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					Academic Scholarship and
   the Deep (or Invisible)
                     Web
Jessie Hey
Intelligence, Agents, Multimedia Group and
University of Southampton Libraries,
University of Southampton, UK

SIMS, Berkeley 3rd Oct 2003
     Where the Titanic sailed
     from




Southampton Oceanography Centre
National Oceanography Library
    IAM Group - Electronics and
    Computer Science
   One of the largest       IAM is a world leader
    groups of its kind,       in the key
    with over 80              technologies of agent-
    researchers, IAM          based computing,
    focuses on the            knowledge
    design and                management, open
    application of            hypermedia and
    computing systems         pervasive computing
    for complex               and their application
    information and           in the domains of
    knowledge                 digital libraries and
    processing tasks.         grids
University of Southampton
Libraries
   Pioneer of computer
    automation               Renowned for Official
                              Publications
   Archives:                Printed collection
    Wellington               Digital collection
    Palmerston                   BOPCAS
    Mountbatten
                             National
   even Textiles             Oceanography Library
Scope
   Developing academic scholarship

   Ultimate goal – improving tools to
    advance research

2 sides of the coin:
 Research discovery
 Research visibility
Exploiting the invisible and
visible web
   Started exploring the key issues
    surrounding the hybrid library (combining
    the traditional and the digital)
   our surveys showed that the academic
    reader was more likely to be swayed by
    the power of Internet search engines to
    use these first and library provided
    search facilities second
   Our prototype search engine tailored to
    our local community thus contained an
    Internet search engine as well
GIGA – a Global
Information Gatherng Agent
MALIBU and GIGA

 Searching the hybrid library
 Developing the MALIBU search
  engine (GIGA)
 An example
 Towards our vision
Creating the hybrid library
   To bring together a wide range of
    new alternative technologies plus
    the electronic products and services
    already in libraries, and the
    historical functions of our local,
    physical libraries, into well
    organised, accessible hybrid
    libraries (JISC circular 3/97)
Recent hybrid library
statistics!
Two extremes:
 Southampton libraries have 42,752m of
  shelving, of which 35,300m or 83% were
  occupied at the time of the measure. This
  is roughly equivalent to the distance from
  Southampton to Portsmouth.
 Southampton IAM group prints 10,000
  pages every 3.5 weeks searching the
  web, using up a laser printer toner
  cartridge
Questionnaires to
Humanities Staff

All kind of resources used e.g.:

   E-journals, abstracts and microforms
   Radio and online newspapers
   Card catalogues and archives
   Librarians and students
   General and very specialised web
    resources
MALIBU search engine
   Developed from preprototype search
    engine for the Humanities supported by
    user and librarian testing and reviews of
    searching methods for paper and digital
    resources, both local and remote

Modelling the hybrid library: Project MALIBU
JMN Hey and A Wissenburg The New Review of
  Information and Library Research 1998 103-110
Search Agent Objectives
   To expand horizons for Humanities staff
    and students in a managed hybrid library
    environment
   Both to search relevant web based
    resources in addition to traditional
    catalogues
   And archives and other ‘hidden’
    databases in addition to the web
   To develop a prototype providing
    searching facilities across a selected no.
    of heterogeneous priority targets
A Global Information
Gathering Agent
   Consists of a series of independent
    agents, which can communicate through
    a meta-agent
   Aim - flexible and efficient system
   Degree of user profiling – matching users
    at Oxford, Southampton and KCL
   Options to change targets searched and
    to work with results
GIGA
              An introductory profile is set up but
              can be amended
                       Malibu's Search Agent Signup


Welcome!
Please provide the following information about yourself. This information will help the
system to set up a personal user profile for you.

    Your First Name
    Your Surname
    Please provide a Password
    it will not be shown as you
    type
    Please enter your Password a
    second time
    Please give your e-mail address
    (optional)

    Your Department
    Your User Type


Please click on "Submit" (below) when you are finished entering your information, or "Clear" to start again.
A Personal Profile eg in
History might include:
   Book catalogues (Southampton and COPAC)
   JSTOR history and American journals
   Papers of Palmerston and Wellington (at
    Southampton)
   Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives (at
    King’s College, London)
   Refugee studies Catalogue (at Oxford)
   Survey of Jewish Archives (at
    Southampton)
   Google search engine
   Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital Archive
The next stage of
exploration
   The Southampton Reserve Collection has some 1st
    World War materials and some were digitized for a
    previous project in English and posted to a local site




   We want to look further afield:
       Southampton’s WebCat
       JSTOR digitized History journals
       Perhaps other catalogues and archives
       A web search engine and different media
Amend profile to search
relevant databases
   Southampton WebCat
   Oxford’s OLIS catalogue
   COPAC (The union catalogue of the Consortium of
    University Research Libraries. Free bibliographic
    information on over 6 million titles)
   Google search engine
   JSTOR history journals
   Papers of Senior UK Defence Personnel (catalogue
    launched in Southampton June 2000)
   Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital Archive
   Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives (at King’s
    College, London)

And rank by priority
Researching the 1st world
war trenches
Some marked records from a Southampton GIGA
  search (saved or emailed):

 Wilfred Owen Archive at Oxford
    Audio of daily routine in front line trenches
 Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archive (KCL)
    Sketches showing layout of trenches
 Google Search Engine
    Trenches on the Web – reference library
 Oxford OLIS Catalogue
    Lads: love poetry of the trenches compiled 1998
 Southampton catalogue
    In the trenches of Stalingrad pub. 1948
NB No matches in JSTOR journals or Southampton online
  archives this time
Following on:
   The Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital
    Archive looks useful – so click on the
    information button

What does it comprise?
 Virtually all of Owen’s original MSS for his war poetry, from
  various sources
 18 issues of The Hydra
 20 Photos of Owen
 A selection of letters Owen wrote during his war service
 Official records related to Owen from PRO
 Selection of general material from war (photos, audio, video),
  from IWM archives
 Relevant current day video & photographic material
 Other contemporary material (e.g. postcards)
Exploring in depth
    Explore a few resources:

1.   ahew4 Audio of Smell of trenches. by L. J. Hewitt
2.   amci1 Audio of Trench life. Shaving and washing by T. W.
     McIndoe
3.   aoxl12 Audio of Daily routine in front line trenches. St by
     H. Oxley
4.   aoxl18 Audio of Sanitary arrangements in trenches. by H.
     Oxley
5.   aoxl5 Audio of Journey to front line at Ypres Salient, by H.
     Oxley


    Link to the database for more detailed
     context based searching
     http://www.hcu.ox.ac.uk/jtap/
And from our web search engine:
An Internet History of the Great War
http://www.worldwar1.com




        “one of the best online resources for teaching
        and learning about the First World War."
        Scout Report for Social Sciences
        8-Nov-1997
A useful exemplar
   Investigated the impact of the search
    engine and its place within the user’s and
    library’s information landscape
   Analysed advantages and disadvantages
    of technical model
   Some conclusions:
       Can allow for easy distributed development
       But may need to accept less than full features –
        use as a pointer
       Major challenge of database subscriptions and
        features not remaining constant
Vision – to plug in new agents as
databases become available or in
demand
   eg free Eprints software being made
    available from our IAM group to
    institutions and departments to self
    archive scholarly research literature
    (modelled on Los Alamos preprint
    archive)
   Could then add a database to search
    very recent work as well as
    traditionally published work together
The ideas of GIGA look
forward to:
   Having your own intelligent agent
    (your virtual ‘hybrarian’) to exploit to
    the full well organised and accessible
    libraries
   Whether far afield or on your
    doorstep
   Tests have shown users are
    enthusiastic to discover new
    resources and recommend new
    resources for inclusion
Now many similar examples of
searching choices including the web
And search engines on similar
principles eg Copernic: a broader
version of the academic GIGA
   Copernic Agent Professional provides specialized
    search categories that delve more deeply into
    the Web. Imagine what you are missing!

   Copernic Agent Professional lets you create your
    own customized search categories using
    available engines. You can mix categories and
    engines to create your perfectly targeted search
    category. You can also create a list of your
    favorite categories for quick access to them.
Aiding Academic Scholarship
 Research discovery
Guiding exploration of resources –both
  visible and potentially invisible
Lets move on to:
 Research visibility
Making research visible up front
       Working with   standards e.g. OAI
       Working with   world wide information
        community
       Working with   policy
       Working with   authors
Open?

    ‘Open’ = freely accessible -
     ‘open access journals’

 and/or

    ‘Open’ = interoperable - Open
     Archives Initiative (OAI)
‘Crisis in Scholarly Communication’
new alternate models


   Open Access        Open Archive
    Journals            Initiative
Open Access Journals
   the worldwide movement to disseminate
    scientific and scholarly research
    literature online, free of charge and free
    of unnecessary licensing restrictions.

       Open access is barrier-free and cost-free
        access to the use of information

       Open access is NOT cost-free publication -
        costs still have to be met but in a new way

       Open access is NOT low-quality publication

       Open access is NOT vanity publication

       Open access is a new way of managing
        scholarly publishing with a new economic
        model
Changing the economic model
   Essential feature : payment is for publication not for
    access
   Peer-review still in place to ensure quality
   Publication payment can come either from author or
    from research funding agency (many authors
    already pay more in page charges or colour charges
    than open access is likely to cost)
   Open access favours small society publishers (publication
    costs likely to be lower)
   Enables commercial publishers to continue albeit with
    lower profit levels
   BUT transition to new model difficult for publishers
Examples of Open Access Journals
and Publishers
•Documenta Mathematica

   http://www.mathematik.uni-bielefeld.de/documenta/Welcome-eng.html
This journal is free of charge (electronic). Printed volumes are
available for a low price.



•Geometry & Topology http://www.maths.warwick.ac.uk/gt/
Publication is in electronic format completely free to individuals with
papers appearing a few days after acceptance. Low-priced paper
copy is available.


•Public Library of Science and BioMed Central
Public Library of Science
   non-profit organization of scientists
    and physicians committed to making
    the world's scientific and medical
    literature a freely available public
    resource.

 PLoS Biology out Oct 2003
 PLoS Medicine 2004
BioMed Central
   90+ open access journals
       business model is to charge authors $500 per article
        and then make the content available free to readers

   JISC agreement with BioMed Central 1/7/03
       Up to 80,000 medical and clinical researchers at 180
        universities will now be able to publish their work at no
        charge in any of BioMed Central's extensive range
        of online medical journals. The costs of peer review will
        continue to be borne by individual academics or their
        institutions. The JISC deal will benefit authors from
        UK Higher Education Institutions, who will no
        longer have to pay their own author charges.
Work published with BioMed Central by
 researchers at University of Southampton


    Research article
    Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from the region of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of
    commercial mining interest
    Lambshead PJD, Brown CJ, Ferrero TJ, Hawkins LE, Smith CR, Mitchell NJ
    BMC Ecology 2003, 3:1 (9 January 2003)
    [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]

   Review
    Mitotic death: a mechanism of survival? A review
    Erenpreisa J, Cragg MS
    Cancer Cell International 2001, 1:1 (23 November 2001)
    [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]

   Research article
    Cost-utility of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery disease
    Nicholson T, McGuire A, Milne R
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2001, 1:2 (15 October 2001)
    [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles]

   Oral presentation
    Recruiting and supporting consumers in prioritising research topics
    Royle J, Oliver S
    BMC Meeting Abstracts: 9th International Cochrane Colloquium 2001, 1:op014 (26 August 2001)
    [Abstract]

   Oral presentation
    Pathways to evidence based reproductive healthcare in developing countries
    Geyoushi B, Stones W
    BMC Meeting Abstracts: 9th International Cochrane Colloquium 2001, 1:op048 (26 August 2001)
    [Abstract]
Directory of Open Access
Journals
   Compiled by Lund University 2003
       The directory only contains fulltext, open access scientific and
        scholarly journals that use an appropriate quality control
        system to guarantee the content

   >520 journal titles (Apr 03 = 480)
   All peer reviewed
   Increasing coverage by ISI

Agriculture and Food Sciences Arts and Architecture Biology and Life
Sciences Business and Economics Chemistry Earth and Environmental
Sciences Health SciencesHistory and Archaeology Languages and
Literatures Law and Political Science Mathematics and statistics
Philosophy and Religion Physics and Astronomy Social Sciences
Technology and Engineering
‘Crisis in Scholarly Communication’
new alternate models


   Open Access        Open Archive
    Journals            Initiative
Open Archives
   Subject based e-Print archives (centred on
    author deposit)
       Pioneering example is ArXiv set up by Paul Ginsparg at
        Los Alamos in 1991
       Successful in limited subject areas
       Free EPrints Software developed at Southampton to
        encourage more self archiving (JISC funding)
   Open Archive Initiative software standards
    developed to enable cross searching (OAI-PMH)
   Alternate models proposed based on institutional
    research output
JISC FAIR programme in the UK
 Focus on Access to Institutional
Resources
   Inspired by the vision of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI)
    that digital resources can be shared between organisations
    based on a simple mechanism allowing metadata about
    these resources to be harvested into services

   To support the disclosure of institutional assets:
    To support access to and sharing of institutional content
    within Higher Education and Further Education and to
    allow intelligence to be gathered about the technical,
    organisational and cultural challenges of these processes…
FAIR Programme
£3 million on 14 projects starting
 August 2002
 Clusters:
     Museums and Images
     E-Prints
     E-theses
     IPR
     Institutional portals
UK Focus on Access to
Institutional Resources – e-Prints
   TARDis: Targeting Academic Resources
    for Deposit and dISclosure
   SHERPA: broader - Consortium of
    Research Libraries – filling archives and
    joint infrastructure
   HaIRST: A testbed for Scotland
   ePrints-UK :harvesting UK e-Print
    archives
          TARDis
   HEFCE – JISC Programme - Focus on Access to
    Institutional Resources (FAIR) £196,000

   Aug 2002 – Jan 2005 (30 months)

   Cross University collaboration:
       University Library
       School of Electronics and Computer Sciences
       Information Systems and Services
       Academic Community!
   Aim: to set up a sustainable Southampton e-
    Print archive
          e-Prints Soton
       Enhancing our version of software
       Feeding into EPrints software – future versions


   To gain content – full text documents
       Offering a mediated service in parallel
       Making easier to deposit
       Advocacy
       Project target – 2000
       Pilot with 2 schools in progress
TARDIS
   Targeting Academic Research for Deposit
    and Disclosure
   Towards a sustainable e-Print service for
    Southampton research
   Multidisciplinary collections with views for
    communities
   Extended model with mediated deposit
   Input to design of the software to match
    institutional repositories needs
How to get institutional
archives off the ground
   Looking at departmental practice – environmental
    assessment

   Modifying aspects of software relevant to working on a
    broader front
     Incorporating good library practice
     Involving HCI lecturer
    e.g.
        • Submission process
        • Publication types
        • Format of output

   Involving other librarians and other e-Print archives
What are e-Prints?
e-Prints are:

   electronic copies of any research output
       journal articles, book chapters, conference papers etc even
        multimedia
       they may include unpublished manuscripts and papers
        prepared for publication (as copyright allows)

    Also broader and narrower definitions:
    Academic output - Nottingham
    Peer-reviewed – Stevan Harnad

    An e-Print archive is an internet based repository of such
    digital scholarly publications which can provide immediate
    and free worldwide access benefiting both author and
    reader
Collection policy defined to be broad
research output of University
researchers
Why deposit your research
in e-Prints Soton?
  •To make your research more visible and available in
  electronic form
  • To promote your work and that of other academics
  within your community at the University of Southampton
  • To use it as a secure store for your research
  publications - which can help you to respond to the
  many requests for full text and publication data
  • To contribute to national and global initiatives which
  will ensure an international audience for your latest
  research (other universities are developing their own
  archives which, together, will be searchable by global
  search tools)
How researchers make research
available currently though the
university web site
   Survey

       Central record of University research output not maintained.
       Retrospective central research publications listings collated from
        individual departments and made available on the web (University
        Research Report)

       Snapshot
       departmental recording practices
         • Minimal to highly structured
         • Variety of methods
       looked at web sites – personal and schools


   Example web site
Current practice at example
departments                   T otal number                 Percentage
         Department           of publications   Full text   of full text

                     Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences

        Archaeology                 252            2                1%
        English                     243            3                1%
        Modern Languages            160            0                0%
        Music                       280            5                2%
        Politics                    138            6                4%
        Economics                   357            89              25%


                  Faculty of Medicine, H ealth and Life Sciences

        Biology                     796             24              3%
        Medicine                   1603            247             15%
        Health Professions                          0               0%
        and Rehabilitation          332
        Sciences
        Nursing and                 439             0              0%
        Midwifery

                Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics

        Chemistry                  1128           111              10%
        Electronics and            7008           866*             12%
        Computer S   cience
        Maths Education             170             34             20%
        Mathematical                849            310             37%
        Studies
        Ocean Circulation           286             9              3%
        and Climate
        Group, S OES
        James Rennell               792            68              9%
        Division, SOC


        * - personal web sites not counted
Local needs identified /
wider issues
   Bibliographic records       Copyright (Romeo
    and full text
                                 project)
   Input publication data
    only once                   Secure storage
   Help with file formats      Quality control
   Integrating current
    records                     Peer review
   Import/export to            Workload
    other archives              Visibility
   Satisfy variety of
    demands for                 Citation impact
    publication records
Massaging deposit process
in TARDIS
Policy maker involvement
Benefits of an institutional repository:
 Raises profile of institution
 Manages digital institutional research assets
 Supports
       Research output measures e.g. RAE, research report
       funding agency requirements


   Endorse, encourage new deposits
   Encourage authors to amend copyright transfer
Upcoming UK Policy level
event
 JISC seminar:
 Global Access to UK Research:
  Removing the barriers
 20 November 2003
 Universities UK, Woburn House,
  London
Can add additional text to
copyright
   "I hereby transfer to <publisher or journal> all
    rights to sell or lease the text (on-paper and
    on-line) of my paper <paper title>. I retain
    the right to distribute it for free for
    scholarly/scientific purposes, in particular, the
    right to self-archive it publicly online on the
    World Wide Web. The author/s hereby assert
    their moral rights in accordance with the UK
    Copyright Designs and Patents Act (1988)."
How can we start to integrate
with school practice?

   Non-linear dynamics of a nematic liquid crystal in
    the presence of a shear flow
    E. Vicente Alonso, A.A. Wheeler and T.J. Sluckin
    Proc. Roy. Soc. A. 459 , 195-220 (2003)

    [reprint] also pdf, ps and hardcopy

   http://www.maths.soton.ac.uk/search/listpreprints.phtml?
    table=applied&uid=40618960c732ac68a7b5cf574a759ecc

   http://www.maths.soton.ac.uk/staff/Sluckin/papers/vicent
    e_alonso_et_al_03.pdf
A national vision – e-Prints + data + e-
learning
Research visibility
contributing to
 Research discovery – all becomes
  visible
 Local views – GIGA style services --
  distributed searching?
 Global views – harvesting to search
  services
 Leading to research enhancement
Thank you from across the
world
 more information
jessie.hey@soton.ac.uk
tardis.eprints.org
Electronics and Computer Science –
  University of Southampton
Focus on Access to Institutional Resources
  (FAIR) programme

And soon e-Prints Soton and other UK archives and
  services joining with international initiatives to
  make research more visible and interactive

				
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