the staff you need to be acquired?

The principles can be applied to any exercise to define workforce requirements,
whether it be a business start-up, a relocation, or the opening of new factory or

2. Retaining your highly skilled staff

Issues about retention may not have been to the fore in recent years, but all it
needs is for organisations to lose key staff to realise that an understanding of the
pattern of resignation is needed. Thus organisations should:

      monitor the extent of resignation
      discover the reasons for it
      establish what it is costing the organisation
      compare loss rates with other similar organisations.
Without this understanding, management may be unaware of how many good
quality staff are being lost. This will cost the organisation directly through the
bill for separation, recruitment and induction, but also through a loss of long-
term capability.

Having understood the nature and extent of resignation steps can be taken to
rectify the situation. These may be relatively cheap and simple solutions once
the reasons for the departure of employees have been identified. But it will
depend on whether the problem is peculiar to your own organisation, and
whether it is concentrated in particular groups (eg by age, gender, grade or

3. Managing an effective downsizing programme

This is an all too common issue for managers. How is the workforce to be cut
painlessly, while at the same time protecting the long-term interests of the
organisation? A question made all the harder by the time pressures management
is under, both because of business necessities and employee anxieties. HRP
helps by considering:

         the sort of workforce envisaged at the end of the exercise
         the pros and cons of the different routes to get there
         how the nature and extent of wastage will change during the run-down
         the utility of retraining, redeployment and transfers
         what the appropriate recruitment levels might be.

Such an analysis can be presented to senior managers so that the cost benefit of
various methods of reduction can be assessed, and the time taken to meet targets
If instead the CEO announces on day one that there will be no compulsory
redundancies and voluntary severance is open to all staff, the danger is that an
unbalanced workforce will result, reflecting the take-up of the severance offer.
It is often difficult and expensive to replace lost quality and experience.

4. Where will the next generation of managers come from?

Many senior managers are troubled by this issue. They have seen traditional
career paths disappear. They have had to bring in senior staff from elsewhere.
But they recognise that while this may have dealt with a short-term skills
shortage, it has not solved the longer term question of managerial supply: what
sort, how many, and where will they come from? To address these questions
you need to understand:

      the present career system (including patterns of promotion and
       movement, of recruitment and wastage)
      the characteristics of those who currently occupy senior positions
      the organisation’s future supply of talent.

This then can be compared with future requirements, in number and type. These
will of course be affected by internal structural changes and external business or
political changes. Comparing your current supply to this revised demand will
show surpluses and shortages which will allow you to take corrective action
such as:

      recruiting to meet a shortage of those with senior management potential
      allowing faster promotion to fill immediate gaps
      developing cross functional transfers for high fliers
      hiring on fixed-term contracts to meet short-term skills/experience
      reducing staff numbers to remove blockages or forthcoming surpluses.

Thus appropriate recruitment, deployment and severance policies can be
pursued to meet business needs. Otherwise processes are likely to be haphazard
and inconsistent. The wrong sort of staff are engaged at the wrong time on the
wrong contract. It is expensive and embarrassing to put such matters right.

How can HRP be applied?

The report details the sort of approach companies might wish to take. Most
organisations are likely to want HRP systems:

      which are responsive to change
      where assumptions can easily be modified
      that recognise organisational fluidity around skills
      that allow flexibility in supply to be included
      that are simple to understand and use
      which are not too time demanding.

To operate such systems organisations need:

      appropriate demand models
      good monitoring and corrective action processes
      comprehensive data about current employees and the external labour
      an understanding how resourcing works in the organisation.

If HRP techniques are ignored, decisions will still be taken, but without the
benefit of understanding their implications. Graduate recruitment numbers will
be set in ignorance of demand, or management succession problems will
develop unnoticed. As George Bernard Shaw said: ‘to be in hell is to drift; to be
in heaven is to steer’. It is surely better if decision makers follow this maxim in
the way they make and execute resourcing plans.

Strategic human resource planning
Human resources planning is a process that identifies current and future human
resources needs for an organization to achieve it goals. Human resources
planning should serve as a link between human resources management and the
overall strategic plan of an organization. Aging worker populations in most
western countries and growing demands for qualified workers in developing
economies have underscored the importance of effective Human Resources

      1 Best Practices
      2 Implementation Stages
          o   2.1 Stage 1
          o   2.2 Stage 2
      3 Overarching Policy, Process & Tools
          o   3.1 Common Competency Dictionary and Architecture
          o   3.2 Human Resource Information Management Infrastructure
          o   3.3 Governance / Accountability Structure
      4 Process Implementation Stages
          o   4.1 Stage 1
          o   4.2 Stage 2

Best Practices

The planning processes of most best practice organizations not only define what
will be accomplished within a given timeframe, but also the numbers and types
of human resources that will be needed to achieve the defined business goals
(e.g., number of human resources; the required competencies; when the
resources will be needed; etc.).

Competency-based management supports the integration of human resources
planning with business planning by allowing organizations to assess the current
human resource capacity based on their competencies against the capacity
needed to achieve the vision, mission and business goals of the organization.
Targeted human resource strategies, plans and programs to address gaps (e.g.,
hiring / staffing; learning; career development; succession management; etc.)
are then designed, developed and implemented to close the gaps.

These strategies and programs are monitored and evaluated on a regular basis to
ensure that they are moving the organizations in the desired direction, including
closing employee competency gaps, and corrections are made as needed. This
Strategic HR Planning and evaluation cycle is depicted in the diagram below.

Implementation Stages

The following implementation stages are suggested for mid to large
organizations implementing competencies in support of Strategic Human
Resources Planning.

Stage 1

Short - Term HR Planning

      Establish a Competency Architecture and Competency Dictionary that will support
       Strategic Human Resource Planning.
      For each group to be profiled, define the roles and career streams to help identify
       current and future human resources needs.
      Determine how competencies will be integrated with the existing HR Planning
       process and systems (e.g., Human Resource Information Management systems;
       other computer-based tools, for example forecasting models).

Stage 2

      Build or revamp HR Planning tools, templates and processes to incorporate elements
       as determined in Stage 1.
      Train managers and / or facilitate corporate HR Planning process.
      Continuously monitor and improve processes, tools and systems to support HR

Overarching Policy, Process & Tools

Common Competency Dictionary and Architecture

Establishing a common Competency Dictionary and Architecture is
fundamental for the successful implementation of competencies throughout the
organization. Maintaining this common architecture is essential for ensuring
that all human resource management applications are fully integrated and that
maximum efficiencies can be gained. It is important, therefore, to identify an
organizational group accountable for the maintenance of the Competency
Dictionary and Architecture on an ongoing basis.

Human Resource Information Management Infrastructure

In a recent review, the Gartner Group noted that CBM talent management
initiatives have not necessarily yielded the desired benefits and return on
investment, for the main part because organizations have not invested in the
talent management software systems and infrastructure to facilitate full and
effective implementation. To gain maximum benefit from CBM, organizations
need to have a human resources management system and on-line tools and
processes that will support many of the implementation recommendations
contained in this document.

Governance / Accountability Structure

Organizations that have effectively implemented competencies on a corporate-
wide basis have ensured that there is an appropriate project management,
governance and accountability framework in place to support the development,
maintenance and revision / updating of the competency profiles to meet
changing demands.

Process Implementation Stages

The following implementation stages are suggested for mid to large

Stage 1

      Identify the infrastructure and system requirements to support full implementation
       (e.g., Human Resources Information Management System; other on-line software
       tools needed to support various CBM applications).
      Develop the competency profiles.
      Implement the competency profiles in a staged-way to demonstrate benefits and
       create buy-in (e.g., as soon as profiles for a group are developed, implement quickly
       within a low-risk high-benefit planned application for the group).
      Communicate success stories as competency profiles are implemented.

Stage 2

      Develop, revise / update competency profiles to meet changing demands.
      Monitor and evaluate applications to ensure that they are meeting organizational
       needs, and adjust programs / plans, as needed, to meet evolving needs.
      HR Planning
HRM Audit

The HRMA (Human Resource Management Audit) uses this framework to try
to answer such questions as : Are the mission and strategy of the human
resource organization designed to match the business strategy of the
organization? Does the design of the human resource organization enhance its
ability to accomplish its strategy? Are the kinds of people who run the human
resource function good choices for the ongoing tasks?

1. Are the mission and strategy of the human resource organization designed to match the
business strategy of the organization?

2. Does the design of the human resource organization enhance its ability to accomplish its

3. Are the kinds of people who run the human resource function good choices for the
ongoing tasks?

The primary sources of data are:

1. Interviews with Senior Management.Focus on strategy and a definition of the current state
of the organization and the desired future state.

2. Interviews and Questionnaires with Line Management.Focus on their interactions with the
HR function, their human resource problems, and the role they envision for the HR

3. In-Depth Questionnaires from the Human Resource Staff. Diagnose the jobs, activities,
conflicts, and internal strengths and weaknesses of the function.

4. Archival Information and Documents. Describe job histories, past evaluations, formal
structures, and general background on the organization as a whole and the HR function in

Role of Human Resource Development Manager
The HRD manager is the principal evaluator of the impact of the HRD
program on overall organizational efficiency. Within this subrole, the manager
is responsible for the design, development, and implementation of program
evaluations as well as cost/benefit programs. Each of these is used to
determine the effects of learning on the employees and the organization. HRD
managers are also responsible for the evaluation of career development
programs and organizational development activities. The evaluation of the
effectiveness of learning specialists, instructional designers, and consultants is
another part of this sub-role. In summary, the HRD manager is accountable for
the evaluation of all aspects of the HRD program, its results, its effectiveness,
its impacts, and its practitioners.

The role of manager of HRD (human resource development) consists of five
separate but overlapping components referred to as subroles. Each is vital to
the development of an efficient and properly managed HRD department. They
include: (1) evaluator of the HRD program's impacts and effects on
organizational efficiency, (2) management of the organizational learning
system, (3) strategist responsible for long-term planning and integrating of
HRD into the organization, and (4) marketing specialist responsible for the
advancement of HRD within the organization through well defined and
effective networks.

HR Policy and Manual

HR policies vary considerably from one organization to another, depending on
the age of the organization, its size, the nature of the workforce and the
position regarding union recognition, but here are the main policy areas.

Principles: This is a statement about the general view by the management of
employment in the organization. It is likely to carry ringing phrases about
teamwork, fairness, innovation and opportunity, but may also include a
declaration about the degree and method of employee involvement and the
security of employment in different parts of the workforce.

Staffing and development: Here will be the specific undertakings to
employees and the management strategies to be followed in appointing the
most appropriate people, providing the opportunities for career growth and
ensuring that employees develop their skills and capacities in line with the
growth of the business. The main features of this policy area are how vacancies
will be determined, where applicants will be sought and how decisions will be
made in selection. There will be further sections on how promotions are made,
training opportunities and requirements, as well as the use of performance
appraisal and assessment centers.

Employee relations: Policies in the area of employee relations will depend on
the union recognition situation, but typical features are arrangements about
recognition, bargaining units and union membership agreements, agree¬ments
relating to negotiation, consultation, shop steward representation, membership
of joint committees, safety matters and points of reference, such as following
national engineering agreements on the number of days' annual holiday.

Mutual control: Several features of policy and related procedure deal with the
working relationship between the organization and the employee or employees.
These are mainly to deal with the approach to matters of grievance and

Terms and conditions: Aspects of terms and conditions policies are
approaches to determining differentials in payment, levels of sick pay, pension
provision, holidays, study leave and hours of work.

Equality of opportunity: A different type of HR policy is that relating to
equality of opportunity. Theoretically, equalizing opportunity should be
subsumed in all the other areas, but legislation and pressure groups have tended
to identify this as an area needing separate treatment.

Key Components of Human Resource Development

There are three fundamental component areas of human resource development
(HRD): individual development (personal), career development (professional),
and organizational development. The importance of each component will vary
from organization to organization according to the complexity of the operation,
the criticality of human resources to organizational efficiency, and the
organization's commitment to improved human resources.

INDIVIDUAL       DEVELOPMENT       Individual   development      refers   to   the
development of new knowledge, skills, and/or improved behaviors that result
in performance enhancement and improvement related to one's current job
(training). Learning may involve formal programs, but is most often
accomplished through informal, on-the-job training activities.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT Career development focuses on providing the
analysis necessary to identify the individual interests, values, competencies,
activities, and assignments needed to develop skills for future jobs
(development).    Career    development     includes    both     individual    and
organizational activities. Individual activities include career planning, career
awareness, and utilizing career resource centers. Organizational activities
include job posting systems, mentoring systems, career resource center
development and maintenance, using managers as career counselors, providing
career development workshops and seminars, human resource planning,
performance appraisal, and career pathing programs.

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Organizational development is
directed at developing new and creative organization solutions to performance
problems by enhancing congruence among the organization's structure, culture,
processes, and strategies within the human resources domain. In other words,
the organization should become a more functional unit as a result of a closer
working relationship among these elements. The ultimate goal of
organizational development is to develop the organization's self-renewing
capacity. This refers to the organization's ability to look introspectively and
discover its problems and weaknesses and to direct the resources necessary for
improvement. As a result, the organization will be able to regenerate itself over
and over again as it confronts new and ever-challenging circumstances. This
occurs through collaboration of organizational members with a change agent
(an HRD practitioner), using behavioral science theory, research, and

Job Analysis

Job analysis is the process of determining the nature or content of a job by
collecting and organizing information relevant to the job. A complete job
analysis contains information relating to the following five factors, plus any
others deemed appropriate to fully describe the nature of the job.


Job analysis methods can be categorized into four basic types: (1) observation
methods; (2) interview techniques; (3) questionnaires, including job inventories
or checklists. This section describes and discusses these methods.

Observation                                                            Methods
Observation of work activities and worker behaviors is a method of job
analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other
methods of job analysis. Three methods of job analysis based on observation
are: (1) direct observation; (2) work methods analysis, including time and
motion study and micro-motion analysis; and (3) the critical incident technique.
Though they employ the same method, these methods differ in terms of who
does the observing, what is observed, and how it is observed.

Direct observation. Using direct observation, a person conducting the analysis
simply observes employees in the performance of their duties, recording
observations as they are made. The observer either takes general notes or works
from a form which has structured categories for comment. Everything is
observed: what the worker accomplishes, what equipment is used, what the
work environment is like, and any other factors relevant to the job.

Direct observation methods have certain natural limitations for job analysis
purposes. First, they cannot capture the mental aspects of jobs, such as decision
making or planning, since mental processes are not observable. Second,
observation methods can provide little information relating to personal
requirements for various jobs because this kind of information is also not
readily observable. Thus, observation methods provide little information on
which to base job specifications.

Work methods analysis. A sophisticated observation method, work methods
analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as
factory or assembly-line jobs. These methods are used by industrial engineers
to determine standard rates of production which are used to set pay rates. Two
types of work methods analysis are time and motion study and micro-motion
analysis. In time and motion studies, an industrial engineer observes and
records each activity of a worker, using a stopwatch to note the time it takes to
perform separate elements of the job. Micro-motion analysis uses a movie
camera to record worker activities. Films are analyzed to discover acceptable
ways of accomplishing tasks and to set standards relating to how long certain
tasks should take. Such data are especially useful for developing training
programs and setting pay rates.

Critical incident technique. The critical incident technique involves
observation and recording of examples of particularly effective or ineffective
behaviors. Behaviors are judged to be "effective" or "ineffective" in terms of
results produced by the behavior.

The following information should be recorded for each "critical incident" of
behavior: (1) what led up to the incident and the situation in which it occurred;
(2) exactly what the employee did that was particularly effective or ineffective;
(3) the perceived consequences or results of the behavior; and (4) a judgment
as to the degree of control an employee had over the results his or her behavior
produced (to what degree should the employee be held responsible for what

The critical incident method differs from direct observation and work methods
analysis in that observations of behavior are not recorded as the behavior
occurs, but only after the behavior has been judged to be either particularly
effective or ineffective in terms of results produced. This means that a person
using the critical incident method must describe a behavior in retrospect, or
after the fact, rather than as the activity unfolds. Accurate recording of past
observations is more difficult than recording the behaviors as they occur.

The Role of HRM in Knowledge Management

There are several roles that can be played by HR in developing knowledge
management system. First, HR should help the organization articulate the
purpose of the knowledge management system. Investing in a knowledge
management initiative without a clear sense of purpose is like investing in an
expensive camera that has far more capabilities than you need to take good
pictures of family and friends.

HR and Knowledge Management

There are several roles that can be played by HR in developing knowledge
management system. First, HR should help the organization articulate the
purpose of the knowledge management system. Investing in a knowledge
management initiative without a clear sense of purpose is like investing in an
expensive camera that has far more capabilities than you need to take good
pictures of family and friends. Too often, organizations embrace technologies
to solve problems before they've even identified the problems they are trying to
solve. Then, once they realize the error, they find it difficult to abandon the
original solution and difficult to gather the resources needed to invest in a
solution to the real problem. Effectively framing the knowledge management
issue, before deciding on a course of action, is a crucial prerequisite for

Second, as a knowledge facilitator, HRM must ensure alignment among an
organization's mission, statement of ethics, and policies: These should all be
directed toward creating an environment of sharing and using knowledge with
full understanding of the competitive consequences. Furthermore, HRM must
nourish a culture that embraces getting the right information to the right people
at the right time.

Third, HRM should also create the "ultimate employee experience." That is, by
transforming tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge through education,
organizations must build employee skills, competencies, and careers, creating
"bench strength." This combines the traditional training and development
responsibilities of HRM with the new responsibilities of human capital
steward: using all of the organization's resources to create strategic capability.
Disney's new staff orientation, which emphasizes the firm's mission, values,
and history within a context of the "magic kingdom" experience, is an example
of this process of making tacit knowledge more visible.

Critical Elements of HRD Effectivenss

The following article describes ten key points of HRD effectiveness. These
critical elements are discovered through an extensive empirical research
conducted by Neal Chalofsky and Carlene Reinhart. These research findings
will definitely provide the foundation from which HRD practitioners can begin
to effectively deliver the resources their organization need.

1. The HRD Function Has the Expertise to Diagnose Problems in Order to
Determine Appropriateness of Potential Solutions
Further analysis of the data break the responses under this critical event into
three categories, all of which contribute to its significance:
1. Expertise to diagnose organizational problems.
2. Expertise to diagnose individual problems.
3. Expertise to identify solutions in terms of processes, products, and resources,
and ultimately the expertise to recommend solutions.

2. The HRD Manager Maintains an Active Network with Other Key
Managers in the Organization
Positioning this as the second most important contribution to effectiveness
indicated that people recognize that more important information frequently
resides in the informal networks within an organization than in any formal
management information system.

3. There Is a Corporate Training and Development Mission Statement or
Corporate HRD Policy
This, the third-ranked element, was seen as an essential framework for the
HRD function. The mission statement or policies do not necessarily need to be
overtly stated. They might exist in the form of an operating plan and budget;
they might also be implied in the culture of the organization.

4. The Evaluation of Training Focuses on Behavioral Change or
Organizational Results
Formal evaluation of training in an effective HRD function takes place in some
form, but not the "smile sheets" or "happiness measures" still used by many
trainers at the end of a training session. The effective HRD function generally
uses competency-based training and evaluates against clearly stated course
outcomes for accountability reasons: to find out if behaviors have indeed
changed as stated in the course objectives, or if the course needs to be revised
in some way, or to make decisions about HRD interventions.

5. The HRD Manager Routinely Participates in Corporate Strategy
Sessions with Other Key Staff Persons and Senior Managers
For many HRD managers, this may translate into having input into the annual
operating plan at an early enough stage to make some impact. It may mean
being included in the early stages of discussion of a new product. In a large
number of responses, it was seen as a desirable but not yet fully achieved

6. Training Needs Associated with Major Changes in the Organization Are
This critical element is actually linked directly to element 5: if the HRD
manager is a part of the strategic thinking and planning processes of the
organization, then he/she will be a part of the change design process and will
be able to identify and plan for the required training at the same time. In an
effective HRD function the HRD manager is involved in all levels of
organizational planning.

7. Allocations of HRD Resources Are Based at Least in Part on the
Priorities of the Organization
Several of research panel members felt strongly that the effective HRD
function must also engage in future thinking and planning, and certainly a part
of its resources must be targeted in some way to meeting the HRD needs of the
organization five to ten years out as well as within the current fiscal year.

8. The HRD Function Conducts Needs Assessments to Determine
Organizational Requirements
Research panelists noted that the effective HRD function, when directly
involved in all organizational planning, is normally called on to conduct
various types of front-end analyses (task analysis, needs assessments),
performance analysis, or organizational diagnosis to determine when training
or other interventions may be required to improve productivity, the quality of
work life, or organizational functioning.

9. The Roles, Responsibilities, and Priorities of the HRD Function Are
Clearly Defined
The most effective HRD functions are managed and staffed by professional
HRD personnel who also know their industry or business. When this situation
exists, they are able to build and model appropriate HRD performance with
their staff in appropriate roles.

10. The HRD Management and Staff Routinely Meet to Discuss Problems
and Progress with Current Programs
In the effective HRD function, clear and open communications are built into
the function's operating model. There is a high level of trust. The managers are
trusted because they communicate openly with staff, and they trust their
personnel lo produce what is required of them.

Job Analysis Interview Guide

Job analysis interview guide is a tool that can be used in conducting job
analysis process. It describes list of questions that should be asked to explore
the content of a particular job. What is the job's overall purpose? What the
incumbent does and, if possible, how he/she does it?
1. What is the job's overall purpose?

2. JOB DUTIES: Describe briefly WHAT the incumbent does and, if possible,
HOW he/she does it. Include duties in the following categories.
a. daily duties
b. periodic duties
c. duties performed at irregular intervals

3. Is the incumbent performing duties he/she considers unnecessary? If so,

4. Is the incumbent performing duties not presently included in the job
description? If so, describe.

5. EDUCATION: Indicates the educational requirements for the job (not the
educational background of the incumbent).

6. EXPERIENCE: Indicates the amount of experience needed to perform the

7. LOCATION: Check location of job and, if necessary or appropriate,
describe briefly.

8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: Check any objectionable conditions
found on the job and note afterward how frequently each is encountered
(rarely, occasionally, constantly, etc.)

9. HEALTH AND SAFETY: Check any undesirable health and safety
conditions under which the incumbent must perform and note how often they
are encountered.
briefly what machines, tools, equipment or work aids the incumbent works
with on a regular basis.

Work Measurement Methods

The purpose of work measurement is to determine the time it ought to take to
do a job.There are four main systems of work measurement. First, and most
used, is time study. The second system, work sampling, is a statistical
procedure for measuring work and requires an understanding of the techniques
of statistics and probability.

There are four main systems of work measurement. First, and most used, is
time study, specifically, stop-watch time study. Motion picture and video
cameras, computers, and various production timing devices can also be used in
the place of, and in conjunction with, the stop watch. The second system, work
sampling, is a statistical procedure for measuring work and requires an
understanding of the techniques of statistics and probability.

The third system, predetermined time systems (PDT), uses sets of tables of
basic motions that have already been "normalized" by experts. Thus, PDT
systems do not require the analyst to "rate" or "level" the measurement. Finally,
there is the standard data system of work measurement which, strictly
speaking, is not a measurement technique at all. Here similar elements made up
of similar groups of motions from the other measurement systems are tabled
and then reused as needed for subsequent products and standards.
Strategies for Designing and HRD Program

Masters of HRD Program identified for managers of HRD an eight-point
strategy for designing cost-effective, reputable learning programs that can
survive economic crises and internal/external changes affecting the
organization. First, there should be a written HRD philosophy that states
unequivocally that effective human resource development can improve
performance (i.e., change behavior, produce results, increase productivity).
This provides a framework for the HRD program. It also provides a common
objective for each of the members of the HRD staff on which to focus their

Writing Job Description

Most widely used job description formats contain the following five sections:
(1) job identification; (2) job summary or purpose; (3) job duties and
responsibilities; (4) accountabilities; and (5) job specifications. The most
important thing to remember is that all job descriptions within an organization
should follow the same format.
Assessment Questionnaire Instruments

There are some principles need to be considered when designing questions
items for 360 degree assessment questionnaire. To be useful, they must be
constructed carefully. A simple way to test each of your items is to ask if the
item can be described as the following.

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

This is one of the most sophisticated and yet easily administered techniques to
analyze job. The PAQ analyzes jobs in terms of 187 job elements. These
elements are of a worker-oriented nature, meaning that they characterize or
imply the human behaviors that are involved in various jobs.
Job Time Study
Time study is a work measurement technique for recording the times of
performing a certain specific job or its elements carried out under specified
conditions, and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for an
operator to carry it out at a defined rate of performance.

Characteristics of Effective HRD Managers

Masters of HRD Managers identified nine characteristics of effective HRD
(human resource development) managers. Each is viewed as essential to the
development of a comprehensive and competent HRD program. First, HRD
managers must have the ability to plan HRD activities that foster training,
development, and education. These activities should be targeted at the needs of
employees, supervisors, line managers, customers, and nonemployees of the
Work Study and Employee Productivity

Work study is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying on
activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards
of performance for the activities being carried out. Work study then aims at
examining the way an activity is being carried out, simplifying or modifying
the method of operation to reduce unnecessary or excess work, or the wasteful
use of resources, and setting up a time standard for performing that activity.
Sample Questions

The list below presents some of the specific questions that might be asked of
interviewers to diagnose the degree of integration of the human resource
systems in the HR cycle around a dominant value of performance.

1. How effective is the selection process in ensuring that people are placed in
appropriate positions? Explain.
2. How effective is the appraisal process in accurately assessing performance?
3. How effective are rewards (financial and nonfinancial) in driving
performance? Explain.
4. How effective are the training, development, and career planning activities in
driving performance? Explain.
5. How effective is the appraisal process in differentiating performance levels
for justifying reward allocation decisions? Explain.
6. How effective is the appraisal process in identifying developmental needs of
individuals to guide training, development, and career planning? Explain.
7. How effective are the training, development, and career planning activities in
preparing people for selection and placement into new positions in the
organization? Explain.
8. Overall, how effectively are the five components integrated and mutually
supportive? Explain.

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