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The Kingdom Animalia

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  • pg 1
									The Kingdom Animalia
• The movers and
  shakers
• Part I: Introduction
  to animals and the
  phyla Porifera and
  Cnidaria.


                         Gulo gulo
What are animals?
• Animials are multicellular,
  eukaryotic heterotrophs.
• Animals are very
  responsive to their
  environment.
• All animals are capable
  of locomotion at some
  point in their lifecycle.
                                  Falco
                                peregrinis
How do they move?
• All animals, at least during
  some point in their lifecycle
  possess contractile fibers.
• In higher animals, these
  contractile fibers are called
  muscles.
• All muscles are capable of
  doing is shortening and then
  relaxing.
The phyla of the Kingdom
Animalia
• There are nine phyla in the Kingdom
  Animalia.
• Each phyla contains animals which
  share many characteristics with
  each other.
• 8 of the phyla are considered
  invertebrates (this means that a they
  lack a backbone.
• The 9th phylum are animals with a
  backbone.
The nine phyla of Kingdom
Animalia
•   1. Porifera
•   2. Cnidaria
•   3. Platyhelminthes
•   4. Nematoda
•   5. Annelida
•   6. Arthropoda
•   7. Mollusca
•   8. Echinodermata
•   9. Chordata
Phylum Porifera
• Members of this phylum are
  commonly referred to as the
  sponges.
• Over 5,000 species, mostly
  marine but some live in fresh
  water.
• The very simplest of animals.
• As adults they are sessile,
  asymetrical filter-feeders
I thought all animals
moved?
• Adult sponges don’t move,
  but as larvae they do.
• The larvae can swim
  around.
• Eventually they attach
  themselves to the ocean
  bottom and metamorphose
  into their adult form.
Reproduction
• Sponges are capable of sexual and
  asexual reproduction.
• In sexual reproduction a sperm cells
  swims to an egg cell and produces
  a motile larvae.
• Sponges can also reproduce by
  budding, when a piece of a
  sponge breaks off and skips the
  larval stage all together.
Cell layers
• Sponges only have two layers
  of cells (germ layers).
• Food is taken in by each
  individual cell.
• This limitation puts a size
  restraint on a sponge.
Feeding in Porifera
• Porifera feed by pumping water
  through it’s body and filtering out
  nutrients.
• The water is pumped by means of
  flagella which line the interior of
  the sponge.
• Oxygen is absorbed and wastes
  excreted during this process.
Phylum Cnidaria
• The second
  phylum are
  represented by
  such animals as
  Jellyfish and
  corals.
The Cnidarians
• Over 9,000 species, all of them are
  aquatic.
• Jellyfish are found in all of the worlds
  seas from the equator to the poles.
• Corals live in warm shallow waters only.
• Sea anenomies are marine predators
  which have stings like jellyfish.
• Hydra are small fresh water cnidarians.
Cnidarian body plan
• Cnidarians display radial symmetry.
• They have a central mouth
  surrounded by numerous tentacles
  that extend outward from the body.
• The simple digestive cavity is a two-
  way tract.
• Any materials which cannot be
  digested are passed out of the body
  through the mouth.
Jellyfish stings
• A characteristic of jellyfish that allows
  them to subdue and kill their prey are
  called nematocysts.
• Each nematocyst contains a small vesicle
  filled with toxins, an inner filament and an
  external sensory hair.
• When the hair is touched, it mechanically
  triggers the cell explosion, a harpoon-like
  structure which attaches to organisms that
  trigger it, and injects a dose of poison in the
  flesh of the aggressor or prey
Dangerous Jellies
• While most jellyfish stings are painful, only
  a few are considered life-threatening.
• Box Jellies and Irukanji, both found in
  Austrailian waters are the most
  dangerous.
• http://video.google.com/videosearch?cli
  ent=safari&rls=en-us&q=jellyfish&oe=UTF-
  8um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv
Jellyfish types
• There are several different families of
  Jellyfish.
• Some, like the portugese man-o-war
  do not swim, but float by means of a
  bladder that acts like a sail.
• Other jellyfish actively swim through
  the oceans.
Corals
• Corals reproduce sexually as both
  sperm and eggs are released into
  the surrounding water.
• Larval corals are free swimming
  organisms.
• They attach themselves to rock on
  the ocean bottom and
  metamorphose into adults.
Marine ecosystems
• Corals play a very important role in
  maintaining biodiversity.
• Coral reefs support some of the most
  diverse communities of plants and
  animals on earth.
• Rising water temperatures have a
  negative impact on coral reefs.

								
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