detergent-research Project by vrama

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                     RESEARCH PROJECT
    “The determinants of consumer preference against


                        Durg&Bhilai city

     Chattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University,
Bhilai in Partial fulfillment for the award of Master of Business

                  Submitted By: ALANKAR GUPTA

                       MBA : II – SEMESTER

 Approved By:                                 Guided By:
 Dr.S.K.Dhagat,                               Mr.Saket ranjan
 Director (MBA)                               Reader

                 JUNWANI, BHILAI (C.G)

                             I, Alankar gupta, a student of M.B.A – II Semester 2008 at


Here by declare that Project Report under the title of “A study on the determinants of

consumer preference against detergent in Durg & Bhilai ” is the record of my original

work under the guidance of Mr.Saket ranjan praveer ,Reader, (Department of M.B.A),

S.S.I.M.T, Bhilai. This report has never been submitted to any else for award of any degree

or diploma.

Place: Bhilai                                                         Alankar gupta
Date: -…………………..                                                 MBA II SEMESTER

                                   This is to certify that the project work done on “A study on

the determinants of consumer preference against detergent in Durg & Bhilai”


Junwani, Bhilai has been carried out by Alankar gupta a student of MBA II Semester under

my guidance and supervision.

Date: -…………………….                                                     Guided by
Seal / Stamp of the Organisation                               Mr. saket ranjan praveer
                                                                     SSIMT, Bhilai

                 In order to complete any project successfully, functional environment &

proper guidance of the expert on the subject is inevitable.

                 I am really indebted to my faculty of MBA department Mr.Saket ranjan

praveer(Reader) under whose guidance I could conduct the research on “A study on the

determinants of consumer preference against detergents in Durg & Bhilai” and

prepare this project report.

                I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to the employed,

businessmen, professional & any other respondents who have extended their active

cooperation while going through the survey on HDFC insurance company.

                                                                 Alankar gupta
                                                                  MBA II SEMESTER

The practical study through, conducting the survey and doing project work has a very

significant value. The theoretical knowledge gained in classroom is not fruitful and complete

unless and until it is implemented on the practical work either done in the field or inside the

organization. It always boosts up our knowledge in pursuing the theoretical studies. It is

the internal part of our curriculum to conduct survey and project work, which not only

accelerates the managerial skills in us but also broadens our practical prospective.

In view of above the survey on          “A study on the determinants of consumer

preference against detergents in Durg & Bhilai” has been conducted and the project

report is before the readers. If any part of this report is taken up positively by the industry,

I will feel that my effort was worthwhile.


1)   Declaration

2)   Certificate

3)   Acknowledgement

4)   Preface


CHAPTER I             Objective of the Study

CHAPTER II            Introduction Of Project

CHAPTER III           Literature review
CHAPTER IV            Research Methodology.

                         1.Research Objective
                         2.Sample Units
                         3.Sample Design
                         4.Research Design
                         5.Plan of work

CHAPTER V             Data Analysis and Interpretation

CHAPTER VI            Finding

CHAPTER VII           Conclusion

CHAPTER VIII          Limitation

CHAPTER IX            Bibliography

CHAPTER X             Annexure

1)    To study the determinants of consumer prefrence against detergent in durg &


2)    To identify most preferred brand.

3)    To identify the major players of Detergents.

4)    To study on the effect of advertisement on customers for purchasing the

Detergent is a compound or mixture of components ,intended to assist cleaning.they may
   1) Detergent Soap
   2) Detergent Powder

Detergent Chemistry?

To understand what is needed to achieve effective cleaning, it is helpful to have a basic
knowledge of soap and detergent chemistry.

              Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface
            tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by
            other water molecules. However, at the surface, those molecules are surrounded
            by other water molecules only on the water side. A tension is created as the
            water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. This tension
causes water to bead up on surfaces (glass, fabric), which slows wetting of the surface and
inhibits the cleaning process. You can see surface tension at work by placing a drop of
water onto a counter top. The drop will hold its shape and will not spread.

           In the cleaning process, surface tension must be reduced so water can spread
          and wet surfaces. Chemicals that are able to do this effectively are called surface
          active agents, or surfactants. They are said to make water "wetter."

              Surfactants perform other important functions in cleaning,
such as loosening, emulsifying (dispersing in water) and holding soil in
suspension until it can be rinsed away. Surfactants can also provide
alkalinity, which is useful in removing acidic soils.

  Surfactants are classified by their ionic (electrical
charge) properties in water: anionic (negative charge),                      nonionic (no
charge), cationic (positive charge) and amphoteric                           (either positive
or negative charge).
  Soap is an anionic surfactant. Other anionic as well as nonionic surfactants are the main
ingredients in today's detergents. Now let's look closer at the chemistry of surfactants.

Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Soaps are made from fats
and oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them chemically with a strong alkali.

First let's examine the composition of fats, oils and alkalis; then we'll review the
soapmaking process.

Fats and Oils

The fats and oils used in soapmaking come from animal or plant sources. Each fat or oil is
made up of a distinctive mixture of several different triglycerides.

In a triglyceride molecule, three fatty acid molecules are attached to one molecule of
glycerine. There are many types of triglycerides; each type consists of its own particular
combination of fatty acids.

Fatty acids are the components of fats and oils that are used in making soap. They are
weak acids composed of two parts:

A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen (H) atom, two oxygen (O) atoms, and
one carbon (C) atom, plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group.
Generally, it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon (C) atoms each carrying two
hydrogen (H) atoms.


An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. Originally, the alkalis
used in soapmaking were obtained from the ashes of plants, but they are now made
commercially. Today, the term alkali describes a substance that chemically is a base (the
opposite of an acid) and that reacts with and neutralizes an acid.

The common alkalis used in soapmaking are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also
called caustic soda; and potassium hydroxide (KOH), also called caustic potash.
How Soaps are Made

Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soapmaking process. This method
involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with a liquid alkali to produce soap and
water (neat soap) plus glycerine.

The other major soapmaking process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. Fats
and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and
glycerine. The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to
produce soap and water (neat soap).

When the alkali is sodium hydroxide, a sodium soap is formed. Sodium soaps are "hard"
soaps. When the alkali is potassium hydroxide, a potassium soap is formed. Potassium
soaps are softer and are found in some liquid hand soaps and shaving creams.

The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. It
is called the hydrophilic (water-loving) end. The hydrocarbon chain
is attracted to oil and grease and repelled by water. It is known as
the hydrophobic (water-hating) end.
                               SURFACTANTS IN DETERGENTS

<>A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants.
Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to
perform well under a variety of conditions. Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to
the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film.

Detergent surfactants were developed in response to a shortage of animal and vegetable
fats and oils during World War I and World War II. In addition, a substance that was
resistant to hard water was needed to make cleaning more effective. At that time,
petroleum was found to be a plentiful source for the manufacture of these surfactants.
Today, detergent surfactants are made from a variety of petrochemicals (derived from
petroleum) and/or oleochemicals (derived from fats and oils).

Petrochemicals and Oleochemicals
Like the fatty acids used in soapmaking, both petroleum and fats and oils
contain hydrocarbon chains that are repelled by water but attracted to oil and
grease in soils. These hydrocarbon chain sources are used to make the water-
hating end of the surfactant molecule.

Other Chemicals
Chemicals, such as sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid and ethylene oxide, are used to
produce the water-loving end of the surfactant molecule.

As in soapmaking, an alkali is used to make detergent surfactants. Sodium and potassium
hydroxide are the most common alkalis.

How Detergent Surfactants Are Made

Anionic Surfactants
The chemical reacts with hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or
fats and oils to produce new acids similar to fatty acids.

A second reaction adds an alkali to the new acids to produce one
type of anionic surfactant molecule.

Nonionic Surfactants
Nonionic surfactant molecules are produced by first converting the hydrocarbon to an
alcohol and then reacting the fatty alcohol with ethylene oxide.
                           HOW SOAPS AND DETERGENTS WORK

These types of energy interact and should be in proper balance. Let's look at how they work

Let's assume we have oily, greasy soil on clothing. Water alone will not remove this soil.
One important reason is that oil and grease present in soil repel the water molecules.

Now let's add soap or detergent. The surfactant's water-hating end is repelled by water but
attracted to the oil in the soil. At the same time, the water-loving end is attracted to the
water molecules.

These opposing forces loosen the soil and suspend it in the water. Warm or hot water helps
dissolve grease and oil in soil. Washing machine agitation or hand rubbing helps pull the
soil free.
 Marketing means understanding and responding to customer needs, a pre-requisite
 (condition) for any organization success.”
 According to American marketing association, “marketing is concerned with people and the
 activities involved in the flow of goods and serves from the producer to the consumer.”
 According to W.J. Santan, “marketing is a total system of business activities designed to
 plan, prices, promise and distribute want satisfying goods and services to present and
 potential customer.”

                     PRODUCT             PRODUTION                  SATISFACTION

WANTS                SERVICE


 CUSTOMER: -A person buys things for his/her family consumption.

 CONSUMER: -A person buys things for his/her own consumption.


  What motives the consumer?
  What includes him to buy?
  Why does he buy specific brands?
  Why does he buy from a particular shop?
  Why does he shift from shop to anther or from one brand to another?
  How does he react to a new product introduced in the market, or a piece of information
   addressed to him?
  What are the stages he travels through, before he makes decision to buy?
Literature Review


The Indian fabric wash products market was a highly fragmented one. There was a sizeable
unorganized sector. Of the 23 lakh-tonne market, laundry soaps and bars made from
vegetable oils accounted for around seven lakh tonnes with synthetic detergents making up
the rest. Detergent cakes accounted for 40% of the synthetic detergent used, while powder
accounted for the rest. Washing powders were categorized into four segments - economy
(selling at less than Rs.25 per kg), mid-priced (Rs.25 - Rs. 90 per kg), premium (Rs. 90 -
Rs. 120 per kg) and compact (selling at over Rs. 120 per kg). The compact, premium and
medium priced segments together accounted for 20% of the volume share and 35% of the
value share. The economy segment made up the remaining lion's share of the market. The
fabric wash industry in India was characterized by low per capita consumption, especially in
rural markets. The major players in the Indian detergent market were HLL, P&G, Nirma and
Henkel (through its joint venture with SPIC, a leading petrochemical company based in the
south Indian city of Chennai).

    Major Players:

     Surf Excel
     Rin
     Arial
     Tide
     Nirma
     Wheel

NIRMA is one of the few names - which is instantly recognized as a true Indian brand,
which took on mighty multinationals and rewrote the marketing rules to win the heart of
princess, i.e. the consumer.

Nirma, the proverbial ‘Rags to Riches’ saga of Dr. Karsanbhai Patel, is a classic example of
the success of Indian entrepreneurship in the face of stiff competition. Starting as a one-
man operation in 1969, today, it has about 14, 000 employee-base and annual turnover is
above Rs. 25, 00 crores.India is a one of the largest consumer economy, with burgeoning
middle class pie. In such a widespread, diverse marketplace, Nirma aptly concentrated all
its efforts towards creating and building a strong consumer preference towards its ‘value-
for-money’ products.

Now, the year 2004 sees Nirma’s annual sales touch 800,000 tones, making it one of
the largest volume sales with a single brand name in the world. Looking at the FMCG
synergies, Nirma stepped into toilet soaps relatively late in 1990 but this did not deter it to
achieve a volume of 100,000 per annum. This makes Nirma the largest detergent and the
second largest toilet soap brand in India with market share of 38% and 20% respectively.


Surf Excel is currently running two campaigns riding on the popularity of the "Daag Ache
Hain" ( Dirt is good) campaign.The new campaign too strikes a chord with the consumers.
Continuing with the earlier campaign, the new ad features two kids taking a Puddle fight to
distract their fighting parents fighting over a car collision. The voice over says " if some
thing good happens because of dirt then Dirt is Good". According to a report in agencyfaqs,
the creative team had a tough task in continuing a classic campaign and no doubt they
have been very successful.
The second campaign takes a cue from the World cup. The ad features a group of kids
preparing for World Cup 2015.

Sr.   Name of the Product Multi National Company Indian Substitute
                          Proctor and Gamble
01. Aril, Tide                                   Nirma,
                          India Ltd.
02. Surf-Ultra            Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Plus,
03. Rin                   Hindustan Lever Ltd.   555, 501, 255
04. Wheel                 Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Chabi
05. Wheel(cake)           Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Ghadi
06. Sunlight              Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Doctor
07. Sunlight(cake)        Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Hipolin
08. Surf-Ultra (powder)   Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Fena
09. Check (powder)        Henkel Spic India Ltd. Dhara
                          Rebit and Colman India
10. White (powder)                               Date
11. Vim(powder)           Hindustan Lever Ltd.   Dot
                          Rebit and Colman of
12. Harpic                                       Superfine,Vimal
                          India Ltd.
                          Rebit and Colmen India
13. Colin                                        some of the soaps
14. Bricks                Henkel Spic India Ltd. of the local industries.

When Procter& Gamble India (P&G) entered the detergent , market of India at the
beginning of the 1990s, the market had just calmed down after a decade long battle
between HLL’s Surf and Nirma of Nirma Chemicals. Though there were many detergent
brands in the market – Det, Key, Pont, Chase, Vimal, Vijay, Adhunik, Plus, Hipolene, Tej,
Mazda , Sanzar , etc – Surf remained the leader and Nirma the challenger. Choosing the
price conscious, lower segment as its market and taking advantage of the concessions as
an SSI unit, Nirma Chemicals offered a low-priced brand and promoted it aggressively. HLL
had to defend Surf with all its might. The company stepped up its promotion of Surf,
relying heavily on aspects like quality and value for money. In addition, HLL introduced a
low priced brand, Wheel, and positioned it directly against Nirma in the same segment. HLL
also introduced Sunlight detergent powder, a brand extension of its Sunlight washing soap
taking advantage of its time tested brand image. Yet, within a few years, Nirma garnered a
share of 35 per cent of the market and literally shook Hindustan Lever. The latter had been
the market leader for years without any significant challenge whatsoever. Also, by then the
detergents market of India had grown into a Rs 1,800 crore market. It was into this market
that P&G entered with its Ariel as a direct contestant against Surf. In fact, the P&G-HLL
battle finally turned out to be one of the major marketing encounters of the 1990s. P&G
and Lever, the rivals around the world, were now combating on Indian ground.

How did P&G go about marketing Ariel? What marketing strategy did P&G employ? P&G
Seeks leadership position in the industry: P&G laid down its marketing strategy in respect
of Ariel: P&G aims at making Ariel the leading detergent brand of India, squarely
confronting the exiting market leader, Hindustan Lever, and its leading brand, Surf. Our
marketing strategy will be centered around this major theme. The company will stick to this
plan even if it means sacrificing profits in the short run. P&G put Ariel on the Indian market
in 1990, positioning it directly against HLL’s Surf.


The virtually unregulated use of pollutant chemicals in the Indian detergent industry is a
situation that needs to be quickly reversed, says Toxics Link.

October 2002 - Cleanliness has been an important consideration for human beings from
time immemorial, but the relation between personal and environmental cleanliness is a less
obvious one. Soap making dates back to about 1500 BC, the earliest records indicate that a
combination of animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts was used to form a soap-like
material. In ancient India too, people used soap preparations made from plant or animal
fats. Modern technology has provided synthetic detergents that have slowly replaced soaps.
The first detergents were used chiefly for hand dishwashing and fine fabric laundering. This
was followed by the development of all-purpose laundry detergents introduced in the U.S.
in 1946.
Today, India has a diverse range of detergents available off the shelf. The annual
consumption of detergents in India ranges to hundreds of thousands of tonnes. The formal
sector with its increasing ability to influence consumers via advertisements is expanding its
market share aggressively. The detergent market has evolved into a highly competitive one
where a myriad brands vie with each other to get the customers' attention. Each brand
claims to clean whiter, boasting of technologically dubious terms such as fighting granules,
power pearls, etc.

Detergents and health

Detergents are household chemical cleaning compounds used for laundering and
dishwashing. They contain wetting agents and emulsifiers, based on non-soap synthetic
surfactants. Synthetic detergent powders consist of surface-active agents, builders and
fillers. In addition they have additives like anti re-deposition agents, optical fibre
brighteners (whitening agents), bluing agents, bleaching agents, foam regulators, organic
sequestering agents, enzymes, perfumers, and substances that regulate the density and
assure crispness of the material they are used on.
A study done to understand the Indian consumers knowledge of harmful effects of
detergents on health and environment, showed that 77.6 percent of respondents had
experienced some kinds of skin irritation due to detergents. Of these the majority
comprised of dhobis and rural women. Conventional laundry detergents leave chemical
residues on the clothes. These residues enter our bodies either through the skin or through
the lungs. They cause many common health problems including allergies, skin infections
and in rare cases, cancer. The fragrances used in laundry detergents can prove allergic and
be highly irritating to lungs, causing serious health effects to people with asthma or chronic
heart problems.
The usual result of a continuous and excessive exposure of the skin to detergents is drying,
fissuring and dotting of the keratin layer leading to increased permeability that causes
sensitization, which may develop into dermatitis. Elderly people are more susceptible to
infections that may lead to developing eczema.

Detergents and water pollution

Most laundry detergents in India are phosphate based. Phosphates are a major source of
water pollution that has become the direct cause of 42 per cent of human and animal
diseases. In India, per capita consumption of detergents in 1994 was 2.8 kg per annum.
This is projected to rise to over 4 kg/capita by 2005. In rural areas the use of detergent
bars is expected to grow 7-8 per cent annually. The figures are of concern because high
quality detergents have as much as 35 per cent STPP in them. According to Prof Narinder
K. Kauschik, Professor emeritus for environmental biology at the Canadian University of
Guelph, "the main problem is that of phosphate-based detergents promoting
eurtrophication of aquatic environments."
Eutrophication or Nutrient pollution is a process by which water bodies gradually age and
become more productive. Any natural process like this might take thousands of years to
progress but human activities accelerate this process tremendously. The presence of
excessive plant nutrients causes pollution of water bodies. These plant nutrients are
supplied primarily in the form of phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon to water bodies in
various ways. Sewage perhaps is a particular source of phosphorus when detergents
containing large amounts of phosphates are drained during washing. The algal boom leads
to consumption of the oxygen dissolved in water, creating hypoxic, and at times, near
anoxic situation. This can lead to excessive eutrophication that kills the fish, cause odour
and increase pathogenic animals.

Seasonal impacts

Run-off of phosphates into water streams is not only due to detergents, but also due to
fertilizers and manures. Findings show that during the dry seasons when the run-off from
agriculture is virtually zero, and manure run-off is down to one fifth of the total annual rate,
detergents are responsible for additional loadings of rivers by about 7.3 per cent which
poses significant eutrophication impact risks. In India, it is not uncommon to see ponds,
lakes and part of rivers choking with algae or other aquatic plants. In the Indian context,
this is a grim situation since these water bodies are the primary sources of water for a large
section of the population.

The Detergent Industry

Detergent industry refuses to take any action due to a lack of mandatory legislations. As a
proactive response to environment risks as result of increasing levels of phosphates, the
industry needs to reduce the perilously high phosphate levels of 30 per cent to far lower
numbers. Industry representatives have declined to do so on grounds that the amount of
phosphate used in northern countries is higher as compared to that in India. The fact is
that India relies only on Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) which are not fully functional
even in metropolitan cities unlike northern countries where STPs are installed for every few
households. Industry ought to label its products voluntarily for containing phosphate so
that it can be left to the consumer to decide.
According to Prof. Kaushick strict regulations in North America and Europe makes it
mandatory for the multinational detergent industry to produce detergents with nominal
phosphate content (or even phosphate-free detergent). The same industry absolves itself of
this responsibility in India, where it manufactures detergents with a high phosphate
content. The industry vehemently opposes any regulation of phosphate use in detergents.
It is not prepared to indicate the percentage phosphate content on detergent packages.

Better options - Eco-friendly household cleaning powders

An environmentally superior detergent is the one that makes use of lesser chemical
ingredients. The toxicity of detergents decreases by non-addition of additives like
perfumes, colour and brightening agents. Minimal packaging can also reduce environmental
harm substantially. Synthetic surfactants may be replaced by non-petrochemical
surfactants or vegetable oil soaps; builders like phosphates can be replaced by sodium
citrate and sodium bicarbonate; dyes and fragrances can be eliminated or minimized. For a
simple formula to make your own detergent, write to Toxics Link.
Detergent use can never be a totally non-polluting activity. The consumer needs to be
informed that the smaller detergent products can also be the least polluting ones.
Consumers must press for implementation of labelling standards and regulation so that
they may avail of environmentally friendly choices. Using 'green detergents' that do not
contain non-essential additives like perfumes, colour and brightening agents in minimal
packaging will go a long way in ensuring a cleaner and healthier environment.
Research Methodology
   1. Research Methodology.
   2. Research Design.
   3. Data Source.
   4. Data Collection METHOD.
   5. Sampling Design.
   6. Sampling Unit.
   7. Sampling Size.

                      Research Methodology
The research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or
suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and
reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they
fit formulating hypothesis. The research process is carried out to a series of step, which are
required to be taken in chorological order. The major marketing research steps are as

    Problem identification.
    Research design.
    Fieldwork.
    Data analysis & interpretation.
    Report Presentation.

   Problem Identification

   The first and foremost step in this research is to identify the problem chosen for
   investigation. The step has very significance, once it is said “A Problem well identified
   is half way to solution”. On the other hand if the problem identified vaguely, a wrong
   problem is identified, or research is not clarified, then the research result may be
   completely useless for the management, and the research effort of the investigation will
   be a futile exercise.
   Research Design

   A research design is a master plan or model for the formal investigation. Once the
   formal investigation is decided, the researcher must formulate the formal plan of
   investigation. A research design id the specification of methods & procedure, for
   acquiring the information needed for solving the problem. The formal investigation plan
   will concentrate on the selection of sources of information and the selection of methods
   and   procedures     for   gathering    the   data.    Data   gathering   forms   are   prepared.
   Questionnaires are tested, samples for investigations are planned.

   There are three basic types of research design:-


                    Exploratory                                  Casual

In my research I have used the descriptive research design

Descriptive Research Design

The descriptive study is typically concerned with determining frequency with which some
thing occurs or variable vary together this study is guided by an initial hypothesis.
Descriptive   studies   are   those   studies,    which    are   concerned   with    describing   the
characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group.

Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The
major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exits at
present. In social science and business research we quit use the term Ex post facto
research for descriptive research studies.

There are two sources of data collection:

   Primary data source
   Secondary data source.

Source of Data

Primary Data: -

Primary data are those data, which are obtained for the first time by the investigator
himself. In order words, by primary data we mean those data, which are originally, i.e.,
those in which little or no grouping has been made, the instance being recorded or itemized

The source of primary data used in my project is the questionnaire. Primary are the raw
data like raw material. Primary data are according to object of investigation and used
without correction. The collection of primary data requires large sum, energy and time.
Precautions are not necessary in the use of the primary data.

Secondary Data: -

Secondary data means data that are already available i.e; they refer to the data, which
have already been collected and analysed by some one else. When the researcher utilizes
secondary data, then he has to look in to various sources from where he can obtain them.
In this cause he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated
with the collection of original data. Secondary data may either be published data or
unpublished data.
                    DATA COLLECTION METHOD

As a data collection method I have used the Questionnaire Method.

Why a Questionnaire Method has been adopted?

Questionnaire had been prepared to get the response of the people as per guided by the
organizational guide. To provide the best end results without any kind of biasness, which
can give a brief idea about sampling and would be beneficial for making inferences for
tabulations and calculations with research instruments? I made a survey through
questionnaire as prepared by me.

                             SAMPLING DESIGN

Sampling plan consists of sampling unit, sampling size and sampling procedure therefore it
is necessary to find out sampling plan if population is 100.

Sample Design Consists of:

      Experimental Research design
      Exploratory Research design
      Descriptive Research design.

                               SAMPLING UNIT
Sampling/Unit is the total number of samples differed in different locality.

                     S.No.            Classes           No.of Classes
                       1.    Student                           25
                       2.    Service class                     25
                       3.    Business Class                    25
                       4.     Household                        25
                                 Total                         100
  Data have been collected through the survey method while surveys have been
  conducted in one city:

  i)    Bhilai
  ii)   Durg

  All the data are primary in the nature as they had been collected first and personally.
  All the area had segmented according the population of this area. I have considered
  100 as sample size.

Research Plan
Research Design             :          Descriptive Research
Data Source                 :          Primary Data
Research Instrument             :      Questionnaire
Measurement scale           :          Likert’s Scale

Sample Plan
Sampling Design             :          Simple Random Design
Sample Size                 :          100
Sample Location             :          Bhilai & Durg

Sample Element              :          STUDENT                –     25

                                       SERVICE CLASS          –     25

                                       BUSINESS CLASS         –     25

                                        HOUSEHOLD             –     25

Likert’s measurement scale
    3       2     1        0

Brand                          X1
Advertisement                  X2
Price                          X3
Availability                   X4
Fragrance                      X5
Colour                         X6
Safe side                      X7
Quality                        X8
Size                           X9

STUDENT              Y1
SERVICE PERSON       Y2    .
HOUSEHOLD            Y3


    X1          13               11        1            0           62
    X2           2               21        1            1           49
    X3          21                4        0            0           71
    X4           0               20        5            0           45
    X5           6               13        5            1           49
    X6           0                4       17            4           25
    X7          12               13        0            0           62
    X8          21                3        1            0           70
    X9           0                2       16            7           20
   X1            5          17        3            0              52
   X2            0           3       18            4              24
   X3           11          14        0            0              61
   X4            2           7       12            4              32
   X5            2          18        2            3              44
   X6            0           1       20            4              22
   X7           14          11        0            0              64
   X8           12          13        0            0              62
   X9            1           6       13            5              28


   X1            6          19        0            0        56
   X2            0          15        8            2           38
   X3           22           3        0            0        72
   X4            2          16        7            0        45
   X5            6          16        3            0        53
   X6            0           6       17            2        29
   X7            8          17        0            0        58
   X8           24           1        0            0        74
   X9            0           9       15            1        33


   X1           16           8       1             0 65
   X2            2           5      16             2              32
   X3           17           7       1             0              66
   X4            8          14       3             0              55
   X5            8          17       0             0              58
   X6            2           7      15             1              35
   X7           21           4       0             0              71
   X8           19           5       1             0              68
   X9            0          12      11             2              35
1.How much do you consider Brand in purchasing detergent?

              Y1         Y2          Y3        Y4
Brand         62         52          65        56








        Y1         Y2           Y3        Y4
2.How much do you consider Advertisement in purchasing detergent?

                Y1           Y2            Y3             Y4
Advertisement   49           24            32             38





 30                                             Advertisement



         Y1      Y2        Y3         Y4
3.How much do you consider Advertisement in purchasing detergent?

               Y1           Y2        Y3       Y4
Price          71           61        66       72


 64                                           Price
        Y1          Y2           Y3    Y4
4.How much do you consider Availability in purchasing detergent?

                Y1              Y2            Y3           Y4
Availability    45              32            55           45





 30                                                Availability



           Y1        Y2          Y3      Y4
5.How much do you consider Fragrance in purchasing detergent?

               Y1             Y2          Y3         Y4
Fragrance      49             44          58         53








        Y1          Y2        Y3     Y4
6.How much do you consider Colour in purchasing detergent?

               Y1           Y2         Y3        Y4
Colour         25           22         35       29


 20                                           Colour
         Y1         Y2            Y3   Y4
7.How much do you consider Safeside in purchasing detergent?

               Y1            Y2      Y3          Y4
Safeside       62            64      71          58


 40                                         Safeside
        Y1          Y2         Y3   Y4
8.How much do you consider Quality in purchasing detergent?

               Y1            Y2        Y3         Y4
Quality        70            62        68        74


 66                                           Quality
          Y1        Y2            Y3   Y4
9.How much do you consider Size in purchasing detergent?

               Y1          Y2        Y3         Y4
Size           20          28        35         33


 20                                            Size
        Y1          Y2          Y3    Y4
Likert's Points                               CONSOLIDATE TABLE
                                     Y1        Y2          Y3           Y4      TOTAL   MEAN     DEVIATION
                      X1             62          52        56              65    235    55225     13806.25
                      X2             49          24        38              32    143    20449      5112.25
                      X3             71          61        72              66    270    72900       18225
                      X4             45          32        45              55    177    31329      7832.25
                      X5             49          44        53              58    204    41616       10404
                      X6             25          22        29              35    111    12321      3080.25
                      X7             62          64        58              71    255    65025     16256.25
                      X8             70          62        74              68    274    75076       18769
                      X9             20          28        33              35    116    13456        3364
TOTAL                             453         389         458           485      1785   387397    90849.25
     MEAN                        205209      151321      209764        235225
   DEVIATION                     22801      16813.4 23307.1 26136.1 89057.6


                 50                                                             Y1
                      X1   X2   X3    X4     X5     X6    X7      X8     X9
Analysis of variance for testing the Difference of Determinants.

H1= There is significant Difference Between Parameter /
Ho= There is no significant Difference Between Parameter
/ Determinant

          T   =1785

          N   = 9x4 = 36

Correction                 =               T2/N

Correction               =                  (1785)2/36             Degree
                                            88506.25               freedo
m        = (c – 1)

                               = (4 – 1)


 Sum Square of Column      = 89057.6 – 88506.25

                               = 551.35

 Mean Square of Column = SSC/d.f.

                               = 551.35/3

                               = 183.78

Sum Square of Row            = 90849.25– 88506.25

                               = 2343

Degree of freedom            = (r – 1)

                             = 9– 1


Mean Square of Row       = SSR/d.f.

                           = 2343/8
                        = 292.87

          Y1      Y2        Y3       Y4       TOTAL
  X1     3844   2704      3136     4225       13909
  X2     2401    576      1444     1024        5445
  X3     5041   3721      5184     4356       18302
  X4     2025   1024      2025     3025        8099
  X5     2401   1936      2809     3364       10510
  X6     625     484       841     1225        3175
  X7     3844   4096      3364     5041       16345
  X8     4900   3844      5476     4624       18844
  X9     400     784      1089     1225        3498
TOTAL   25481   19169     25368    28109      98127

  Sum Square of Total     = Total Sum of Square – T2 /N

                           = 98127 –88506.25
                           = 9620.75

 Sum Square of Column     = SST- (SSR+ SSC)

                           = 9620.75– ( 183.78+292.87)

                           = 9144.19
 Degree of Freedom        = ( c – 1)(r – 1)

                           = (3)x(8)

                           = 24

Mean Square of Error     = SSE/ d.f.

                           = 9144.19/24

                           = 381.00
                             ANOVA: Two-Factor Without Replication

  SUMMARY              Count        Sum              Average                 Variance
    Row 1                4          235               58.75                     10
    Row 2                4          143               35.75                    14.8
    Row 3                4          270                67.5                    10.7
    Row 4                4          177               44.25                    14.3
    Row 5                4          204                 51                     14.8
    Row 6                4          111               27.75                    18.7
    Row 7                4          255               63.75                    18.3
    Row 8                4          274                68.5                    18.8
    Row 9                4          116                 29                     36.7

   Column 1              9           453               50.33                20.57692308
   Column 2              9           389               43.22                20.56410256
   Column 3              9           458               50.88                49.07692308
   Column 4              9           485               53.88                12.85897436

Source of Variation        SS              Df        MS               F      P-value        F crit
      Rows                2343              8       292.87           0.76   0.018899      1.960121
    Columns              183.78             3       183.78           0.48   0.09864       2.565241
      Error           855.2615385          24        381

       Total            9620.75            35

(a)    Table value at (10,48) for 0.05 (for testing F1) = 1.840121

      Here the calculated value 2.335443 > Table value of F       (Fc > Ft)

  So,     the   Ho   is   rejected,   it   means   there   is   significant   difference   Between

  Parameter / Determinant.

(b)    Table value at (2,48) for 0.05 (for testing F2 ) = 2.845241

      Here the calculated value 2.075694 > table value of F      (Fc > Ft)

  So, the Ho is rejected, it means there is significant change between                Parameter /


It is concluded that difference between the Parameters i.e Student,           Service Class,

Households and Business Class is Significant. Also the difference between the Determinants

i.e Brand, Advertisement, Price, Availability , fragrance, Colour ,Safeside, Quality and Size

is also Significant.

The companies are therefore ,advised to give more emphasis on cleanliness factors and
price where as less emphasis on fragrance and colour. They are also advised to make
different strategies for different parameters as they are showing different purchase

This study is only modest attempt and not be claimed as comprehensive one, further it is
to be pointed that data are inebriation for the study and consequently the findings made
out of it are reliable to the extend that the respondents have been forthright nourishing the

During conducting this research I come across the following limitations: -

     1. The research period was a short period to carryout study with almost precautions.

     2. Sometime the respondents are not available at their place.

     3. Very often the responded do not express their true feelings, in such case their
     habit, preference, practice cannot be assessed correctly.

     4. Some of the respondents refuse to give the important information best known to

      However in spite of these limitations all efforts have been put to make the report
correct, genuine, and fulfilling the objectives of the reports.

  1) Kothari C.R. “Research Methodology” New Delhi ,Willy Eastern Ltd. 1990,Second
  2) Rampal K.M. Gupta S.1,Project Report Writing New Delhi ,Galgotia Publication 2001.
  3) Encarta Encylopedia standard 2004.




  I.         Name :
 II.          Age(in years) :    0-20             20-40      40-60       More than 60
III.          Occupation : Service Person               Business Class         Households
                    Others (please specify):

IV.         Monthly Income(in Rs.) :  0 - 10,000             10,000 - 20,000
                                      20,000-30,000          More than 30,000
 v.      Gender :                     Male                   Female

       1.Which detergent do you usually prefer?

      Surf      Arial     Tide     Nirma        Rin   Other(Please specify)

      2.How much do you consider brand in purchasing detergent?

      High   On an average Little Not at all

      3.How much do you consider advertisement in purchasing detergent?

      High   On an average Little Not at all

      4.How much do you consider price in purchasing detergent?

      High   On an average Little Not at all

      5.How much do you consider availability in purchasing detergent?

      High   On an average Little Not at all

      6.How much do you consider fragrance in purchasing detergent?

      High   On an average Little Not at all
  7.How much do you consider colour in purchasing detergent?

  High   On an average Little Not at all

  8.How much do you consider safe side in purchasing detergent?

  High   On an average Little Not at all

  9.How much do you consider quality in purchasing detergent?

  High   On an average Little Not at all

  10.How much do you consider size in purchasing detergent?

  High   On an average Little Not at all


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